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A VISION OF LIFE.
| Had not the teacher an empire strange,
The lesson a magic might,
That thus I remember through wrong and
change, Gliding so fast that one
Through treachery, chill, and blight? Into another almost seems to run,
Ah! the sapphire still glows, though faith is
The ruby is blushing that hope is dead,
And why, when the Love's last dirge is said,
Should the diamond gleam so bright?
And has, indeed, no shadow past
The same the burnished gold,
And yet you glance from it to me,
As if the clue to a riddle to see;
| For how should the pledge on the finger be,
When the heart to the troth is cold?' Dreamt its large leafy head would touch the sky,
And that our love is cold, you know, Its roots all matted round the central truth!
| Ay, cold as the touch of Death, How poor, by that vast visionary tree,
And over its grave lies the smooth white snow, Looks the small shrub I see!
That melts not to passion's breath.
Our moan is made, our tears are wept,
So quick the dull grey mosses crept,
We scarce could find it where it slept,
That they ponder the puzzle yet?
Can they not one silent token find,
Ay, so; the god from his shrine is ta'en,
Of age with cheerfulness,
Nay, hush man's proud impetuous thought,
Man's jealous spirit quell;
It was but with woe and folly fraught,
Our wild youth's first love-spell. where,
Let friendly hands clasp cordially, In amaranth meadows of immortal truth,
And friendly eyes meet fearlessly
And friendly tones say earnestly,
“So be it, it is well.”
All The Year Round
Wiped from all human tears;
Shall save its freshness of to-day
Have turn'd its former fellows gray.
So shall your image in my breast
With never-fading beauty rest.
What love hath once on love bestow'd,
Translated in its dew of youth When you taught me their speech to know; To some remote divine abode, To find Faith in the sapphire's decpening blue, Withdraws from risk of time's untruth. And Hope in the ruby's sanguine hue,
Keeping, we lose ; but what we give
Like to a piece of Heav'n doth live.
From Blackwood's Magazine. the bed of the Jordan. It is about EXPLORATIONS. - PART II.
twelve and a quarter miles long from The pleasure which we promised our-north to south, and at its broadest part selves when recently concluding a paper six and three quarter miles wide from on the Surveys of the Holy Land, we east to west. But its width is by no now realize, as there is an opportunity means regular, its shape being that of a afforded of giving some account of the pear or a leg of mutton, the broadest part examination of the Sea of Galilee by the toward the north, and the more projectEngineer expedition. On the shores of ing side toward the west, the eastern shore this sea our Lord was “in His own coun- being by comparison straight, except try," for Nazareth is only about twenty near the lower end. It is full of fish. Its miles from the part of the water nearest waters, thick and muddy at the extreme to it: the sea washes the district in north, become clear and bright as they which His youth and the greatest part of approach its narrow end; for Jordan, His manhood were passed ; for He was which flows into it a foul stream, leaves only an occasional visitor to Jerusalem. the lake a pure and sweet river. The A large proportion of the scenes depict surface is from 600 to 700 feet below the ed in the Gospels occurred on this lake level of the Mediterranean. The climate or on its shores, or in the immediate is genial in winter, and not excessively neighbourhood of them. If the hills and hot in summer. With shores that rise valleys, and towns, and strands, and but gently, in most parts, from the basin, waters, and fields, and rocks of this and whose colour is uniformly brown favoured region could give their testi- where seen above the foliage at their mony, they would furnish tales on which bases, the scenery would be tame were it millions of minds would hang with rap- not for the fine hills, including the snowy ture; and the “many other things which tops of Hermon, which can be seen all Jesus did, the which, if they should be round through the transparent ether, and written every one, I suppose that even for the innumerable effects of light and the world itself could not contain the shade. Shrubs and blossoms add to the books that should be written,” would be beauty of the coasts, which vary continmade manifest for our edification. That ually, being sometimes backed by broad wisdom of which we inherit but a few plains, showing at others the openings of pages was being poured forth daily for long gorges, and elsewhere, especially to years in the parts of Zebulon and Naph-(the north, being broken into many and tali; those parables of which we know charming bays. Volcanic action appears but a selection were narrated plentifully to be energetic : there are hot springs in around the famous lake; that beneficence the basin of the lake, and very serious of which we long for further instances earthquakes occur. Wild boar are to be had here its chief exercise,- for it was found on a plain to the north-east. in this region principally that our Lord Those who have formed a mental pic" went about doing good.” There can- ture of this sea, so often recurring in not be a mile of ground here which is not sacred story - as who in childhood has a field of interest - not a village nor a not? — have, no doubt, imagined a water highway but what we can believe to have covered with ships and boats, resounding received the impress of his feet, or with the cries of sailors and fishermen, have echoed to his voice. The construc- and flanked by many proud cities rich in tion, therefore, of an accurate map of the merchandise and glorious to the sight. country, will be hailed universally with Alas for such visions ! the cities and the satisfaction, and the researches of the men and the traffic were there, but they map-makers will, we are sure, be ardently have disappeared so completely that the followed.
| waters of the lake may be said to sleep The Sea of Galilee, or the Sea of Tibe- amid a solitude. As for the famous rias, or Lake of Gennesareth, is a sheet cities, of most of them it cannot be said of water formed by the expansion of with certainty where they were, and this
survey now first begins to give us some the truth after the unsentimental process reliable data for identifying their ruins : of applying the chain and compass. A one or two remain, but not as cities ; small, heap known as Tel Hum, nearly as exdirty, Arab villages alone represent those tensive as the ruins of old Tiberias, is, in busy towns, wherein were done “mighty Captain Wilson's opinion, what remains works,” such as would have overcome of Capernaum. It is learned from Josethe sinful obduracy of Tyre and Sidon.phus that near to Capernaum was a celTiberias is there, on the west coast, ebrated fountain ; and a fountain apparrather below the centre of the lake. Its ently answering to his description has sea-wall, broken columns, towers, aque- been found at Et Tabigah, a mile and a ducts, attest the glory of its ancient half from Tel Hum, and shown on the estate ; but the modern Tiberias is but a map. Moreover, it has been ascertained poor collection of houses, chiefly inhab- that Tel Hum is a larger ruin than any ited by Jews who have returned to Pales- other on the sea-coast in that neighbourtine. Its filth and vermin have become a hood ; and it is a common opinion that proverb.* About four miles north of Capernaum was of more importance than this, a heap of ruins, now named Mejdel, either of the other two cities, Bethsaida marks the site of that Magdala where and Chorazin. A very old traveller has Mary Magdalene had her home. North left it on record that Capernaum had no of this, again, is the plain of Gennesareth, wall; and Tel Hum must have been a an area of great beauty and fertility, long straggling city without a wall. It along which, sad to say, are several heaps seems, too, that the name Tel Hum may of rubbish, denoting, probably, the places be derived from Capernaum or Capharof old towns and villages wherein our naum. It is to be remarked, also, that Lord taught. But there are other names there was a synagogue at Capernaum ; more famous than those which we have for we are told (John vi. 59) that our Lord mentioned ; one is impatient to hear of taught therein : and the remains of a the proud Capernaum, of Chorazin, of synagogue, which the explorers well Bethsaida. What report is there of knew how to distinguish from any other these? Well, there is so little positively building, have been found at Tel Hum. to be said of them — rather there was so Captain Wilson thinks that by turning little positively to be said, for the sur- over the ruins and examining beneath veyors have done much toward bringing them, evidence might be found sufficient them to life again — that where they to set the question at rest. Speaking of stood is a question. Bold travellers and our Lord's discourse in this synagogue, learned sages have essayed to establish he says : “ It was not without a certain the identity of this or that heap of rub- strange feeling that on turning over a bish with one or other of the cities ; large block we found the pot of manna each has been jealous for his own heap. engraved on its face, and remembered There have been differences and contro- the words 'I am that bread of life. Your versies, and there would have been, for fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, many a day, controversies destined to and are dead.'” There remains someend in nothing, had not the surveyors, by thing yet to be said about this synagogue. subjecting each ruin and all its surround-It was told of the centurion whose serings to rigid measurement, so that they vant was healed, “ he loveth our nation, may all be seen and judged of on the and he hath built us a synagogue” (Luke map at a glance, brought the different vii. 5). Now, if Tel Hum be Capernaum, speculations to a test. We will not say as it probably is, the surveying party what the many speculations have been, stood within the ruined walls of this very but state what seems most likely to be synagogue, many of the stones of which
have been burned for lime, or taken away * That the king of the fleas holds his court at Tiberias, 1 to be used in modern buildings. is, Captain Wilson tells us, an Arab proverb. Fleas must be rather plentiful where they are noticed by 1 About two and a half miles to the Arabs.
(north of Tel Hum, and nearly the same
distance up a valley from the shore of the survey, which by fixing the fountain in lake, is a ruin named Kerazeh. The the one place, and ascertaining the true name always suggested Chorazin; but site of the ruins in the other, cleared up travellers were unable to identify it with the prospect. And we ought to add that that city, because to their view the area Captain Wilson more than once notices of the ruins was very small. Here, how- the assistance which he received from ever, the hard facts of the survey come the Sinaitic and Vatican MSS., and the to the aid of inquiring minds : the ruins Tauchnitz edition of the New Testament, look small, because at a hundred yards' which, by a slight difference with the distance the masonry here can hardly be authorized version, make the passages distinguished from the surrounding rocks; of our Lord and His disciples over the but when carefully examined and tried water, and some circumstances of time by the chain, they are found to be by no and place, harmonize completely with the means insignificant, but to indicate that sites which he ascribes to the cities, the area of the city was nearly, if not while in the same accounts our version quite, equal to that of Capernaum, if would perplex a little. Capernaum is Tel Hum. At Kerazeh, The information given concerning also, the ruins of a synagogue have been Bethsaida is not very precise ; neither found. Many of the dwelling-houses does Captain Wilson himself appear to here are in a tolerably perfect state ; and be firmly convinced, although on the Captain Wilson, very reasonably suppos- whole, he inclines to place the city at ing that these give a good idea of the Khan Minyeh, a ruin on a cliff overhangkind of house in which our Saviour dwelt, ing the lake, two and a half miles south writes a description of them which we of Tel Hum. But it is still matter of disquote:
| pute whether there were two Bethsaidas They are generally square, of different sizes
or only one. Many, looking at the de- the largest measure was nearly 30 feet —
scriptions of Josephus and at the requireand have one or two columns down the centre ments of Scripture, decide that there to support the roof, which appears to have must have been two - viz., Bethsaida in been flat, as in the modern Arab houses. The Galilee, and Bethsaida Julias, on the eastwalls are about two feet thick, built of masonry ward of the Jordan, near where the river or of loose blocks of basalt. There is a low enters the lake. Bethsaida Julias was doorway in the centre of one of the walls, and promoted from being a village to being a each house has windows twelve inches high ritu hy Philin the Tetrarch
dows twelve, inches high city by Philip the Tetrarch, who gave it and six and a half inches wide. In one or two
its second name after the Emperor's cases the houses were divided into four cham
daughter, and who there prepared himbers.
self a tomb in which he was buried. But Traces of the main road which led out the notices of Bethsaida in the Scripture of the city towards Damascus have been would seem to require a place of that discovered. The city would have been name on the west shore of the lake also. in sight from the water at the same time Very likely the wording of the Gospels as that at Tel Hum. So, the fact of its would bear an interpretation which would magnitude having been brought to light, dispense with a second Bethsaida, and there is no reason why we should object in that case no further search in Galilee to Kerazeh as the modern form of Cho-would be necessary. If there were a razin. Indeed, Captain Wilson has no second, it no doubt stood on, or not far doubt about their being the same; but withdrawn from, the coast-line (five miles he would be glad to have his conviction long) from Khan Minyeh to the flowing tried by the results of subterranean ex-l in of the Jordan. aminations.
On a bend of the river a little way Here we take occasion to state, that above the lake is Et Tel, a ruin which for the light thrown on these important has traditionally been identified with points - to wit, the sites of Capernaum Bethsaida Julias ; but our surveyors, and Chorazin — we are indebted to the after examining this “heap” with their
usual care, are of opinion that the re- | field of a battle very fatal to the Crusaders mains are those of a place not sufficient-in 1187. They lost the cross, and suffered ly magnificent to answer to the city of most severely ; and the King of Jerusalem Philip. One-third of the way down the was taken prisoner by Saladin. This was east coast of the sea, and nearly opposite a litile before Ceur de Lion appeared on to Magdala, is a ruin enclosed by a wall the scene. But the Horns of Hattin have three feet thick, and named Khersa. This a claim to our regard higher than a fight Captain Wilson, agreeing with some between Crusaders and Moslems can give. former travellers, decided to be Gergesa, This hill is traditionally known as the the place where our Lord delivered the “ Mount of Beatitudes," where the great two demoniacs, and where He permit- precepts of Christianity were first proted the devils whom He had cast out to pounded in a gentle discourse to a multigo into the herd of swine. Close to tude, not as the Jewish law had been Gergesa the coast becomes suddenly given in clouds and thunder from Sinai. steep; and this, no doubt, is the place We cannot hope to be ever positively where the swine ran down into the sea. certain as to where the Sermon on the A view of the maps, too, helps to smooth Mount was preached, but our surveyors away an apparent discrepancy in the Gos- say that the Horns of Hattin affords a pels. Two of the evangelists say that the situation admirably fitted for its delivery. miracle was wrought in the country of the There has been much controversy conGadarenes ; but Captain Wilson shows cerning the place where the miraculous that if the miracle had been wrought at feeding of the five thousand took place. Gadara, the swine would have had a gal- | Tradition puts it on the west coast; and lop of two miles after rushing down the this has been the chief cause of the supsteep before they got to the sea ; and he position that there was a second Bethsuggests, either that Gergesa was sub- saida in Galilee, because St. Luke says ject to Gadara, and might therefore prop- that it was in a desert place belonging to erly be said to be in the country of the Bethsaida ; while St. Mark states that Gadarenes, or else that “Gadarenes” | after the miracle the disciples went on has been written in MSS. of Mark and before to Bethsaida. Either, therefore, Luke for “ Gergesenes," which latter is there must have been two Bethsaidas, or the name given in Mathew. That the an error has somewhere crept into the acscene of the story was on the eastern counts. Now it is interesting to learn side of the lake there can be no doubt ; |from Captain Wilson that in the Sinaitic because our Lord, when the inhabitants version of St Luke, the words “ belonging besought Him to depart out of their to Bethsaida” do not occur. So, if this coasts, entered into a ship, and passed version be accepted as the right one, the over and came into His own city, which miracle may have been performed on the was on the west. From three to four / west coast, in the neighbourhood of the miles south of Khersa, on the plateau of cities from which the multitude came out; a hill, and a mile or more from the coast, and the return voyage of the disciples are the walls of Gamala, once a fortified | may have been directed on Bethsaida, alcity, the inhabitants of which were all though one Gospel says that they came massacred when the Romans took it. to Gennesaret, and another that they went The city of Gadara lies about five miles towards Capernaum : for these last may south-east of the most southern point of be reconciled. The disciples may have the lake. The remains here appear to embarked to go to Bethsaida and yet have be more numerous and better preserved | been obliged to land at an intermediate than those of any other city on these point, if they encountered difficulties. coasts. Its theatres - one of them very Now we know that a memorable storm perfect - are yet to be seen ; and its overtook them on this voyage ; and this cemetery, containing rock-hewn tombs may have obliged them to land at Caperand sarcophagi, is a remarkable place. naum, which if it be Tel Hum, is in the The tombs are now Arab dwelling-places. land of Gennesaret. We should add, too, Close to where the Jordan flows out of that the Sinaitic version, as quoted by the lake is Kerak, the remains of the city Captain Wilson, by a verbally small difTarichæa.
ference from the other versions, makes Four miles due vest of a point on the the place of the miracle to be near Tibecoast midway between Magdala and Tibe- rias, which would accord with the tradition rias, is the village of Hattin, and near it a above mentioned. We do not by any curious two-peaked mountain, known as means regard this reasoning as conclu. the “ Horns of Hattin.” This was the sive ; but, supposing it to be accepted,