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know what mighty planet had fallen, leav- | It is as well for the anagrammatist to be ing the people in darkness. Some, con- certain of the correct way of spelling the sidering the military skill of the dead name which he intends to anagrammatize. man, said it was Mars; some Jupiter, as A story is told of a gentleman who expehe was a juvans pater to three nations. rienced a great failure owing to a want of The poet leaving us in doubt as to the care in this respect. He intended to complanet, considers Oliver as an olive-pliment a lady of considerable beauty to branch of peace, and with many compli- whom he was paying his addresses. Unments to him and his family, introduces able to purchase fame by keen iambics, the following anagrams, in English, Lat- he ventured on a mild anagram. The in, and Welsh, upon his name. In Eng- lady's name was, as he understood it, lish : “() welcom' reliver;” “Rule wel. Elizabeth Chumley. Not having talents com’ Roy;" “ Com' live our rule.” In sufficient for the Elizabeth — over which Latin: “ Cor verum vel sol visu.” In poor word, though tortured in a thousand Welsh : “Y lleu mor cower" ("the lion ways, a retrograde planet still seemed to so true”); “ Lleu cower y mor” (“the hang – he considered it allowable, not true sea-lion”); “Lleu grea o Cymra” being a strict anagrammatist, to change it ("the best lion of Wales”). Not being into “Bess." Having confined himself acquainted with the Welsh language, we in his study for several months, in spite cannot vouch for the accuracy of these of a plentiful lack of wit, by dint of untranslations ; indeed we are much inclined wearied toil, he at last reached the promto suspect that of one of the two first, as, ised land. His anagram was this, "Angel though the words are the same, a new best Lumley." The only objection to it idea seems to be introduced in the sec- is that the last word is a trifle too like the ond. But the anagrams are exact, and original, having besides no decided meanthe Latin one presents a happy combina- ing, and the letters of the first word are tion. With regard to Elizabeth Crom- not found in the remaining subject (“ch). well, the anagrammatist hovers upon the | The gem was, however, set in an enchased verge of impoliteness, “ Be comelier with setting possessing a poetic character, and zeal.” Another of the same lady, in which necessarily of the lover's own composis is written for z, and the surname is spelt tion:with one 1, is not open to the same objec
STANZA 1. tion : "Chast' love be my rule.” Bridget | Most divine ! adorable of women! Fleetwood, a member of the family, be- Bess Chumley! comes “ O tru' gifted beloved ;”and Mary Accept the following slight tribute of undying Faulconbridge, also a member, “Go main affection, and heartfelt love careful bride." This last is not exact by From me “best Lumley." the addition of an e: the y and i are of
STANZA II. course regarded as interchangeable.
Angel ! Thomas Heywood has left us some anagrams on the names of certain men of Upon presenting this child of his imagihis time. One on Sir Thomas Coventry, nation to his lady, the reader may imagine Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, dedicated | his chagrin and disgust when he, that to him in some acrostic verses, “ To “homo miserrimæ patientiæ," was told by charm out sin ;” another rather anti-her with some asperity that her surname quated. “ ( hve constant mure.” One on was not Chumley but Cholmondely. “Ibi Lady Robert Anna Carre, daughter of the omnis effusus labor.” The writer is said Earl of Somerset, “ Rarer cannot bear.” to have soon afterwards lost his senses, One on that “worthy and most religious which had been considerably impaired by knight, Sir Paul Pindar.” “ Pray’r in D. the composition of his anagram." Paul.” The verses, an acrostic, begin With this story may be compared Disthus, –
raeli's story of Frenzelius, a German who Sir Paul, of all that ever boare that name,
prided himself upon perpetuating the name You to Saint Paul most deare are, and may of every eminent person who died in his claime
time by an anagram ; but is said to have Rare priviledge ; (I might say) above all experienced such mortal throes during Priority, that beare the name of Paul.
their composition that he seemed to share Concluding with this distich,
in the last pangs of the dead he helped to Saint Paul Sir Paul both traveld : one with mak
with make illustrious.
The old word for anagram was anagramcare To build Christ's Church : Paul's th' other to matism. The difference between them repaire.
seemed to be this, that anagrammatism
refers rather to the work of transposition seen Piso died soon after of the very sick. of the letters of a word, while anagram ness under which he then laboured. For signifies the result of such transposition. Piso had seemed to present to him ointSo epigram signifies the thing inscribed ments, which for a sick man was of evil and not the work of inscription. The Eng-omen, as with them they anoint the dead. lish word inscription, by the way, has the | The dream of the sailor is unlike to this. meaning of inscript.
For to him asking in his dream whether The numerical anagrams of the Italians, he should come to Rome, a phantasm anwhich are represented by the English swered “No!” using the Greek word oi, chronograms, are the Greek igópnooi; in Yet he arrived there in 450 days. For it which the numerical value of the letters was all the same, whether the phantasm of two words or sets of words is the same. I had told him this number, or the letters The reader will understand that in Greek, which signified it. The reason of inferias in Hebrew, letters served to express ority of numbers is assigned by some for numbers.
the victory of Hector over Patroclus, and These looinoou are mentioned by Gelli- of Achilles over Hector. us. They were considered by him with In Daniel and Deborah Dove, written disfavour. A quantity of them were with considerable licence in Greek spelbrought to him by a learned friend, in a ing, the worthy“ Doctor” found the book which he was at first inclined to re-prime number 761. Herein was a mysgard as the horn of Achelous, filled with tery. There could be no division between first fruits for Plenty by the Naiads, and himself and his wife. They would conshut himself up that he might read it with tinue to be in all respects as they had out interruption. But the book contained, been “duæ animæ in carne una," two “oh, Jupiter ! a mere collection of strange persons with but one disposition. But tales ; such as who was the first called a when the Doctor remembered that 1761 grammarian, and wherefore Telemachus was the year of their marriage, supplying reposing touched not Pisistratus reposing the deficient thousand with two M's for near him with his hand, but raised him marriage and matrimony, he became defrom sweet sleep by a kick with his heel. | lirious with joy, which the resemblance There also were written down the loóunqol between “marriage” and “matrimony," or equinumeral verses of Homer, and his urged by hostile critics, diminished not a acrostichs. These and many other such tittle. things were contained in this book.”
Daniel Dove extracted the quintessence So Anuayópas (Demagoras) was compli- of his own name, finding the mournful mented with the term 2011s (pest). The result, “leaden void," which he considsum of the numbers expressed by the let-ered as inappropriate as that of Marguerite ters in the two names being identical and de Valois, “ de vertu royal image." Anequal 420. A“stingless jest” in the other “vel dona dei” presented the faint opinion of Southey, and showing the mal- semblance of a less unhappy meaning. ice rather than the wit of the satirist. So Had one letter of Dove been changed, he Heliodorus says that the Nile is nothing might have become “ Ovid." · Thus he else than the year, founding his opinion felt like the man whose lottery ticket was on the fact that the numbers expressed next in number to the 20,000l. prize. by the letters of the Neihos, Nile, are in “ Such a superstition,” says Southey, Greek arithmetic, N=50; E=5; I=10;" has been and ever will be latent in the A= 30; 0= 70 ; £= 200; and these fig- most rational of men.” So Barton beures make up together 365, the number of lieved there was some secret power and days in the year. He does not seem to virtue in names. Unfortunately, however have reflected that Neïños is not a word of for this idea, the same name makes both Greek origin. Artemidorus, in his inter- good and evil, as in the case of Eleanor pretation of dreams, warns us to beware Davies, the wife of the poet, and the Casof forming our loounooi incorrectly, lest sandra of her age. Having formed the being deceived we become inglorious. A impure anagram“ Reveal O Daniel” on certain man, he says, lay sick, and dreamed her name, she made herself the organ of that one called Piso appeared to him. An prophecies disagreeable to the governoneirophant explained this of sure felicity, ment, a proceeding which nothing could and that the sick person would live for check, but an arrow borrowed from her ninety years longer, framing his conjec-own quiver ; “Dame Eleanor Davies," i.e. tures from the first syllable of Piso written "never so mad a lady.” Upon this being in Greek character, which presents the sent to her by an obliging friend, who number 90. Nevertheless, he who had | had the interest of peace at heart, she retired into private life, ceased from her third part of their art, which they call charming agony, and her voice was heard Themura, or change, is concerned with no more. So Calvin, in the title of his nothing but the process of making them. Institutions printed at Strasburg in 1539, By them they find many mysterious hidcalls himself Alcuinus, the anagram of den and extraordinary senses in the Calvinus, and the name of a person of words of Holy Writ. Out of Noah, by some learning in the time of Charlemagne, transposition of the Hebrew letters, they contributing greatly to its restoration in obtain “grace ; " and out of “ Messiah,'' that age. But François Rabelais (Alco- “and he will rejoice." These examples fribas Nasier), in whose name, written in are some of the most simple, and of those Latin, Calvin had found “rabie læsus," not revolting to the Christian reader. found for him, en revanche, an anagram The Cabbalists have also chronograms, of quite an opposite character, " Jan Cul.” known in their system as ypapuatela, in
There are several happy anagrams in the sense of letters representing numbers. French, as, for instance, that, historically This word is technically used to express just in sense, of the so-called daughter of an exegetical rule, according to which the Orleans apothecary, the charming every letter of a word is reduced to its “ Marie Touchet,” mistress of Charles numerical value, and the word explained IX., “Je charme tout.” Of Pierre de by another of the same value. As an exRonsard; “ Rose de Pindare," wherein, ample of this, in Gen xviii. 2. “Lo ! three by an æquitas prætoria, the omission of men stood by him," it is said that these two r's may be pardoned for the elegance were the angels Michael, Gabriel, and of the resulting sense. Of Frère Jacques Raphael, because the letters composing Clément, the assassin of Henri III., their names have the same numerical “ C'est l'enfer qui m'a créé.” Of Louis value as those in the original verse. de Boucherat, chancellor, “Est la bouche The Cabbalists, it may be said en du roi.” That of Pierre Coton, Jesuit passant, have many conceits of this kind. and confessor of Henri IV., “ Perce ton Out of the letters forming the word roi,” is undeserved, and, therefore, worth-"man” they compose “benediction," less. Of Pilatre du Rosier, an aeronant and out of those forming “woman "a who had the misfortune to fall from his “ curse.” With this we may compare balloon on the 15th June, 1785, “Tu es their anagram of “ Væ" from “ Eva," proie de l'air.” The reader who cares to because, they say, she was the cause of investigate this anagram will find an r all our woes. Such misogynistic contriomitted. It is consequently inexact. In vances come meetly from the mouths of the next an s will be found added, Louis those, a part of whose thanksgiving in Quatorsième, roi de France et de Na- their order for daily prayer was once varre, “ Va, Dieu confondra l'armée qui wont to be “Blessed art thou, that thou osera le résister.” The temptation to hast not made me a woman, O Lord our add or subtract a letter in the case of a God.” lengthy anagram, successful only if such The number of changes which may be addition or subtraction is made, must be formed out of any given word is easily almost irresistible ; but the anagram as found by the mathematical doctrine of an anagram is spoiled.
permutations. In the mystic words of Anagrams are sometimes employed in the Kabbala, “ Two letters build two heraldry. The House of Loraine bears houses, three letters build six houses, les alérions” or eaglets. J. B. Rous- four build four and twenty houses, five seau, ashamed of his father the cobbler, build a hundred and twenty houses, six changed his name into Verniettes. In build seven hundred and twenty houses which Saurin discovered, what the au- ... Go forth and imagine what neither thor probably least intended, “ Tu te the mouth is able to speak nor the ear is renies."
able to hear.” — Ch. iv. Mishna iv. So when Bonaparte came into power, German anagrams are comparatively the words La Révolution Française pro- rare. They may be said, from the speciduced this anagram,“ Un Corse la finira.” men mentioned by Wheatley, to be as But, in 1815, party-spirit discovered in poor as they are rare. This is the specithe same words “ La France veut son roi.” men. At the general peace of 1814, a Both these anagrams are, however, though portion of Saxony fell to the share of witty, inexact.
Prussia. The king, to commemorate this The Cabbalists among the Jews are, as addition to his kingdom, issued a new might be expected from what has been coinage of rix-dollars, with the name ein said above, mighty in anagrams. The Reichsthaler. The Saxons by that collat
eral species of anagram before-men- Igram which exists upon his name. tioned, divided this word into ein Reich John Abernethy was metamorphosed into stahl er (he stole a kingdom). So the “ Johnny the Bear.” Even – Ursa MaFrench in La Sainte Alliance found La jor," says Southey, “would not dispute Sainte Canaille. The derivations of Le- his title. Has anyone who knows ben (life) from Nebel (a cloud), and of Sarg ! Johnny the Bear' heard his name thus (a coffin) from Gras (grass), are simply anagrammatized without a smile! We palindromes.
may be sure he smiled and growled at Italian anagrams are still rarer than the same time when he first heard it himGerman. If in the one following the lady- self.” subject was as beautiful as the anagram Of the legion of complimentary anais happy, she must have been indeed a grams on persons of wealth and rank, cynosure for neighbouring eyes. Anna which have been composed by hungry Dudlæia, E la nuda Diana. In this, and needy “anagram-mongers," as the there is a diæresis of the dipthong, which Water Poet calls them, who was himself is allowed even in the pure anagram. no bad example of the class, no mention
Anagrams have been, we have already has been made. They possessed little insaid, frequently used as noms de guerre. terest for any but the persons whose So Voltaire is derived from Arouet 1. j. or names they ornamented, and the comArouet le jeune. “Frip," the signature posers whom their fair seeming nourof Jean Paul Friedrich Richter, is an ana- ished with bread. Out of this class, howgram of his initials. So W. Jerdan wrote ever, we must except Mr. Tash, “an for the Literary Gazette under the title of especial man in this faculty," who anaW. J. André. Another celebrated poet grammatized Lord Bacon's name thus – known, like Voltaire, to few but by his
Sir Francis Bacon, Lord Keeper, nom de plume, was Bryan Waller Procter,
er, | Is born and elect for a rich speaker whose name was metamorphosed by an impure anagrammatism into “ Barry Corn- on account of the goodness of this anawall, poet,” or “toper," whichever qual- | gram, and him who wrote — ification may be preferred. Retrograde anagrams, or those formed
John Wilson anagr. John Wilson. by the reading the letters backwards, be-12
Ver On change it not! no sweeter name or thing long to the species of palindromes or
Throughout the world within our ears shall Kápkivot. Of these we have an example
ring in “deliver" from “ reviled.” * Anagrams on account of its heterodox politeness. with a retrograde meaning are presented! There are, doubtless, still many anato us in “untie ” from “unite,” in “real grammatists silver-tongued, and witty fun” from “funeral,” “ love to ruin ” from enough to convert Benlowes into Bene“revolution," and in “repel,” which is volus, as they did in the days of Pope; also a palindrome, from “leper.” Many that the “poor gentleman to verify their more might be added, were it not in the anagram may spend his estate upon words of Lamennais, “triste de s'ennuyer, them.” pour ennuyer les autres.”
| Anagrams are not uncommon on tombs. About a quarter of a century ago flour- For certain minds, as has been before obished an eminent physician, who was so served, anagrams contained a religious bad a tradesman, and withal so wise a importance. Some of the most remarkaman, as to declare ruthless war against ble are, one on Maria Arundel, “ Man a tight-lacing, &c., as regards ladies, and dry laurel," and another on an old lady of overfeeding, &c., as regards gentlemen. sixty-six, who lies buried in Taplow This child of light gave his opinions, of a church, and has this somewhat inapprosour sort, in unvarnished language, and priate anagram inscribed upon her tomb, would sooner offend the fashionable sen- Hester Mansfield “Mars Aed in thee." sibilities of a patient than tell a lie. Not- The Pagan God, it would appear from withstanding these eccentricities, he man- some doggrel that is subjoined, fled beaged to obtain and secure a large number fore her when lecturing on true charity. of patients, some one of whom, irritated The anagram of John Bunyan (Nu hony by his moral roughness and unpolished in a B), composed by himself, presents a expressions, probably invented the ana- striking example of a victory over ortho
| graphical difficulties. • Akin to these are words which are the same whether The impure anagrams of Sir Edmundread backwards or forwards. Such a word was the title of " Glenelg," chosen by the late Mr. Charles Grant, so succus, malam, oro, &c.
on the south side of Primrose Hill, " By Rome's rude finger die,” “I find mur-Such are the quirks and quiddities of der'd by rogues,” the pure ones of Hora- modern literature, which might have puztio Nelson, “ Honor est a Nilo," and of zled the old Cabiri. William Noy, the proposer of ship-mon-| But let us conclude in the terms of the ey, “I moyl in law,” may serve for mne- learned Camden:-“ It is time to stay, monic references — to the student of for some of the sour sort begin to laugh English history..
at these, when as yet they have no better Fuller concludes the life of John Whit- insight in anagrams than wise Sieur Gaugift, that mirror of prelates, largely writ-lard, who when he heard a gentleman reten in his ecclesiastical history, with an port that he was at a supper, where they impure anagram, in respect of his mild had not only good company and good proceedings - upon his name, Joannes cheer, but also savoury epigrams and fine Whitegifteus, “Non vi egit, favet Jesus.” | anagrams: he returning home, rated and And a man of entirely different complex- belouted his cook as an ignorant scullion ion of life, Ben Jonson, in his Hymenæi, that never dressed or served up to him has not thought an anagram unworthy of either epigrams or anagrams. And as for his learning. Juno is discovered in the these sour surlings, they are to be comclear æther sitting on a throne, her attire mended to Sieur Gaulard, and he with rich and queenlike, a white diadem on her them jointly to their cooks and kitchenhead, in one hand a sceptre, and in the stuff.* other a timbrel, and at her golden feet a lion's hide. Around her the spirits of the air make music, and Reason thus addresses the audience in her introduction:
From The Spectator.
LORD LYTTON ON NAMES, AND THEIR And see where Juno, whose great name
INFLUENCE. Is Unio, in her anagram, Displays her glittering state and chair, &c. In the amusing opening of Lord Lyt
ton's posthumous novel, “ Kenelm ChilThe following anagram on “ Egypt's lingly, there are some admirable remarks favourite,” by Sir F. Hubert, is of a con on the moral responsibilities of parents for solatory character :
the names they give to their children. Sir And, Joseph, though thy sufferings be most Peter Chillingly is very hard on his own great,
name, and ascribes his mediocrity in Yet thinke upon the letters of thy name: great measure to it. “Peter,” he says, to Which being inverted, bring some comfort yet, the assembled family council, “has been
For [Hope is] is (Joseph), his anagrame. for many generations, as you are aware,
Of Edmund Waller, the poet, was writ- the baptismıl to which the eldest born of ten: —
| our family has been devoted. On the al
tar of that'name I have been sacrificed. His brows need not with laurel to be bound, , Never has there been a Sir Peter ChilSince in his name with “lawrel” he is crowned. llingly who has in any way distinguished
In Maunder's Treasury, “her most gra- himself above his fellows. That name cious Majesty, Alexandrina Victoria," is has been a dead-weight on my intellectutransformed into “ Ah, my extravagant, al energies. In the catalogue of illustrijoco-serious, radical minister ;” with ous Englishmen there is, I think, no imwhich absurdity may be compared, to its mortal Sir Peter, except Sir Peter Teahonour, the anagram on Florence Night- zle, and he only exists on the comic ingale, “ Flit on, cheering angel.” The stage ;” and Sir Peter Chillingly might following quaint conceits have all been have added that Sir Peter Teazle is imcollected by Mr. Wheeler, to whose in-mortal only for the amusement he affords genuity in seeking words in words we to others, not for any intrinsic capacity. have been much indebted in the present One of the family council, however, sug. paper :- Lawyers (sly-ware); matrimony! gests “ Sir Peter Lely," on which Sir Pe(into my arm); melodrama (made moral); | ter Chillingly replies with unanswerable Old England (golden land); soldiers (lo ! force, “that painter was not an EnglishI dress); solemnity (yes, Milton); poor- man. He was born in Westphalia, fahouse (O! sour hope); telegraph (great mous for hams. I confine my remarks help); Notes and Queries (O! send in a to the children of our native land. I am request); understanding (red nuts and aware that in foreign countries the name gin); sweetheart (there we sat); charades is not an extinguisher to the genius of its (hard case); and catalogue (got as a clue). Towner. But why? In other countries its