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their own weight; the common fly could oars belong to swimmers ; when they manage triple that amount. Yet the are short and indented, they are to be Alight of insects is so rapid that some can used like shovels and pickaxes by the distance the swallows that pursue them, burrowing tribes. Though the mouths and certain kinds of flies are said to be of insects are formed with the same numable to pass a racehorse or a locomotive ber of appliances, yet they are adapted to going at full speed.
the conditions of each species. By exIf we inquire why the smaller species amining one or two parts of the mouth of are the stronger, the answer may be, that a larva, a naturalist can discover the food their way of life necessitates it. Thus, it lives upon, and the way in which it the hardness of the soil is the same to all partakes of it. Thus, if two caterpillars the burrowers; the grains of sand which of different kinds live on the same plant, the larger can easily displace are rocks one may attack the leaves from the edge, to the smaller ones; and comparing them the other will perhaps eat the flower-bud; with animals, the mole and the rabbit re- these habits are recognized by indubitquire much less strength to force a pas- able signs when the lips and mandibles sage than the ant. The prodigious leaps are examined. By similar means, the inof the cricket, the locust, and the grass spection of the foot will decide whether hopper, would in the same proportion the insect walks on leaves, or climbs make a lion spring over half a mile. Not up the stem of the shrub it has chosen less surprising is the power of destruc- for its home. There are some insects tion in certain classes: the termites have which lead an idle life, whilst others have undermined whole towns which are now one of work and fighting; they are each suspended over catacombs ; such is the armed with the necessary appliances for case with Valencia in New Granada ; La their particular destiny, some having at Rochelle is menaced by the same fate. their extremities nippers, pincers, a saw, The larvæ of the sirex pierce through an auger, or even a poisoned sword. balls of lead with their mandibles. Dur- Looking at the class of spiders, what an ing the Crimean War, packets of car-arsenal of work and war they possess : touches were found, the conical balls of the mandibles are scissors, grindstones, which were perforated in various parts. lancets ; the jaws are trunks and suckers, The little African ant can raise mounds the lower lip is often a spinning-plate. of clay five yards high, and of such solid-Their locomotive organs adapt themity that the wild-cattle stand on them to selves to a number of uses — spades, explore the horizon. Such edifices are picks, oars, sometimes ending in rakes, thousands of times larger than their forks, spindles, brushes, and baskets ; architects, whilst the pyramid of Cheops and all these instruments are of far more is but ninety times the height of man. delicate conformation than the clumsy
Another subject which has engaged tools of man's making. Those kinds that the attention of naturalists of late is the spin, weave an infinite variety of webs; strict relation which exists between the some are closely spun like stuffs, others habits, manners, and mode of life in in-are nets or simple threads thrown by sects, with the conformation of their or- chance. Here the claws play a principal gans. Mr. Darwin has acknowledged part; they resemble combs or cards the organic adaptation of species to the among those which produce the close tiscondition of existence; but he thinks sue, and forks in those which weave with that, owing to their want of exercise on a wider mesh. one side, and natural selection on the The eyes of insects, often of enormous other, these organs may undergo deep dimensions, are of strange optical strucand hereditary modifications. Thus he ture, and marvellously fulfil their varied explains the want of wings in many co- uses. Those which hunt for their prey leopterous insects which inhabit the have them raised on such an eminence island of Madeira; they lose the habit of that they can look all around them and flying, because, if they used it, the wind see their booty from afar. The one which would carry them away into the sea, and is always in a hiding-place has its eyes the race would soon disappear: thus, widely disseminated ; if its lair be in a winged insects made for flight, can trans- tube, they are arranged in front, and the ,form themselves, in time, into walkers number is diminished ; the eyes at the or swimmers.
back have disappeared. In others, the If we consider the locomotive organs position and conformation of the respiraof insects, it is easy to see that broad tory organs reveal the way of life to which members which can be converted into they are accustomed. Fifty years ago Cuvier said: “Give me a bone, and I straightway committed to paper, as is also will reconstruct the animal in its entirety.” something that may have occurred to any Such science may also be applied to in-one with whom the correspondent is acsects.
quainted. Bonnets, young men, and These complex and perfect arrange-novels, are criticised in an equally impa ments astonish us the more because they tial and incisive manner, and a good deal are in bodies of the smallest dimensions ; l of space is devoted to those who are marwe naturally think that the organization ried, those who are going to be married, must be very simple, the intelligence of and those who, if they are not about to the lowest type. The dimensions of the do any such thing, ought to be. Full whale, or the immense reptiles of the confession is made of the sentiments early geological periods, excite our inter- with which the correspondent regards her est; but the attention is not so powerfully acquaintances male and female, an! attracted by the admirable structure of matrimony is frequently discussed in a the fly, and yet the humblest beings fur- most original fashion. It is taken for nish precious teachings to the philoso granted that the matter contained in these pher. It can scarcely be denied that in epistles is what has been confided to no relation to their intelligence, some of them other living soul, and that, therefore, it is are superior to the larger animals. They only intended to meet the eye of one shew a highly developed sense of percep- person. Indeed, the notes are presumed tion, instincts of wonderful finesse, ex- to be the outward expression of the writtraordinary aptitude for all kinds of work; er's innermost thoughts, and are to be but there is even something more unde- valued accordingly. The letters are freniable, marks of higher faculties. These quently written at intervals which, conare visible when, in the course of their sidering their length, speaks very well work, an accident occurs, or an unfore- for the industry of the writers. When seen obstacle arises : they overcome them not forced to resort to letter-writing as and guard against the danger that might a means of sustaining their friendship, arise. At other times, an idle bird profits the young ladies ostentatiously seek each by the chance which places an old nest other's society, which, they show by unin its way, making it habitable by a few mistakable signs, they value more than easy repairs. So the smaller insects, not the company of any one else. They like acting as simple machines, make choice to hold themselves aloof from their felbetween a bad and good situation, con lows, to take solitary walks together, and ceive the idea of sparing their work when to make each other innumerable presents. they can arrive at the required end with-But, as might be anticipated, the thing out it, and become idle, when they were does not last, and there are very few such created for labour. Can we call this in- friendships among women who have stinct only ?
passed their twenty-fifth year. Marriage is the first break, and an irreparable one it is. The attempt may be made to keep up the sentimental friendship, and for a
time it may succeed, but the appearance From The Liberal Review.
is deceptive, and ultimately the attempt DECAYING FRIENDSHIPS.
breaks down ; gradually the intimacy ATTEMPTS are frequently made on the grows less intimate, the confidences fewer part of people to constitute everlasting and of comparatively minor importance. friendships which shall be signalized by | This, perhaps, may be owing to the fact complete confidence upon both sides. that the wife makes a confidant of her Young ladies, on the point of leaving husband, in which case she of course does school, are peculiarly subject to this sort not require to make one of a friend, for of thing, and many are the vows they ex- though it is almost a necessity for some change of undying affection for each oth-people to find a ready ear into which er. When separated they maintain their to pour the story of their hopes, their friendship through the medium of the fears, their disappointments, their plans, penny post, and great is the expenditure and their proceedings, they do no not feel of ink and paper. Their letters, which the want of more than one such receptaare generally crossed upon three or four cle. In plain terms, every ordinary indipages, and are thereby rendered almost vidual must have a confidant, but very few, undecipherable, are full of italicized words indeed, require to have two. So, with and expressive adjectives. Anything that marriage comes the first break in a friendhas happened to a correspondent is ship such as that which we have described. By-and-by, the separation between the their husband is one of the most extraorquondam friends becomes more marked, dinary men in existence and possesses and it is by no means a rare case for them the rare virtue of entertaining due affecin time to almost completely forget each tion and respect for his wife ; and other other. Looking back upon their lives, similar matters of an equally important most women must remember some bosom and interesting character. But these friend whom they now know not at all, or elderly friends make no pretence of being knowing them, are merely upon bowing bound up in one another; they steer terms. Young men, never so earnest clear of lengthy correspondence; and in their friendships, are almost as fickle. they do not mourn — that is to say, beDrawn together, in the first instance, yond indulging in a few hackneyed conprobably by a fondness for the same ventionalities — when they fail to see sports, the same studies, and the same each other except at rare intervals. Havmodes of life generally, they quietly drop ing their own families and interests to asunder as their tastes and ways of ex- look after, they virtually concede that isting change. Sometimes they quarrel. ; they have no time for elaborate friendBut, whatever may be the cause or causes ships. This is, of course, when they are of their separation, it is a fact that com- married. When they are single, the case paratively few friendships contracted in is slightly different, and it not unfreearly life continue true to the last. It quently happens that spinsters knock-up may be said, indeed, that it is the excep- a species of lasting friendship. They go tion rather than the rule for them to do so. nowhere except in each other's company, And yet, if a man does not make friends and they co-operate in each other's when he is young, the probability is that schemes, whether it be one for the foundhe will never do so, for, after he is well ing of a blanket club or one for the adup in years, circumstances arise which vancement of the principles of the Worender the task more difficult.
men's Rights Association. They, perThe friendships formed by people after haps, say hard things of each other, they, they have passed their thirtieth year are probably, repeat these matters, with sunby no means so sentimental, so ostenta- dry elaborations, behind each other's tiously thorough, as those contracted backs, but they never regularly quarrel. when people are younger. Middle-aged If Miss A is maligned, Miss B is quick men make little, if any attempt, at being to resent the affront, and let Miss A know confidential towards each other. Their what has been said of her, which last act converse instead of being of a personal is, however, a somewhat questionable character is principally upon politics, the- kindness. The two keep together, and ology, and business, seasoned by a certain that is the main thing. It is a small matamount of gossip. Matured women on ter that their motives for so doing are the other hand, are more confidential, found, when fairly analyzed, not to be but they are not so demonstrative and purely disinterested, but that they cultigushing as girls just out of their teens. vate each other's society for the want of They do not make protestations of eternal better, and because it is among the necesaffection. Still, they tell as much as they sities of their nature that they should know and learn as much as they can have some willing ear to pour scandal about their neighbours and their affairs, into, and some ready tongue to amuse and discuss matrimony and dress in a them in like manner. manner which shows how much they rel. There is, then, very little really genuine ish doing so. . Properly prompted, they friendship. The present constitution of will, too, enlarge upon their own affairs. society is unfavourable to its growth. Into sympathetic ears they will pour the When everything is artificial, and everystory of how their first-born, as fine a thing is conducted upon the high pressure youth as ever lived, is developing certain principle, it is impossible for it to flourcharacteristics calculated to cause his ish. We may regret this, but the best guardians serious inconvenience ; how thing is at once to admit the truth.
MOYE. Andryane, whose death was recorded | prisons. Mdme. Andryane and her sister, by the Paris papers lately, was the sister-in-law Mdme. Baudin, were daughters of Merlin of of Andryane, well-known as the companion of Douai, who was a member of the Convention Silvio Pellico, and it was to her intercession and a colleague with Barras in the Directory. that he owed his liberation from the Austrian!
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