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a complete view of the preacher's general and Basil was carried off and ordained. attitude of mind. And he permits an oc- This pious fraud Chrysostom afterwards casional carelessness of expression which excused and defended in his tract “De would have been better avoided. So we Sacerdotio,” in which, after accounting hear (p. 276) of “unravelling a roll,” of for his own conduct by alleging a strong “hesitating how to act” (p. 346), of invet- sense of his own unworthiness, he dilates erate enemy” (p. 124), &c. When we have on the dignity of the priestly office. It added that occasionally we notice in the denotes the movement which religious style a not very felicitous imitation of thought had by this time made to find Gibbon, we have finished our fault-find- that the word for “ priest" used throughing.
Jout this treatise is lepeus, that for the There is much in the life of Chrysostom, Eucharist Oùula. It was not long after as there is in that of not a few of the this that Chrysostom, whose mother great divines of the early Church, which seems to have been now dead, entered a presents a remarkable contrast to the monastery. Even this did not satisfy orderly progress by which men now him, and for a while he became an anadvance to ecclesiastical eminence. chorite, a change which broke down his Though the son of a Christian mother, he health and compelled him to return to had reached years of maturity before re- his home in Antioch. During this time ceiving baptism. Mr. Stephens makes Chrysostom, though still a layman, was the not improbable conjecture that he becoming a power in the Christian comwas unwilling to receive it at the hands munity, which certainly possessed no of an Arian bishop, and Arian bishops abler or more accomplished member. continued for many years to preside over Famous as he was, however, he was perthe Church at Antioch ; some orthodox fectly content, when at last he consented priest might, however, have been easily to receive holy orders, to fill for five years found; anyhow, the delay is singularly at the humble office of a deacon, busying variance with our notions and habits. It himself with purely mechanical functions is probable indeed that the religious im- in the ritual of the Church, and with pulse in the man was still weak. The “ serving tables.” In connection with Chrysostom of after days would hardly this latter office a curious fact comes have been willing to be a pupil of the out which enables us to compare the heathen sophist Libanius, a pupil so dili- | pauperism of the great cities of antiquity gent and successful that long afterwards with that which offers so tremendous a the old man, when asked on his death- problem to ourselves. Out of a total bed who should be his successor, replied, population of 200,000 in Antioch, one“ It should have been John, if the Chris- half was Christian, and of this half not tians had not stolen him from us." Bap- less than three thousand were mainly detism once received, there was no doubt pendent on the bounty of the Church. what should be the tenor of his life there. The per-centage of pauperism is nearly after. Ordination to the office of “read-three times greater than that which preer" followed almost immediately. Then vails in the metropolis, though it must came the resolution, made by him in con- be remembered that, for reasons which junction with his friend Basil, to follow are sufficiently obvious, the Christian the ascetic life, a resolution which for the half of Antiochians probably contained present, at his mother's entreaty, he con- far more than its due proportion of poor. tented himself by carrying out in the When, at last, the priesthood gave Chrypractice of all kinds of austerities in his sostom the right of entering the pulpit, he own home. He was thus engaged when rose at once into the highest reputation an event occurred curiously illustrative as a preacher. His sermons were the of the times. Popular choice fixed upon strangest mixture of profound theologithe two friends as fit persons to succeed cal knowledge, controversial ability, ferto certain vacant bishoprics, and this vid eloquence, and the most direct, most though Chrysostom was not more than 26 homely plain-speaking. It is this last elyears of age, and Basil not much older. ement that makes them especially interMen in those days were often made bish-esting. Few things surpass them as picops much as among some savage tribes tures of the life of the times. The most maidens are made brides, they were ac- striking incident in Chrysostom's career tually carried off by force and ordained. at Antioch was that which called forth The two friends agreed to act together, “ The Homilies on the Statues.” The but when the emissaries of the electors mob of the city, enraged at the imposiarrived, Chrysostom could not be found,'tion of a tax, had broken out into a riot, and had insulted the images of the Em- ' ruler of the East, the Empress Eudoxia, peror's father and wife. That Emperor hated him with a fervent hatred. A prewas Theodosius. For a time it seemed late who lived like an anchorite among men likely that Antioch would suffer the ter- who had been accustomed to look upon rible vengeance which afterwards fell on the Archiepiscopal Palace as London citiunfortunate Thessalonica. Bishop Fla- zens look upon the Mansion House, and vian, though feeble with age, and though who spoke with the direct plainness of John it was yet winter, hastened to Constanti. Knox, was not likely to please the corrupt nople, a journey of 800 miles, to inter- and luxurious capital of the East. He did cede with the Emperor. Meanwhile the not strengthen his position, though he Imperial Commissioners arrived, in- certainly reached the culminating glory structed to execute summary punishment of his life, by his courageous protection on the guilty. Their action was stopped of the fallen Eutropius. The scene is by the interference of some strange me- wonderfully dramatic :diators. The hermits came down from their mountain-dwellings to plead for the Such a vast concourse of men and women sinful city which they had abandoned. thronged the cathedral as was rarely seen exOne of them, Macedonius, surnamed cept on Easter Day. All were in a flutter of Crithophagus, or “the Barley-eater,” be expectation to hear what the “golden mouth” cause barley was his only food, seized
and would utter, the mouth of him who had dared,
in defence of the Church's right, to defy the the bridle of one of the commissioners as
arm of the law, and to stem the tide of popu. they were passing to the hall of judg
lar feeling. But few perhaps were prepared to ment, and commanded him to dismount.
witness such a dramatic scene as was actually “Who is this mad fellow ?” they had presented, and which gave additional force and asked, but when they learnt his name, effect to the words of the preacher. It was a they fell on their knees before him and common practice with the Archbishop, on acdemanded his pardon. Finally, they con count partly of his diminutive stature and sented to suspend their sentence till the some feebleness of voice, to preach from the pleasure of the Emperor should be
“ambo,” or high reading-desk, which stood a known. Theodosius had by this time
little westward of the chancel, and therefore yielded to the entreaties of Flavian, who
brought him into closer proximity with the
people. On the present occasion he had just returned to the city in time to celebrate
taken his seat in the ambo, and a sea of upthe Easter festival, and Chrysostom de- I turned faces was directed towards his thin pale livered on the occasion one of the greatest countenance in expectation of the stream of of his discourses. Mr. Stephens takes the golden eloquence, when the curtain which sepopportunity of telling the story of the arated the nave from the chancel was partially massacre of Thessalonica, and points out | drawn aside, and disclosed to the view of the the contrast between the supplicatory de
multitude the cowering form of the unhappy meanour of Flavian and the command
| Eutropius, clinging to one of the columns ing attitude of Ambrose, a contrast cu
which supported the holy table. Many a time
| had the Archbishop preached to light minds riously significant of the difference be
and unheeding ears on the vain and fleeting tween the Eastern and Western Churches character of worldly honour, prosperity, luxury, as regards their relations to the secular | wealth; now he would enforce attention, and power. For about eleven years Chrysos-drive his lesson home to the hearts of a vast tom remained the great preacher of Anti- audience, by pointing to a visible example of och. In A.D. 387 he was selected by fallen grandeur in the poor unhappy creature Eutropius, then all-powerful in the Im- / who lay grovelling behind him. Presently he perial Court, as successor to Nectarius
burst forth : “MaralórnS MataloTÍTOV!-( vanin the Archbishopric of Constantinople. |
|ity of vanities !” words how seasonable at
| all times, how pre-eminently seasonable now. Something like force was employed to “ Where now are the pomp and circumstance secure so desirable a candidate, and of yonder man's consulship? where his torch. Chrysostom was consecrated, greatly to lit festivities? where the applause which once the dissatisfaction of many rivals, a dis- greeted him ? where his banquets and garlands? satisfaction of which he was soon to ex- / Where is the stir that once attended his apperience the results. Chrysostom's ten-pearance in the streets, the flattering compli. ancy of his see was short and troubled. ments addressed to him in the amphitheatre ? The people, indeed, adored him at Con
They are gone, they are all gone; one rude
blast has shattered all the leaves, and shows us stantinople, as they adored him at Anti
the tree stripped quite bare, and shaken to its och ; but a clergy who were too often
very roots.” ... Then, turning towards the worldly and even dissolute in their man
| pitiable figure by the holy table : “Did I not ners, a corrupt and profligate Court, and, continually warn thee that wealth was a runmost dangerous enemy of all, the real | away slave, a thankless servant ? but thou wouldst not heed, thou wouldst not be per-, as well as the important subject of the suaded. Lo! now experience has proved to bearing of Chrysostom's writings on the thee that it is not only sugitive and thankless, great Roman controversy, are discussed but murderous also ; for this it is which has with ability and candour by Mr. Stephens. caused thee to tremble now with fear. ... It
of whom, with thanks for a valuable and was the glory of the Church to have afforded. shelter to an enemy; the suppliant was the
interesting book, we must now take leave. ornament of the altar. "What!' you say, 'is this iniquitous, rapacious creature an ornament to the altar?' Hush! the sinful woman was permitted to touch the feet of Jesus Christ himself, a permission which excites not our
From The Pall Mall Gazette. reproach, but our admiration and praise."
THE JOURNAL OF LOUIS XVI.* We have not space to follow the dis- | 'At this moment, when in France the graceful story of the great preacher's Republic and the monarchy are being overthrow. Theophilus of Alexandria, weighed in the balance, it seems hardly who had unwillingly taken part in his fair to dip into the private life even of a consecration, was the prime mover of monarch so estimable and unfortunate as the cabal against him. The enmity Louis XVI., who has come down to us as against him was but indirectly connected something between a locksmith and a with controversy ; the actual charges al- martyr – a good-natured family man with leged, all of them, as it seems to us, lu- few vices and a large appetite. However, dicrously improbable or utterly trifling, M. Louis Nicolardot has published his concerned his personal conduct and de- Majesty's journal, which reveals the King meanour. He was deposed by a synod in a new light, one that is far different most irregularly convened, and banished ; from that shed upon him by history. but an opportune earthquake troubled The journal extends over a period of sixthe conscience of the Emperor, and the teen years — from 1776 to 1792 — and in people of the city successfully demanded (it his Majesty has jotted down the most his recall. After a short stay, he was private details of his life, but not a single again expelled, this time never to return. idea. We know that on many trying ocHis abode was fixed by his persecutors casions the King spoke with sense and successively at Cucusus, a village in the feeling, and it is hard to imagine why he range of Mount Taurus, a bleak spot, and should have kept such a journal as that constantly exposed to the incursions of before us, which exhibits him in the light the barbarous Isaurians ; and at Pityus, of a childish country-gentleman. Alex. a still more in hospitable region on the andre Dumas some years ago published coast of the Euxine. The latter place, a volume entitled “Les Grands Hommes indeed, he did not reach, for he died on en Robe de Chambre," which plared his road, at Comana, in Pontus. Twenty- havoc with a good many historical heroes. seven years latter his relics (why should | What the novelist did for Richelieu and the word be written, as here, reliques?) other great people, Louis XVI. has done were brought to Constantinople, and de- for himself. M. Nicolardot has divided posited in the Church of the Apostles. the King's voluminous diary into chap
The fame of Chrysostom as a preacher ters. The first chapter treats of his is amply justified by the sermons which Majesty's health, informing us when he we possess. It must have rested, more had the toothache, the mumps, or indithan is often the case, on the intrinsic | gestion; when he was inoculated, bled, merit of his oratory. His “bodily pres- or when he took medicine. It appears ence was weak;” he had not the full that sometimes the King put his pills and ringing voice which sometimes gives so powders into the fire, and felt none the powerful a charm to indifferent rhetoric ; worse for it. He also recorded the accibut the glow and power of his speech, dents that jeopardized his life or his now loftily elevated, now even humbly limbs, and, according to his own account, practical, are still so manifest when we he tumbled off his horse when out huntread, that we cannot hesitate to rank the ling five times. Baths appear to have “Goldenmouth” among the great orators been ordered, says the author, more as a of the world. As an interpreter of Scrip- means of health than for cleanliness. ture, again, he has merits of a high The diary is dry and uninteresting, order; to no one of the “ Fathers " can but then we know how the story finished. we look with more confidence for the honesty and good sense which are not always " Journal de Louis XVI.” (London: Hachette. found in commentators. These points, Paris : Dentu. 1873.)
Louis XVI., when quietly noting down / were massacred. The affair, however, the facts of his life, never dreamed that did not make much noise in Paris at the they were leading up to a great tragedy. time, and the people who were sipping This is the way in which he chronicled coffee on the Boulevards heard naught of political events – “Departure of the Abbé the matter till next day. Terray. Bed of justice at Paris ; dined On the 20th of June, 1791, occurs at La Muette ; slept at Versailles. March “ Nothing," though his Majesty must 20, 1778, presentation of deputies from have been very busy making preparations America." In April, 1781, “Comedy, re- to fly in the direction of Metz, and his treat of M. Necker," and so on. A good army, where Bouillé was waiting for deal is said about the weather, which was him. His attempted escape is thus often so bad as to prevent the King from briefly jotted down :going out to hunt or shoot, though even! Tune 21. Started at midnight from Paris. when it was fine his Majesty now and | Arrived and arrested at Varennes in the Arthen had what would certainly be reck-gonne at II P.M. ened nowadays poor sport. On the 3rd June 22. — Departure from Varennes at five of October, 1791, we find that he slaugh- or six in the morning; breakfasted at Saintetered three pheasants. In November, Ménéhould; arrived at Châlons at ten; supped 1784, a squirrel; on another day, three and slept there. squirrels ; an another, one fox ; and on. June 23. — The mass was interrupted in ore the 20th of March, 1783, a dog. His
His der to hasten the departure; breakfasted at Majesty also shot swallows, and on the
Châlons, dined at Epernay; found the Com28th of June, 1784, he is credited with
missioners from the Assembly at the Binson
gate. Arrived at eleven at Dormans; supped having killed 200 of these birds ; but this there and slept for three hours in an armchair. is probably a misprint, as on no other June 24. – Left Dormans at half-past seven; day does he seem to have killed more dined at La Ferté-sous-Jouarre; reached Meaux than a dozen. The word “rien” often at eleven; supped and slept at the bishop's occurs in the diary, and in the most palace. ridiculous manner. Thus, the King June 25. — Quitted Meaux; arrived at Paris writes: "Nothing: remonstrances of without stopping at eight o'clock. Parliament.” “Nothing; oaths of M. de
June 26. — Nothing at all. Conference with Malesherbes.” “Nothing ; illness of my
the Commissioners of the Assembly. I took
some whey. youngest daughter, which prevented me from hunting.” “ Nothing; death of M. The King noted down with great mide Maurepas." “ Nothing ; death of my nuteness his personal expenditure, and mother-in-law, the Empress Maria The-| all his gains and losses at play are careresa." “ Nothing; sermon,” &c. The fully recorded. On one occasion he explanation is that “rien" meant simply appears to have lost with his associates that there was no hunting or shooting, 36,000 livres at lansquenet at Marli, and and when this was the case his Majesty on the whole his Majesty was not a winfelt grieved.
ner: probably he did not cheat at cards In July, 1790, when as Carlyle would say, as Napoleon did after him. His housethings were growing shrill, the King hold expenditure is chronicled in a way wrote:- “ 19th. Reviewed federals and which would have made Frederick the troops of the line at l'Etoile; dined at Great jealous. We find 12 sous for a four; hunted the deer at the Cross of watch-glass, 7 sous for sending a watch to Montmorin. 29th. Nothing ; my aunts Paris, 2 livres 14 sous for greasing a postcame to dinner ; had a face-ache. Au- chaise, I livre 16 sous for a corkscrew. gust Ist. Mass at home. 2nd and 3rd. The most prominent item for the table is Idem. 4th. Medicine; hunted at the pork, and there are days when his Majesty Cross of Montmorin. 6th. Nothing ; must have devoured black-pudding wholeVichy waters. 28th. Medicine; end of sale. If Louis XVI. was careful, howVichy waters; mass as usual.” March ever, in registering unimportant items, began badly.“ 4th. Nothing ; began to that did not hinder money from being get fever. 5th. Nothing. 6th. Took an spent at Versailles with a prodigality that emetic; mass in my bed ; got up after-| baffled the resources of even De Calonne's wards."
fertile mind. The King's civil list was We should have mentioned that on the considerably larger than that of the EngI4th of July, 1789, the King entered the lish monarch, and his Majesty's brothers simple word “Nothing," though it was were always dipping their fingers into upon that date that the Bastile fell, and the Treasury. The Comte de Provence, that old De Launay and its defenders afterwards Louis XVIII., one day re
ceived 200,000 livres, on another 450,000 ; j wards betrayed where the iron chest was and 5,000,000 was invested to furnish him concealed, often occurs, and his Majesty with an income of 500,000 livres, which gave the son 3,000 livres to set him up in appears to have been insufficient, as he business. Louis XVI. also seems to afterwards received 1,800,000 more. The have paid large sums for diamonds for Comte d'Artois, afterwards Charles X., the Queen to Bohmer, who parted with was even more prodigal than his brother, the celebrated diamond necklace to the and the King's aunts received consider- Cardinal de Rohan. Another curious able sums out of the Treasury.
entry not explained is 12,000 livres to There are a few items in the King's Madame de Cavaignac for her son ! private expenditure worth noticing; for This diary was in all probability simply instance, various sums of money given to meant as a book of reference for private Beaumarchais, whose “Mariage de Fi- use ; but though that circumstance may garo" hurried on the Revolution and was be remembered, the publication of his disapproved by the King. The name of diary will not fail to lower the unfortuGamain, the King's locksmith, who after-I nate King in popular esteem.
SCOLDING. — Scolding is mostly a habit. I spect of the vicious or depraved qualities of There is not much meaning to it. It is often his nature. There is in the latter case far more the result of nervousness, and an irritable con- scope for oratorical candour, and we can condition of both mind and body. A person is ceive few more cmbarrassing positions than tired, or annoyed at some trivial cause, and that occupied by the correspondent of the forthwith commences finding fault with every- Orcadian at Walls on “Sabbath, the end of thing and everybody in reach. Scolding is a March.” On that occasion the Rev. Mr. Keilhabit very easily formed. It is astonishing lor, the minister of the parish, introduced into how soon one who indulges in it at all becomes one of his prayers the following “special peti. addicted to it and confirmed in it. It is an tion,” which the unfortunate correspondent unreasoning and unreasonable habit. Persons reports “as nearly verbatim"as he can rememwho once get into the way of scolding always ber:-“May that person in our midst," prayed find something to scold about. If there is the Rev. Mr. Keillor, “who has from time to nothing else, they fall a-scolding at the mere time been sending forth unsought-for tidings absence of anything to scold at. It is an ex-to the public, be restored to his right frame of tremely disagreeable habit. It is contagious. mind, and released from that state of mental Once introduced into a family, it is pretty cer- derangement which makes him seek after pubtain in a short time to affect all the members. lic notoriety. May he be granted that charac. People in the country more readily fall into ter which he would make us believe that he the habit of scolding than people in town. possesses, but appears to be devoid of," &c. Women contract the habit more frequently At this point, the correspondent of the Or. than men. This may be because they live more cadian appears to have ceased taking a shortfrequently in the house, in a confined and hand report of the reverend gentleman's prayer, heated atmosphere, very trying to the nervous but from the extract already given it seems to system and the health in general; and it may be, have been a most able and damaging supplica. partly, that their natures are more susceptible tion, doing great credit to the Rev. Mr. Keil. and their sensitiveness more easily wounded.” lor's powers of invective. The only objection
we know of to the employment of public prayer as a medium for these attacks is that the object of them might at the conclusion of the prayer
retaliate by a slashing “response," and the THE practice of preaching at a member of proceedings of divine service might then perthe congregation is, it is said, not altogether haps assume too much the appearance of a unknown among the English clergy, but the parliamentary debate.
Pall Mall. power exercised by them in this respect is evidently as nothing compared to that possessed by their brethren the Presbyterians. The custom of extempore prayer places in the hands of the Scotch minister a still more effective MR. CARLYLE is reported to have spoken of weapon than that wielded by the Anglican the Dublin University Bill as “an amorphous clergyman, inasmuch as it must be less painful botch, out of which nothing endurable can ever to a hearer to be preached at than to be made be made."
Pall Mall. the subject of a prayer of intercession in re