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his guidance, supposing the power of do- | both by Mr. Estlin and myself, with full ing so to be congenital. For, his father knowledge of the interest attaching to such being a farmer a few miles out of Bristol, observations; and every fact I have stathe was accustomed to go about by him-ed remains as distinctly impressed on my self in the farmyard, where he made mind at the distance of more than forty friends with every one of its inhabitants, years, as if it had only happened yesterday, and picked up from the labourers as the image of Jemmy, in his red frock, very inproper accomplishment, -- that of and with his still redder legs, being more swearing most horritly. He was so vivid than any other reminiscence of my strong, that it was necessary for the per- early professional life. formance of the operation that his body | Putting aside those purely-reflex acshould be bound down upon a table, and tions which do not depend upon Conthat each of his limbs and his head sciousness (such as the acts of breathing should be held by a separate assistant. I and sucking), I do not call to mind any remember that I had charge of his head, other Instinctive action of the Human which I found it impossible altogether to Infant that is prompted and directed by prevent him from rolling from side to side; a Sense-perception, than its attempt to whilst his roars and curses seem even find the breast of its mother or wet-nurse, now ringing in my ears. The operation, under the guidance of its sense of Smell. performed with consummate dexterity, – A curious experiment on this guidance is the handle of the cataract-needle being recorded as having been made by Galen; left by Mr. Esthin to “play” between his who placed a Kid just dropped near three fingers, as Jemmy's head would move in basins, one containing wine, another honspite of my strongest efforts to restrain ey, and a third milk; the kid, after smellit, — was entirely successful. In a few ing at the first and second, passed on to days both pupils were almost clear; and the third, which it immediately began to it was obvious from his actions that he drink. It is well known to those who had distinct visual perceptions. But have had a judicibus training in Nursery though he clearly recognized the direction management, that an infant will sleep of a candle or other bright object, he was much better, and will awake at longer inas unable as an infant to apprehend its tervals away from its mother or wetdistance; so that when told to lay hold of nurse, than it will when reposing with a watch, he groped at it, just like a young her ; the “smell of the milk” acting as child lying in its cradle. It was very the excitant to the instinctive search for gradually that he came to use his sight it, just as the Hen's call, or the Ewe's for the guidance of his movements : and bleat, brings her offspring to her. Mr. when going about the house at which he Spalding's experiment upon this last was staying in Bristol, with which he had point is an interesting addition to our familiarized himself before the operation, previous knowledge. “Chickens hatched he generally shut his eves, as if puzzled and kept in the bag for a day or two, rather than aided by them. When he when taken out and kept nine or ten feet came up to Mr. Estlin's house, however, from a box in which a hen with chicks he would show that he was acquiring a was concealed, after standing for a minconsiderable amount of visual power ; ute or two, uniformly set off straight for and it was his favourite amusement there the box in answer to the call of the hen, to blow about with his breath a piece of which they had never seen, and never bewhite paper on the surface of a dark ma-fore heard. This they did, struggling hogany table, round and round which he through grass, and over rough ground, would run, as he wasted the paper from when not yet able to stand steadily upon one side to another, shouting with glee at their legs." Even hooded chickens tried his novel exploit. Nevertheless, when to make their way towards the hen, obhe returned home to his father's house viously guided by sound alone. So, on and farm-yard, his parents (very intelli- the other hand, a turkey only ten days gent people) assured us that he was for old, which had never in its life seen a some time obviously puzzled by his sight, hawk, was so alarmed by the note of a shutting his eyes as he went about in his hawk secreted in a cupboard, that it fled old way; though whenever he went to a in the direction opposite to the cupboard new place, he was obviously aided by his with every sign of terror. vision. But it was several months before! Now it may be considered perfectly cerhe came to trust to it for his guidance, as tain that no instinctive tendencies of this other children of his age would do. - Jem- protective kind exist congenitally in the my's case was very carefully observed, Human Infant. For some time after birth, it neither shows anything that can be have been recently engaged, have not called attraction or repulsion at sights or “exercised " my mind on any topic so sounds; the “ following" motion of its much as on the following:- Certain mieyes, as a candle or other bright object is nute particles of living jelly, having no waved before them, being the first indica- visible differentiation of organs, possesstion that it even sees the object; while ing neither mouth, stomach, nor memthe “start” at a sudden loud sound is the bers, save such as they extemporize, and first indication that it possesses the sense living (as it would seem) by simple abof hearing. The very young infant, as sorption through the "animated spider'sProf. Bain was (I believe) the first to web” into which they can extend thempoint out, does not “wink," either at loud selves, build up “tests” or casings, of the and sudden sounds, or when an object is most regular geometrical symmetry of so moved towards the eyes as to threaten form, and of the most artificial constructhem with injury. The movement of tion. Suppose a Human mason to be put winking which is obviously protective, is | down by the side of a great pile of stones not called forth through the sight until of various shapes and sizes, and to be told a comparatively late period ; although to build a dome of these, smooth on both sounds which make the infant “ start” surfaces, and to use the least possible usually make it "wink" also. The for- quantity of a very tenacious but very mer is probably experiential; but, as Mr. costly cement in holding the stones toDarwin remarks ( Expression of the gether. If he accomplished this well, we Emotions,” p. 39)” it is obviously impos- should give him credit for great intellisible that a carefully guarded infant could gence and skill. Yet this is exactly what have learned by experience that a rattling these little "jelly-specks" do on a very sound near its eyes indicated danger to minute scale; the “tests "they construct, them; but such experience will have been when highly magnified, bearing comparislowly gained at a later age during a long son with the most skilful masonry of series of generations; and from what we | Man. From the same sandy bottom, one know of inheritance there is nothing im- species picks up the coarser quartz-grains, probable in the transmission of a habit to cements them together with phosphate of the offspring at an earlier age than that iron (!) which must, be secreted from at which it was first acquired by the par- their own substance; and thus constructs ents."
a flask-shaped “test," having a short neck The Physiologist has been accustomed and a single large orifice. Another picks to apply the term Instinctive to those up the finer grains, and puts them togethAutomatic actions in which a certain er with the same cement into perfectly movement or series of movements is per- spherical “tests" of the most extraordiformed at the prompting of Sensations, | nary finish, perforated with numerous without any training or experience, and small pores disposed at pretty regular inwithout (as he presumes) any intentional tervals. Another selects the minutest adaptation of means to ends; whilst he sand-grains and the terminal points of characterizes as Intelligent such actions sponge-spicules, and works these up toas originate in the Ego's idea of the pur-gether, - apparently with no cement at pose, and are consciously directed by him all, but by the laying” of the spicules,to its attainment. This distinction, which into perfect spheres, like homeopathic leaves the question open, as regards each globules, each having a single fissured species of animal, what part of its life-l orifice. work is Instinctive and what is Rational, Here, then, is most distinct evidence of is generally not difficult of practical appli- selective power ; and the question forces cation ; what is required to differentiate itself upon us, -- by what instrumentality the two kinds of action in any case, being is it exercised ? Is this selection made a careful study of the habits, not only of intentionally, as it would be by the Huthe Individual but of the Race,- so as to man artisan? We can scarcely conceive separate what is uniform from what is that what seems a homogeneous jellyvariable, what is done without experience speck should be possessed of Psychical from what is only learned by experience. endowments of so high a character. Is
But there are certain cases in which it it made mechanically? It seems equally not only seems impossible to draw this difficult to conceive that so artificial an line, but in which it seems equally difficult operation can be performed by a mechanto assign the actions to one category or ism so simple. I have often amused mythe other.
self, when by the sea-side, with getting a The Deep-Sea researches on which I | Terebella (a Marine Worm that cases its
body in a sandy tube) out of its house, substance of many of them being trav. and then, putting it into a saucer of water ersed, like that of Dentine, by closely-set with a supply of sand and comminuted parallel tubuli not 1-10,00oth of an inch shell, watching its appropriation of these in diameter. Now, surely the formation materials in constructing a new one. The of these shells by a process of growth, is extended tentacles soon spread them- not one whit less marvellous, or less diffiselves over the bottom, and lay hold of cult to account for, than the building up of whatever comes in their way, “all be the sandy " tests." But what scientific ing fish that comes to their net,” — and Physiologist, however decided his belief in in half an hour or thereabouts, the new a First Cause, would think it a sufficient tube is finished. Now here the organiza- account of the production, either of these tion is far higher; the instrumentality beautiful Shells, or of the human Dentine obviously serves the needs of the animal, they resemble, that “God hath made and suffices for them ; and we character- them so"? It is obvious that the conize the action, on account of its uniform sistent carrying-out of such a philosophy ity and its un-intelligence, as Instinctive. would abolish Science generally, as comBut what are we to say of the far higher pletely as Palæontology would be abol. work, performed by the simplest possible ished by the adoption of that old method instrumentality of our Arenaceous Fora- of accounting for Fossil Remains which minifers? The minute types which I has been revived of late by Mr. Gosse, have found at present living in our sea-viz, that they were created in the place depths are mere Lilliputians in compari- and condition in which we find them, and son with the spheres of the size of a never really formed parts of living organsmall cricket-ball, which Geologists at isms.– There is, as it seems to me, no work upon the Green-sand near Cam-half-way house. Either we must have bridge used to kick about as mere Inor-limmmediate recourse to the First Cause ganic concretions, but which I have in every instance, in which case we rest shown to be gigantic types of the same in it; or else we must seek to connect group, composed of concentric spheres of every phenomenon with its Physical a wonderfully complicated structure, all Cause, so as to frame a scientific concepmost artificially built up of fine sand- tion of the Order of Nature. grains.
Let us now pass from the creatures The easiest way of accounting for these which show us by how simple an instrufacts, is doubtless to attribute the elab- mentality the most marvellous results can orate mason-work of each of our “jelly-be wrought out, to the Class of Insects, specks" to the direct prompting of the in which a wide range of Instincts (i.l. Creative Mind: in other words, to say of congenital tendencies to Sensori-motor that the jelly-speck has no powers, either action) manifests itself in connection with conscious or unconscious, of its own. a most elaborate mechanism. Although But all Men of Science, from Bacon it may be argued in the case of Hive-bees downwards, have deprecated this as an (on whose life-history our notions of the utterly unscientific mode of dealing with range of Instinct are chiefly founded), such questions; for the hypothesis leaves that the extraordinary perfection of our knowledge of the method on which their workmanship, and the uniformity the Creator works, through the instru- of the course they take under each mentality of these simple creatures, just of a great variety of contingencies, where it was ; and this method is pre- are to be accounted for by the expericisely what it is the province of Science mental acquirement of knowledge, proto investigate. Thus in the somewhat gressively improved, and transmitted parallel case of the direction of the roots | from one generation to another, this canof Plants towards a source of moisture, not possibly be admitted in the case of - at some distance, it may be - a refuge certain of the Solitary Bees. For with refor ignorance was formerly found in gard to these it may be positively affirmed, characterizing the act as “instinctive ;" that the offspring can know nothing of but this did not help the matter in the the construction of its nest, either from least ; and the study of the Physical its own experience, or from instruction Cause of that direction has given the communicated by its parent; so that clue to a rational explanation of it. when it makes a nest of the very same
But further, other types of deep-sea pattern, we can account for it only in one Foraminifer produce true shells, of singu- of two ways,- either that it is acting as lar beauty and symmetry of form, and of a machine in accordance with its Nervous great elaborateness of structure; - the organization, or that its actions are directly prompted by "an over-ruling mind that if there is a want of queens for the or purpose" outside itself. Now there is outgoing swarms, the bees themselves seno more reason for having recourse to a lect some of the worker-larvæ, enlarge Deus ex machina in the case of the nest their cells, feed them with the peculiar of the Carpenter Bee, than there is in food called “royal jelly," and incubate that of the building-up of the organism them for a longer period; with the effect which makes that nest. The latter is at that, after going through its transformaleast as marvellous as the former, and as tions, the grub comes forth a “queen” much an evidence of Design somewhere. instead of a “worker." Now her instincts But it need not detract from the belief in are even more changed than her obvious that design as the ultima ratio of the Uni- organization, and the change in these verse, to attribute the nest-building In- instincts must be partly attributed to the stinct of the Carpenter Bee to the play of excitation of new forms of Sensori-motor its Nervous organization as its immediate activity, by the new stimulus originating physical antecedent, or to believe that this in the Reproductive apparatus. But that nervous organization has come to be what the Nervous System partakes of the genit is, by having “grown to” the experience eral structural modification, so as to reof the Race, genetically transmitted, -as spond in certain fixed ways to the impresin the case of the Acquired Instincts set sions made upon it from within and from forth in the previous Paper. For these, without, can scarcely be questioned. supposing them to be proved, would only However this may be, it is clear that the be facts in the Order of the Universe, difference between the Conscious Life of which it is the very province of Science to the new-made Queen and that of the discover; and to evade the investigation of Worker depends entirely upon the Physithe problem, by invoking the first Cause cal conditions (food being apparently the whenever we are at fault for the second, is one most operative) under which the two about as unphilosophical as for the Phys- larvæ are respectively developed. — I iologist to rest in vaguely attributing to know no more instructive case of the rethe - Vital Principle " every phenomenon lation of Psychical to Physical conditions, of the living body which Physics or in the whole range of Comparative PhysiChemistry cannot at present explain. ology.
That even Insects can learn by experi- The relation of Instincts to general orence, is obvious to those who have stud-ganization is further shown in the entire ied the actions of Bees when they have diversity which exists in most Insects been newly hived; for if the hive be placed between the Instincts of the larva and among several others having similar en-those of the imago; those of the former trances, the Bees are obviously undecid- having sole reference to the acquisition ed, for the first few days, which entrance of Food, while those of the latter relate to make for ; but soon come to recognize chiefly to the exercise of the Reproductheir own, as is shown by the straightness tive function and the nurture of the Offof their flight towards it. And Sir John spring. The Larva, indeed, may be reLubbock exhibited, at the last meeting of garded as a mere active embryo, that the British Association, a Wasp which he comes forth from the egg in an extremely had “tamed” to perform various actions immature condition, and then, having that indicated a purposive direction taken into itself an enormous amount of guided by its individual experience. additional nutriment, goes back (as it
But that the elaborate Instinctive ac- were) into the quiescent state, in which tions are intimately related to the general this store of nutriment is applied to the as well as to the nervous organization, in development of the organs that characthese most remarkable groups, is shown terize the perfect Insect. Every schoolin the diversity between the sexual and boy that has kept Silk-worms knows all the non-sexual (neuter) individuals of the about the pairing of the Moths when they same species, –as, for example, the come out of their cocoons ; and nothing Hive-Bee. Every one knows that the can be in stronger contrast to the in* Queen" is the only fertile female instinct which leads to that action, than the the community; and that she differs from instinct which has prompted the spinning the "workers” not merely in the devel- of the cocoon by the Larva about to pass opment of her reproductive apparatus, but into the pupa state. The development also in the want of certain organs used by and turgidity of the bag of liquid silk obthe “workers" in the collection of pollen. viously prompts the latter, as the devel
But it is also well known that every opment of the sexual apparatus prompts "worker"-larva is a potential queen ; for the former ; but for the prompting to produce the result in each case, there must the instrumentality of which the Ego is be a concurrent special modification of made conscious of Physical impressions the Nervous apparatus, to give it effect. upon the Organs of Sense. In the case of Spiders, there is a no less The Physiologist who compares the obvious relation between the web-spin- different grades of development of the ning instinct and the possession of the Cerebrum, and the successively augmentapparatus which gives effect to it; and ing manifestations of Intelligence in the we may regard it as almost beyond doubt ascending scale of the Vertebrate series, (from the analogy of the effect of castra- can entertain no doubt of the extreme intion in higher animals), that if it were pos- timacy of the relation between these two sible to remove this apparatus, or to keep orders of facts. The tendency to perdown its development, without injury to fection among Vertebrates, indeed, alike the general organization, the development as regards bodily and mental organization, of the spinning instinct would be pre- obviously points in this direction; and vented.
we have in Man not only the greatest deTurning now from the active Articu-velopment of the Cerebrum as compared lates to the parallel series of the sluggish with the Sensori-motor apparatus, but Mollusks, we need only remark that both also the most complete instrumentality their Instincts and their Intelligence for giving effect to the purposes which seem to be of the humblest possible his Intelligence has devised. The culkind. If “an oyster may be crossed in mination of perfection in the Articulate love," he has no means of showing it ; series is, as we have seen, the high deand even where the Sensori-motor ap- velopment of the Instinctive capacities. paratus bears a more important relation A Bee may be compared to a Barrelto the merely Vegetative portion of the organ, which plays a certain set of tunes organism (as it does in the active preda- with the greatest exactness, but can do ceous Cuttle-fish), there is little that can nothing else ; while the Human organbe compared with the remarkable In- ism resembles a keyed instrument, from stincts of Insects, or that indicates the which any music it is capable of producpossession of an Intelligence comparable ing can be called forth at the Will of the to that of the higher Vertebrates.
performer. Between these two extremeS We enter upon the Vertebrate series in there is a distinct gradation of intermedia Class -- that of Fishes — whose habitate means; and the Class of Birds - the of life corresponds closely with that of Insects of the Vertebrate type — presents the highest Mollusks ; and notwithstand- us with a number of most interesting iling marked differences in plan of struc- lustrations of the combination of the conture between the nervous system of the genital Instincts of the Race with the er. two Classes respectively, there is this periential Intelligence of the Individual; much in common between them, that the former dictating, for example, the while each fundamentally consists of a general pattern of the nest, while the latSensori-motor apparatus composed of ter adapts that pattern to the peculiar Ganglia in immediate relation to the Or-conditions arising out of Human intergans of Sense, and of afferent and effer- ference. Among some of the lower ent Nerve-trunks communicating be- Mammals, again, whose Brain shows but tween the Organs of Sense and the little advance upon that of Birds, we still Nerve-Centres, and between the Nerve- find Instinct predominating, — the Beaver Centres and the Muscles, there is affording one of the most remarkable exin each a rudiment of a superadded amples of this ; and the irrationality of organ, the Cerebrum; which does Instinctive action has never, perhaps, not seem to be immediately linked been more strikingly displayed, than in with either afferent or. efferent Nerve- the actions of the tame Beaver kept by trunks, but is intimately connected with the late Mr. Broderip (one of the foundthe series of Sensory Ganglia. It is this ers of the Zoological Society) in his liseries, and not the Cerebrum, which must brary. For “ Binny” was always trying be regarded as constituting the essential to make a “dam" across the floor of the or fundamental part of the Brain ; and room, with walking-sticks, umbrellas, the Physiologist seems justified, alike by fire-irons, and the like ; and to wall himAnatomical considerations, and by the re- self in under an escritoire, by building sults of the experimental removal of the up books, clothes-brushes, &c.— How Cerebrum, in asserting it as probable, closely, on the other hand, not only the that the aggregate of the Sensory Ganglia Intelligence but the Morale of those constitutes the real Sensoriuin, through 'higher Mammals which attach themselves