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“ Sorcier?” said Frederick, with a lan- | A great many English people are in that guid smile.
subdued winter population, people who “Of course Monsieur thinks it droll — are, or are supposed to be, poitrinaires, but for my part I believe he has thrown a and people in attendance upon these sufspell over Mademoiselle. No one can ferers, and finally, people who go because melt her. She sheds no tear, Niccolo other people go, without either knowing or says. She listens to the English ladies caring about the special advantages of the without replying a word. The only Chris place. An English doctor and his wife, tian thing about her is that she goes often and an English clergyman and his wife, to Sta. Maria della Spina, the little, little, are generally to be found in all such very little church which Monsieur may places, and most usually these excellent have remarked ; and as she is Protestant, persons do all they can to reduce the litI suppose that must be a sin. Perhaps, tle colony of English, living in the midst if Monsieur knows any of the English in of the quaint old foreign town, into the Pisa, he will be able to see this strange aspect of a village or small country place and beautiful young girl —
in England, where everybody talks of “ Perhaps," said Frederick, taking the everybody, and knows his or her domeskey of his bedroom and the candle from tic grievances by heart. Mr. Vane, when Antonio's hand. He did not choose to he came to Pisa to die, had sought the say that he was the lingering messenger assistance of the doctor, but not of the whom her friends had sent for Innocent. clergyman; so it was Mrs. Drainham, But his mind was compassionately moved and not Mrs. St. Jolin, who had taken Intowards her. Beauty is aluvays a point in nocent in hand when her father died, and everybody's favour, and the sense of had tried to make something of the forpower and protection in himself was lorn girl. Though Frederick of course pleasant to him. It quite completed, if knew nothing about this, two letters had anything had been wanted to do so, the been despatched but a few days before to rehabilitation of Frederick Eastwood in Mrs. Eastwood and another relation, adFrederick Eastwood's own eyes. What juring them to come to the help of the a change his appearance would make in young stranger. The doctor had himthe position of this deserted young crea- self written in a business like way to Sir ture, whose melancholy soul no doubt Edward Vane, but Mrs. Drainham had only wanted the touch of his kindness taken Mrs. Eastwood in hand, and had and compassion to rouse it into warmer written her what both herself and the life!“ Poor child,” he said to himself doctor felt to be a very touching letter. almost tenderly, as he went to bed. He | The author of this affecting composition would be a brother to her, and to do them had been reading it over to some select justice at home, they would be good to friends on the very evening on which the poor girl. Yet somehow he could not Frederick arrived in Pisa. Dr. and Mrs. but feel that his own influence, as the Drainham lived on the first floor of the first to go to her, would do most for In- Casa Piccolomini, on the sunny side of nocent. The thought diffused a pleasant the Arno, in a very imposing apartment, warmth and revival about his heart. where they often assembled round them
Pisa is not a cheerful place. It has a little society "in a very quiet way," for neither the beauty of situation, nor the the doctor himself was something of an brightness of aspect, nor even the larger invalid, and practised in Pisa as much for historical interest which belongs to Flor- his own health as for that of his patients. ence, its near neighbour and whilom rival. They were people who were generally It has fallen out of the race as a town understood to be well off, an opinion may do as well as an individual. But, on which it is good for everybody, and espethe other hand, it has no keen ice-wind cially for professional people, to cultivate to sweep its streets like those that chill about themselves. Every Wednesday the very blood in your veins in the deep and Saturday, tea and thin bread and butravines cut through lofty blocks of houses ter, cut exactly as bread and butter is in which form the Florentine streets. The England, were to be had from eight till equable temperature of Pisa hangs about eleven in the Drainhams' handsome drawit like a cloud, stilling the life in it that it ing-room. On the evening in question the may never grow loud enough to disturb English colony at Pisa was very well repthe invalids who set up their tents in resented in this modest assembly. There those old palaces. They have a little was Mr. and Mrs. St. John, accompanied society among themselves, gentle, mo- by a gentle young English curate with pulnotonous, and dull, such as befits invalids. monary symptoms, who was staying with them, and giving the benefit of his ser-l conversation. “You think a great deal vices when he felt able for it. There was too much about your lungs," Miss Boldold Mr. Worsley and his pretty daugh- ing would say. “Let them alone, and ters, one of whom was suffering from they will come all right. Don't fuss about bronchitis, and the other from ennui, the your health. Pisa is no better than any latter the more deadly malady of the two other place, and no worse. Don't think The healthy portion of the population about it. Occupy yourself with somewas rather in the background, and not thing. Neither I nor Maria ever take the held in much estimation. Mr. St. John smallest trouble about our healths, and himself, who now weighed nearly sixteen what is the consequence? We have never stone, had conie to Pisa also with pul- ailed anything since we had the measles. monary symptoms, and was fond of citing Don't mind Mr. St. John, that's his hob. himself as an instance of the cures ef- by. If you'll meet me to-morrow morn. fected by its wonderful equability of tem- ing in the Campo Santo – unless you are perature. “But a winter in England | afraid -- " would kill me still. I could never sur- “Oh, no, not at all afraid," said the vive a winter in England,” he would say, gentle curate, with a flush of youthful tapping his ample Losom with his hand, shyness and wounded pride. All these and coughing to show that he had not conversations were interrupted by Mrs. quite lost the habit. On this particular Drainham, who called at once to Miss occasion he uttered these words, which Bolding for her advice, and to Mrs. were very frequent on his lips, in order O'Carroll for sympathy. to console and encourage poor little Mrs. “I want you to tell me whether you O'Carroll, the wife of a gigantic Irish- think I have done right," she said, with man, who had broken all his bones one můch humility. “I am so anxious about after another in riding across country, and poor Miss Vane. I have just written a who stood gaunt and tall in a corner con- letter to her aunt, though with much hesiversing with the doctor, with red spots tation, for I have not your gift in writing, upon his high cheekbones, and a hollow dear Mrs. St. John. Would you mind circle round his big eyes, which did not just listening to what I have said ? If I promise such a comfortable termination. had your approval I should feel encour
“Oh, then, and you'll tell Harry,” said aged after having sent it. It is very badly the anxious woman, with the mellow tones expressed, I am afraid, but it comes from of her country. “You'll tell him all about the heart," said Mrs. Drainham, casting it, Mr. Singin, dear, and what you took, an appealing glance round her. She had and how you lived ?".
pretty eyes, and was rather apt to give “ There is nothing to tell, my dear | appealing glances. The audience gave lady," said the clergyman. “ Pisa air, a vague murmur of assent and applause, and a regular life, and taking care never and Mr. St. John added, in a bold and to be out late or early, and nourishing round voice, his certainty of approval. food as much as I could take. But the “ It will be an excellent letter, that I air is the great thing. There is a serenity don't doubt for a moment," said the clerand equability in this Italian climate -- "gyman; and on this encouragement Mrs.
“Ah, then !” cried poor Mrs. O'Carroll, Drainham proceeded to read it, her hus“ to get him to take care is all the battle. band standing behind her, feeling his own He never was ill in his life, and he won't pulse, with a benevolent and complacent allow he's ill, not if I were to preach to smile. And indeed the letter was more him night and day.”
than excellent, it was eloquent. It apThe only persons present who had no pealed to the feelings of the distant aunt uncomfortable symptoms were two ladies in the most touching way. It bade her who sometimes dominated the party, and remember the sister with whom no doubt sometimes were snubbed and cast into her own childhood had been passed, and the shade, according to the influence oh! to extend her motherly protection which prevailed. These were the two over that dear sister's orphan child ; and Miss Boldings, ladies in the carlier half it brought forward many religious, as well of middle-age, one of whom studied Art, as natural, arguments to soften the heart while the other studied Italy ; women of of poor Innocent's nearest relation. In perfect independence, and perfect robust- short it was just such a letter as was calness, who when Mr. St. John was not culated to bring tears into Mrs. St. John's there, carried matters with a high hand, eyes, and which drove Mrs. Eastwood and dismissed the question of health as half frantic with indignation when she unworthy to occupy the first place in the read it. “Does this woman think I am
an unnatural wretch to want all this talk- i said Mr. St. John, coughing. “I have ing to?" poor Mrs. Eastwood asked, half had a delicacy about it, as her poor father crying with anger and wounded feeling. declined to see me. Yes, he declined to But the company in the Casa Piccolomini see me, poor man," he added, shaking his thought it a beautiful letter. They thought head mournfully, with a sigh. “I don't the relations must be hardened indeed if like to mention it, but such was the case. they could resist such an appeal as that. I fear he was sadly deficient, sadly de
"I am sure the aunt must be a dread- ficient-" ful woman,” said Clara Worsley, “ or she “ If he is the Vane I suppose him to would have come by this time. Will you be,” said Mr. Worsley, in a hoarse voice, take me to see her to-morrow, dear Mrs. “ he was as great a scamp as I ever met Drainham ? After that letter everybody in my life. A man you saw everywhere ought to take an interest in her " 1-well connected, and all that. A fellow
“You have expressed all our feelings, that played high, and ruined every man my dear," said Mrs. St. John, pressing that had anything to do with him. And the hand of the doctor's wife with min- died poor, of course ; all those scapegled admiration and envy. “I doubt very graces do," said the comfortable invalid, much if I could have done it half as putting his hand instinctively into his well.”
pocket. “Oh, that from you!” said Mrs. Drain “But his poor child. Whatever he ham, with enthusiasm, for Mrs. St. John was, we must not let that detract from was literary, and the highest authority on our interest in the poor girl," said Mrs. matters of style.
Drainham. “I have tried hard to get “But I hear the girl is a very odd girl," her to talk to me, to open her heart and said Miss Bolding. “Doctor, what did to have confidence in me as a true friend. her father die of? Are they wrong in You would think she did not understand their heads ? I knew a Vane once, of a the meaning of the words." West Country family, who were all very “Have you heard that poor Lady Florqueer. I wonder if they were the same ence Stockport has arrived, with that delVanes ? Devonshire, I think, or Somer-icate boy of hers?” said Mrs. St. John: setshire, I am not sure which " and then Miss Worsley began to consult
“ They are a Devonshire family," said with Mrs. Drainham about the music at Dr. Drainham. “And there is nothing church, and whether Miss Metcalfe, who wrong about their brains. He died of played the harmonium, could not be ingeneral break-up, Miss Bolding, a high duced to give up in favour of young Mr. tempered man who had lived hard. 1 Blackburn, who had taken a musical dehave met him about Italy in all sorts of gree at Oxford, and written a cantata, and places. The poor girl has been oddly meant to spend the spring months in Pisa. brought up, that is all.”
“It would make such a difference to “I fear without any sort of religious our little service,” said Miss Worsley; training, which accounts for a great deal," "and don't you think, with all the attracsaid Mr. St. John.
tions of the Roman Catholic ritual around "Not without some sort of religion," us, we ought to do everything we can to said Miss Maria Bolding. “She is con- improve our services ?”' stantly coming over to the little Church Thus the general tide of the conversaof the Spina, the toy church as my sister tion flowed on, and Innocent was remitcalls it. A perfect little gem; I prefer it ted back into obscurity. myself to the Duomo. The girl has good All this took place on the evening when taste, and she is wonderfully pretty. Not Frederick Eastwood arrived in Pisa. the Raphael style perhaps, but just such a From his chamber, where he was already face as Leonardo would have given any- asleep, and from the windows of the Casa thing for. I called her the Leonardo be- Piccolomini, might have been seen the fore I knew who she was.'
faint light in the third-floor windows “Don't you think, my dear, you take which marked where the lonely girl was rather a superficial view of the matter ?" sitting. She was all by herself, and she said Mrs. St. John. “ Think what a ter- did not know, as Mrs. Drainham said, rible thing to be said of an English girl what the meaning of the word friend was. - that all she knows of religion is to be But I must turn this page and make a new constantly in the Church of the Spina ! beginning before I can tell you what manIt is bad enough for the poor Italians ner of lonely soul this poor Innocent who know no better "
was. “You must go and see her, Martha,"]
From Chambers' Journal. and the experiment was repeated thre: MUSCULAR STRENGTH OF INSECTS. times, in orcier to arrive at a correct con
It is an interesting study to compare clusion as to the greatest effort that each the motive power of birds and insects, could make. The tables which give the and recent experiments prove that they results of these trials seem clearly to deare superior in this respect to quadrupeds, monstrate that in the same group of inespecially when the possibility of aërial sects, the lightest and smallest possess navigation is taken into account. In a the greatest strength ; or that the relative few minutes the condor will soar many force is in inverse ratio to the weight. miles in height; the swallow is not weary This law applies also to the experiments of describing its rapid and graceful curves in flying and pushing, as well as to drawfor fifteen hours at a time. It has been ing. calculated that the eagle, with its rapid This law, assuredly very curious and flight, produces an effort sufficient to interesting in the economy of nature, has raise and bear up its own weight equal to been confirmed by trying a dozen individtwenty-six horse-power.
uals of various species in order to obtain Insect organization is as full of wonders results more approaching to the truth. as that of the bird. The energy which These have been fully successful in conlives in these curious little creatures may firming previous experience --for examwell excite the wonder of an observer. ple, the drone is four times the weight of “ If you compare their loads with the size the bee, yet it can only drag a weight fifof their bodies," said Pliny, in speaking teen times greater than its own ; whilst of ants, “it must be allowed that no other the bee easily draws twenty-three or animal is endowed with such immense twenty-four times its own bulk. In five strength in proportion.” Sir Walter Scott ing, it can raise a weight very little infesuggests the same idea. When a beetle rior to its own ; whilst the drone can only is placed under a candlestick, it will move transport in this manner half its own it in its efforts to escape ; which is rela- weight. The law in question appears also tively the same thing as a prisoner in to apply not only to the species which beNewgate shaking the building with his long to the same entomological subdiviback. Linnæus remarks that an elephant sion, but in a certain measure to the enhaving the force of a horn-beetle would tire class of insects. It is true that if the be able to move a mountain.
species examined are arranged by the inM. Félix Plateau, a young Belgian nat-creasing order of their weight, the correuralist, and a son of the celebrated physi- sponding relations which express their cian, has lately tried some very delicate relative force are not always exactly proexperiments to measure the muscular gressive. There are exceptions, which strength of insects, as others have done may be explained by the difference of with man and the horse. The strength of structure. The law holds good if they are the last two is estimated by the aid of a divided into three groups, comprising, remachine called a dynamometer, where the spectively, the lightest insects, those of tension of a spring is counterbalanced by a middle size, and the heaviest. In this an effort exercised for a very short time. way the relative force is represented for A man, it is found, has a power of trac- the first group by twenty-six ; for the tion equal to five-sixths of his weight ; second, by nineteen ; for the last, by nine. a horse, only the half or two-thirds of his This relates only to the power of traction ; weight; but this is very small in compar- if that in flying be taken into consideraison with the strength of insects, many of tion, the lightest can far surpass the which can draw forty times that amount. heaviest ; the first being equal to one and
The way in which M. Plateau has meas-one-third ; the last is but one-half. The ured these powers is ingenious. He har- strongest insects appear to be those so nessed the insect by a horizontal thread, familiar to the naturalist, which live on which was passed over a light, movable lilies and roses, such as the Crioceres and pulley ; to this was attached a balance Trichies. These little beings can draw a loaded with a few grains of sand. To weight about forty times superior to their prevent the insect turning aside, he made own, and one, an athlete of the tribe, drew it walk between two bars of glass on a sixty-seven times its own weight. A board covered with muslin, so as to afford small beetle of the tribe anomale has exea rough surface; exciting it forward, he cuted the same feat. Another more regradually poured fresh sand into the bal-markable fact is related of a horn-beetle, ance until it refused to advance farther : which held between its mandibles, alterthe sand and the insect were then weighed, I nately raising and lowering its head and
breast, a rod of thirty centimetres long, I paratice Anatomy of Irticulated Aniweighing four hundred grammes ; its own mals, he establishes the point, that two weight was but two grammes. At the animals of similar form, but of different side of this insect, what are the acrobats dimensions, will jump the same height who can carry a table between their teeth ! above the point where lies their centre Such examples shew to what an extent of gravity at the moment when they quit insects are superior to the larger animals the soil. He takes as an example the in the strength of their muscles. Dry cat and the tiger, and adds that the same and nervous, they can, in proportion to conclusion is applicable to crickets and themselves, move mountains. In addi-grasshoppers. The principle which tion to this, they are ingenious ; when an serves as a basis for this theory is, that obstacle does not yield to them, they know the motive-power of animals increases how to turn it aside. One day, in a gar- with the section, and not with the vol. den, a small wasp was trying to raise a ume of the muscles. It depends only on caterpillar, which it had just killed.. The the number of fibres of which the muscaterpillar was at least five or six times cles are composed ; from whence it folheavier than its conqueror, which could lows that it ought to be in proportion to not gain its end. Six times successively, the surface of the section of these organs, weary of the war, and despairing of suc- whilst the weight of the animal is process, it abandoned its prey, and sadly portional to their volume. The weight placed itself at some distance. At last augments more rapidly than the motivea bright idea saved it from its embarrass-power, and the relation between this ment: it returned, placed itself across the weight and this force becomes the more caterpillar, as if on horseback; with its unfavourable as the animal is larger. two middle feet it embraced the body of Other naturalists who agree to this as a its victim, raised it against its breast, and whole do not consider it to be an absomanaged to walk on the four feet which lute or general law. were at liberty; thus it soon crossed a! Among the insects that dig or burrow walk of six feet wide, and laid its prey in the ground, a different plan was tried against a wall.
to see their power of pushing forwards. Investigations have been made regard- | They were placed in a card-board tube, ing the jumping insects of the order Or- which had been blackened and made thopterá - the weight which crickets rough for the feet; at one end, a transand grasshoppers can raise when jump- parent plate of glass was fixed to a horiing. To prevent them using their wings, zontal lever. Perceiving the light before M. Plateau tied them and the elytra or it through the plate which barred its outer sheaths with a thread. The bur- exit, the insect when excited pushes with den was a ball of wax ballasted with mor- all its strength; the plate gives way, the sels of lead, which was hung to a thread lever turns, and raises at its other extied round the thorax ; as much lead was tremity the balance, which is attached added to the wax until the insect could by a pulley, and into which the sand is only raise itself an inch from the ground. poured as before. In this way the orycThe ball and the insect were afterwards tes, weighing about forty-six grains, weighed, the latter having been made in- pushed three or four times its own sensible by the fumes of ether. Crickets weight, whilst the little onthophagus of the larger kind raised about one and a moved eighty or ninety times that half their own weight; the smaller ones, amount. three or four times their weight. The The experiments in the way of flying grasshopper differs from the cricket in lead to the conclusion that insects emhaving longer and thinner legs; the ploy much less muscular force in that green variety weighing about two and a way than in drawing or pushing; perhalf grammes, can only raise a weight haps it is that, unlike birds, they are not equal to its own, confirming the law, intended to carry large weights through that the muscular force of insects in the air. A ball of soit wax of a weight creases as their size diminishes. When little superior to what the insect might allowed to jump freely, crickets describe be expected to bear, was fastened round a curve in the air similar to all projectiles. its body, and it was tried as to whether It is curious that the amplitude of the it could support this in the air : if it fell, spring is the same for the large and the size was diminished. Among various smaller kinds alike. This result was fore- insects belonging to the five orders of seen by the celebrated naturalist, Strauss-Coleoptera (beetles), it was found that Durckheim. In his work on The Com-'they could raise from one-sixth to double