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ing away the gifts of Providence, she said, for a portionless girl to give up a fortune which the man, who could not carry it to his grave, was imploring her to accept. Every one knew that Mr. Labouchere was suffering from a mortal complaint; every doctor he had consulted agreed that nothing could keep him alive beyond a few years. He was not ignorant of all this himself, and indeed had freely spoken to Katherine on the subject.
And then the old temptress drew cunningly devised pictures to the girl of hersclfj possessed of a large fortune and able to marry whom she pleased. She constantly intimidated her by saying, that if she set so little value upon money, she would take care that hers should be left to some one with more sense; until, harassed by the dread of losing all on the one hand, and, on the other, buoyed up by the idea that there was something grand in sacrificing herself for the man she loved, Katherine gave a sudden consent, and, when all was over, she began gradually to realize that, to a woman not unprincipled or hardened enough to calmly wait for the end, which Mr. Labouchere's fits of illness seemed to constantly threaten, her true position was by no means an enviable one.
At each attack Katherine, knowing how greatly in her secret heart she desired the sufferer's death, was seized with misgivings, grew anxious and nervous, and was tormented by gnawings of conscience. To still these reproaches she would devote herself to her husband by day and night; calling in every available aid, consulting each authority, carrying out the most minute suggestions, until those around her marvelled at an anxiety, which was so evidently unfeigned, as to leave no doubt that aught but love could call it forth.
In addition to her self-inflicted torments, she had to listen to Mr. Labouchere's praises, and accept his thanks and blessings, every word of which seemed to humiliate and stab her. And when, to the wonder of all about him, the invalid would begin to rally again, then Katharine's strength seemed to fail, her spirits began to droop, and hope would sicken and die out while contemplating visions as far out of reach as ever. It was a terrible life of struggle, although she hid the conflict from allwho saw her. But when Mrs. Dormer, feeling death drawing near, called her to her bedside and said —
"Katherine, I have left everything to you. In spite of what I used to say to urge you to a marriage which I foresaw would turn out happily, I never meant that any but you should ever possess a farthing of my money —" her misery seemed greater than she could bear, and, hiding her face in her hands, she cried out that fate had dealt very hardly with her.
But why recall these clouds now, when all their darkness has passed, and only the silver lining remains in the shape of wealth and hopes which make life again look rosy and smiling?
Mrs. Prescott's letter concluded by begging that her niece would not delay her return to London, and that immediately after her arrival she would come to her; and as this was the very thing Mrs. Labouchere longed to do, the next week saw her back again in town and driving towards her aunt's house.
From The Contemporary Review. ON THE HEREDITARY TRANSMISSION OF ACQUIRED PSYCHICAL HABITS.*
Proceeding now to inquire how far the Physiological principles developed in the previous paper • are applicable to the case of Man, we at once encounter a series of difficulties arising out of the following considerations :—(1) The Human Infant comes into the world in a far less advanced state, as compared with that which he is ultimately to attain, than the young of most of the higher Vertebrata; (2), his Congenital Instincts are much more limited in their range, sufficing only to enable him to take advantage of the food and nurture that are provided for him by others, and not enabling him in any degree to take care of himself; (3), the development of his Intelligence is relatively very slow, and is obviously guided in a great degree by the Experience of the Individual; and (4). in ultimately attaining a much higher elevation than can be even approached by the highest among the lower Animals, the Human Intelligence has the benefit of the accumulations of Knowledge and Wisdom made by all previous generations ; so that the improvement which is the result of increased capacity for thinking, is not easily separated from that which proceeds from increase of acquired knowledge.
* See Living Age, No. 1498.
Compare the Infant " mewling and puking in the nurse's arms " with the Chick, which makes its own way out of its shell by chipping it round in a circle at some distance from the large end, and speedily gets upon its legs and runs about, pecking within a few hours, at insects or other small objects; or with the Lamb, which, within a few minutes of its birth, seems to find itself quite at home in its new dwelling-place, moving from place to place with freedom and activity, and in a manner which clearly indicates that it possesses complete control over its Muscles, and is guided in the use of them by its Visual and other Senses. It is true that Kittens and Puppies are relatively less advanced; being in respect of power to use their eyes, even behind the Human infant. But this power they come to possess in a few days, and their progress both in Sensorial and in Muscular activity is thenceforth very rapid, so that they soon become capable of in a great degree taking care of themselves; a week or two sufficing to bring them up to a stage corresponding to that which is only reached by the Human infant between the first and second year.
Nothing, as it seems to me, can be a greater mistake, than for the Pyschologist to build up any argument as to the congenital or the acquired nature of Human Instincts, — especially such as depend on Visual Perception, and the regulation of Muscular Movements thereby, — on the basis of observation or experiment on the lower Animals. The question is one to be determined entirely by observation and experiment on the Human infant; for we have no more reason to affirm a priori, that, because a Chick can do so, a Human infant can judge of the directions and distances of objects, so as to be able to regulate its motions accordingly, than wc have to say that because a Lamb can get upon its legs and run about, an Infant can do the same if it would only try. The experiments recently macle by Mr. Spalding,* afford a very complete and interesting confirmation of what was previously known as a fact of observation, as to the congenital possession of this power by Birds. But, on the other hand, I do not hesitate to affirm, as the result of observations, ad hoc, prolonged through the infancy of five successive children, — and also on the basis of observations which (as I shall presently state) I had often the opportu
• MacmillarTs Magazine" for February, 1S73. LIVING AGE. VOL. II. 68
nity of making in my earlier life, in regard to the visual perceptions of older children, born blind, who had acquired sight by operation, — that the Distancejudging and Muscle-regulating power is acquired\n the Human infant by the generalization (which I believe to be for the most part unconsciously made) of the experiences it gains in the first twelve or eighteen months of its life. Mr. Spalding's deduction from the exactness with which his unhooded Chicks followed the movements of crawling insects, and the precision with which they pecked at them, — that "their behaviour was conclusive against the theory that the perceptions of distance and direction by the eye are the results of experience, of associations formed in the history of each individual life," — is, I doubt not, perfectly sound as regards the Chick; but it will not bear extension to Man.
I entirely agree with Mr. Spalding (see "Nature," Feb. 20, p. 300) that the absence of this faculty in the new-born Infant might be fairly ascribed, if we had no evidence to the contrary, to its backward general development; and that the Infant's evident possession of it when it comes to walk alone, might be simply a result of the evolution of its faculties, without any dependence upon individual experience. But there is evidence to the contrary. Having been introduced into the Medical profession by an eminent Surgeon of Bristol (the late Mr. J. B. Estlin), who had a large Ophthalmic practice in the West of England and South Wales, I had the opportunity of seeing many cases of congenital Cataract cured by operation; the condition of these children being exactly parallel in respect of Vision to that of Mr. Spalding's hooded chicks. Generally speaking, the operation was performed within the first twelve months; but I distinctly remember two cases, in one of which the subject was a remarkably sturdy little fellow of three years old, whilst the other was a lad of nine. In the latter case, however, there had been more visual power before the operation, than in the former; and I therefore present the well-remembered case of Jemmy Morgan as the basis of my assertion, that the acquirement of the power of visually guiding the muscular movements is experiential in the case of the Human infant.
Jemmy had most assuredly come to that stage of his development, which would justify the expectation that if he had his Sight, he would at once use it for his guidance, supposing the power of doing so to be congenital. For, his father being a farmer a few miles out of Bristol, he was accustomed to go about by himself in the farmyard, where he made friends with every one of its inhabitants, and picked up from the labourers a very improper accomplishment, — that of swearing most horribly. He was so strong, that it was necessary for the performance of the operation that his body should be bound down upon a table, and that each of his limbs and his head should be held by a separate assistant. I remember that I had charge of his head, which I found it impossible altogether to prevent him from rolling from side to side; whilst his roars and curses seem even now ringing in my ears. The operation, performed with consummate dexterity,— the handle of the cataract-needle being left by Mr. Estlin to "play" between his fingers, as Jemmy's head would move in spite of my strongest efforts to restrain it, — was entirely successful. In a few days both pupils were almost clear; and it was obvious from his actions that he had distinct visual perceptions. But though he clearly recognized the direction of a candle or other bright object, he was as unable as an infant to apprehend its distance; so that when told to lay hold of a watch, he groped at it, just like a j-oung child lying in its cradle. It was very gradually that he came to use his sight for the guidance of his movements: and when going about the house at which he was staying in Bristol, with which he had familiarized himself before the operation, he generally shut his eyes, as if puzzled rather than aided by them. When he came up to Mr. Estlin's house, however, he would show that he was acquiring a considerable amount of visual power; and it was his favourite amusement there to blow about with his breath a piece of white paper on the surface of a dark mahogany table, round and round which he would run, as he wafted the paper from one side to another, shouting with glee at his novel exploit. Nevertheless, when he returned home to his father's house and farm-yard, his parents (very intelligent people) assured us that he was for some time obviously puzzled by his sight, shutting his eyes as he went about in his old way; though whenever he went to a new place, he was obviously aided by his vision. But it was several months before he came to trust to it for his guidance, as other children of his age would do. — Jemmy's case was very carefully observed,
both by Mr. Estlin and myself, with full knowledge of the interest attaching to such observations; and every fact I have stated remains as distinctly impressed on my mind at the distance of more than forty years, as if it had only happened yesterday, — the image of Jemmy, in his red frock, and with his still redder legs, being more vivid than any other reminiscence of my early professional life.
Putting aside those pme\y-re/ler actions which do not depend upon Consciousness (such as the acts of breathing and sucking). I do not call to mind any other Instinctive action of the Human Infant that is prompted and directed by a Sense-perception, than its attempt to find the breast of its mother or wet-nurse, under the guidance of its sense of Smell. A curious experiment on this guidance is recorded as having been made by Galen; who placed a Kid just dropped near three basins, one containing wine, another honey, and a third milk; the kid, after smelling at the first and second, passed on to the third, which it immediately began to drink. It is well known to those who have had a judicibus training in Nursery management, that an infant will sleep much better, and will awake at longer intervals away from its mother or wetnurse, than it will when reposing with her; the "smell of the milk " acting as the excitant to the instinctive search for it, just as the Hen's call, or the Ewe's bleat, brings her offspring to her. Mr. Spalding's experiment upon this last point is an interesting addition to our previous knowledge. "Chickens hatched and kept in the bag for a day or two, when taken out and kept nine or ten feet from a box in which a hen with chicks was concealed, after standing for a minute or two, uniformly set off straight for the box in answer to the call of the hen, which they had never seen, and never hefore heard. This they did, struggling through grass, and over rough ground, when not yet able to stand steadily upon their legs. Even hooded chickens tried to make their way towards the hen, obviously guided by sound alone. So, on the other hand, a turkey only ten days old, which had never in its life seen a hawk, was so alarmed by the note of a hawk secreted in a cupboard, that it fled in the direction opposite to the cupboard with every sign of terror.
Now it may be considered perfectly certain that no instinctive tendencies of this protective kind exist congenitally in the Human Infant. For sume time after birth, it neither shows anything that can be called attraction or repulsion at sights or sounds; the "following" motion of its eyes, as a candle or other bright object is waved before them, being the first indication that it even sees the object; while the " start" at a sudden loud sound is the first indication that it possesses the sense of hearing. The very young infant, as Prof. Bain was (I believe) the first to point out, does not " wink," either at loud and sudden sounds, or when an object is so moved towards the eyes as to threaten them with injury. The movement of winking which is obviously protective, is not called forth through the sight until a comparatively late period; although sounds which make the infant "start" usually make it "wink " also. The former is probably experiential; but, as Mr. Darwin remarks (" Expression of the Emotions," p. 39) " it is obviously impossible that a carefully guarded infant could have learned by experience that a rattling sound near its eyes indicated clanger to them; but such experience will have been slowly gained at a later age during a long series of generations; and from what we know of inheritance there is nothing improbable in the transmission of a habit to the offspring at an earlier age than that at which it was first acquired by the parents."
The Physiologist has been accustomed to apply the term Instinctive to those Automatic actions in which a certain movement or series of movements is performed at the prompting of Sensations, without any training or experience, and without (as he presumes) any intentional adaptation of means to ends; whilst he characterizes as Intelligent such actions as originate in the Ego's idea of the purpose, and are consciously directed by him to its attainment. This distinction, which leaves the question open, as regards each species of animal, what part of its lifework is Instinctive and what is Rational, is generally not difficult of practical application; what is required to differentiate the two kinds of action in any case, being a careful study of the habits, not only of the Individual but of the Race,— so as to separate what is uniform from what is variable, what is done without experience from what is only learned by experience.
But there are certain cases in which it not only seems impossible to draw this line, but in which it seems equally difficult to assign the actions to one category or the other.
The Deep-Sea researches on which I
have been recently engaged, have not "exercised " my mind on any topic so much as on the following : — Certain minute particles of living jelly, having no visible differentiation of organs, possessing neither mouth, stomach, nor members, save such as they extemporize, and living (as it would seem) by simple absorption through the l; animated spider'sweb " into which they can extend themselves, buildup "tests " or casings, of the most regular geometrical symmetry of form, and of the most artificial construction. Suppose a Human mason to be put down by the side of a great pile of stones of various shapes and sizes, and to be told to build a dome of fhese, smooth on both surfaces, and to use the least possible quantity of a very tenacious but very costly cement in holding the stones together. If he accomplished this well, we should give him credit for great intelligence and skill. Yet this is exactly what these little "jelly-specks " do on a very minute scale; the " tests " they construct, when highly magnified, bearing comparison with the most skilful masonry of Man. From the same sandy bottom, one species picks up the coarser quartz-grains, cements them together with phosphate of iron (!) which must, be secreted from their own substance; and thus constructs a flask-shaped "test," having a short neck and a single large orifice. Another picks up the finer grains, and puts them together with the same cement into perfectly spherical "tests " of the most extraordinary finish, perforated with numerous small pores disposed at pretty regular intervals. Another selects the minutest sand-grains and the terminal points of sponge-spicules, and works these up together,— apparently with no cement at all, but by the ■' laying " of the spicules,— into perfect spheres, like homoeopathic globules, each having a single fissured orifice.
Here, then, is most distinct evidence of selective power; and the question forces itself upon us, — by what instrumentality is it exercised? Is this selection made intentionally, as it would be by the Human artisan? We can scarcely conceive that what seems a homogeneous jellyspeck should be possessed of Psychical endowments of so high a character. Is it made mechanically f It seems equally difficult to conceive that so artificial an operation can be performed by a mechanism so simple. I have often amused myself, when by the sea-side, with getting a Terebella (a Marine Worm that cases its body in a sandy tube) out of its house, and then, putting it into a saucer of water with a supply of sand and comminuted shell, watching its appropriation of these materials in constructing anew one. The extended tentacles soon spread themselves over the bottom, and lay hold of whatever comes in their way, "all being fish that comes to their net,"— and in half an hour or thereabouts, the new tube is finished. Now here the organization is far higher; the instrumentality obviously serves the needs of the animal, and suffices for them; and we characterize the action, on account of its uniformity and its ««-intelligence, as Instinctive. But what are we to say of the far higher work, performed by the simplest possible instrumentality of our Arenaceous Foraminifers? The minute types which I have found at present living in our seadepths are mere Lilliputians in comparison with the spheres of the size of a small cricket-ball, which Geologists at work upon the Green-sand near Cambridge used to kick about as mere Inorganic concretions, but which I have shown to be gigantic types of the same group, composed of concentric spheres of a wonderfully complicated structure, all most artificially built up of fine sandgrains.
The easiest way of accounting for these facts, is doubtless to attribute the elaborate mason-work of each of our "jellyspecks " to the direct prompting of the Creative Mind: in other words, to say that the jelly-speck has no powers, either conscious or unconscious, of its own. But all Men of Science, from Bacon downwards, have deprecated this as an utterly unscientific mode of dealing with such questions; for the hypothesis leaves our knowledge of the method on which the Creator works, through the instrumentality of these simple creatures, just where it was; and this method is precisely what it is the province of Science to investigate. Thus in the somewhat parallel case of the direction of the roots of Plants towards a source of moisture, — at some distance, it may be — a refuge for ignorance was formerly found in characterizing the act as "instinctive ;" but this did not help the matter in the least; and the study of the Physical Cause of that direction has given the clue to a rational explanation of it.
But further, other types of deep-sea Foraminifer produce true shells, of singular beauty and symmetry of form, and of great elaborateness of structure;—the
substance of many of them being traversed, like that of Dentine, by closely-set parallel tubuli not i-io,oooth of an inch in diameter. Now, surely the formation of these shells by a process of growth, is not one whit less marvellous, or less difficult to account for, than the building up of the sandy "tests." But what scientific Physiologist, however decided his belief in a First Cause, would think it a sufficient account of the production, either of these beautiful Shells, or of the human Dentine they resemble, that "God hath made them so "? It is obvious that the consistent carrying-out of such a philosophy would abolish Science generally, as completely as Palaeontology would be abolished by the adoption of that old method of accounting for Fossil Remains which has been revived of late by Mr. Gosse.— viz. that they were created in the place and condition in which we find them, and never really formed parts of living organisms.— There is, as it seems to me, no half-way house. Either we must have immmcdiate recourse to the First Cause in every instance, in which case we rest in it; or else we must seek to connect every phenomenon with its Physical Cause, so as to frame a scientific conception of the Order of Nature.
Let us now pass from the creatures which show us by how simple an instrumentality the most marvellous results can be wrought out, to the Class of Insects, in which a wide range of Instincts (<>, of congenital tendencies to Sensori-motor action) manifests itself in connection with a most elaborate mechanism. Although it may be argued in the case of Hive-hees (on whose life-history our notions of the range of Instinct are chiefly founded), that the extraordinary perfection of their workmanship, and the uniformity of the course they take under each of a great variety of contingencies, are to be accounted for by the., experimental acquirement of knowledge, progressively improved, and transmitted from one generation to another, this cannot possibly be admitted in the case of certain of the Solitary Bees. For with regard to these it may be positively affirmed, that the offspring can know nothing of the construction of its nest, either from its own experience, or from instruction communicated by its parent; so that when it makes a nest of the very same pattern, we can account for it only in one of two ways,— either that it is actings a machine in accordance with its Nervous organization, or that its actions are di