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reasoning from analogy that carries us as theirs, become permanent; so that it all along with irresistible force to attrib- only partially retracts them when the use ute to them motives like ours, with this for them has ceased. In the lowest creasole difference, that we cannot imagine tures we find organs wholly made at a mothat they notice or remember their own ment's notice, by the rapid flow of vital acts. If I see a dog vehemently devour- matter into the part that is used : in the ing food, I cannot help attributing to it a higher we find the same influx of vital feeling of hunger like ours; I find this substance extending the organs that have same hunger.in the sucking child; in the been made by previous efforts to use young cormorant gaping for food, in the them. The tentacula of the Hydra fusca whale swimming or the night-jar flying are described by Carpenter as wart-like with open mouth on the chance of catch- excrescences, lying around the orifice of ing the food it craves. I cannot stop at its internal cavity, which are extended to creatures of lower organization, at the the length of six or seven inches, when hydra, for instance, whose rapacity Car- the cavity is empty, and needs replenishpenter describes. In plants we lose sight ing. This extension, or— let me use a of the process through the slowness of word that, if less descriptive, is more sug. their movements, and the invisibility of gestive — this erection of the organs needtheir food ; but we can trace it in the ed to supply the necessities of the body, most structureless living substances, if thought of in connection with the erecwhose movements are rapid enough to be tion of the papillæ of the skin, &c.; and, visible, and whose food is sucked out of at the same time, with the flow of blood visible matter. Lionel Beale notices the to the organ whose activity is set in momovement of the structureless germinal tion in higher animals, looks as if a dismatter of the end of a placental tuft, bur-quietude or impulse which the conscious rowing, as it appears to him, into the nu- being finds moving it, and learns to call trient pabulum, not pushed from behind, desire, was the prime mover of all organbut moving forward, as he describes it, of isms. its own accord ; thence he passes on to The power that moves life everywhere the more rapid and unmistakable move- is the power of need.* By our needs we ments of the ameba.

are impelled to action ; and, to some exThe account which Carpenter gives of tent also, we compel others to help us. the ameba, though written twenty years And, on the other hand, the needs of ago, still remains profoundly interesting. others, whether uttered in words or in The amaba is simply a viscous drop, or deeds, or in dumb show, claim our aid enfilmed jelly speck. Though structure- with a force which we cannot resist. less, without a ciliated surface, internal Want everywhere a power. Weakness currents move rapidly in it, and even pro- has its claims, suffering, that is conscious pel it. By its motion the chances are in- want, has its undoubted claims, and its creased of its coming in contact with nu-appeals cannot be resisted; but we have triment: when it does so it spreads itself seen, in the case of the embryo in the around the nutritive matter, and envelopes womb, or in the egg, that unuttered, or it. “ It is interesting,” Carpenter says, as we label it the best of our knowl" to see a creature thus manifesting the edge, unconscious need has also its peculiar nisus of animal development, claims, and is also a power. making as it were a stomach for itself

, by The child's cry is, at first, perhaps as wrapping itself round its food.” Next in unconscious as the sighing of the wind advance we find the Rhizopods throwing in the casement, or the moan of a door out processes from their mass which seem that goes heavily on its hinges; yet it is to be erected through craving for food, a prayer for sympathy and help, though and seem quickened by the touch of it the child does not know it. Presently it into temporary vivacity, so that they hold comes to itself, and finds itself crying for it and drag it into the substance of their help and sympathy. Its cries are irresistbody. Next we come to the Hydra, a ible to the parent, or, failing the parent, creature with some beginnings of organ- to others that hear them. The innumeraization, but with so little vital unity, that ble life centres that make up our living it may be cut up like the sea anemone substance cannot feed or renovate theminto many bits without being destroyed. selves; but their dumb prayers impel us This creature seems to show the next to eat, and drink, and breathe, and do all progressive stage to that seen in the that they need for their renovation. If Rhizopods, in that its extended processes, put forth apparently for the same purpose

* Or, as William Law would say, hunger or desire.

any member of the body is hurt, or crip- simply a term of praise. And what do pled in its work, either from being wound- men praise or prize ? what do they count ed or overtaxed, it has the power to dear to them ? That which they feel that lay the whole frame under contribution. they possess in deficiency. And so it Swedenborg says: “Whatever the mem- has been said there is nothing that can bers of the body desire or demand from be called immutably good. What men the universal mass of the blood is ac- call good to-day because it is in demand, corded to them even if it has to come will be a drug in the market to-morrow, from the extreme boundaries of the king- and will be called bad. (See Emerson's dom.” Life is desire : it utters itself in poem of “Uriel.') Unless, says the obefforts and prayers for help.

jector, you can show me something which It may be long before prayers become the creature must always possess in painaddressed to an unseen Father. Not that ful deficiency, you cannot show me anythe rudest people are incapable of being thing that can be called the creature's imtaught to pray to a heavenly Father just in mutable good. For what is good, “that the same spirit that we do. The rudest are which all things aim at ;" *in other words, prepared for receiving the idea by the vi- that which all things lack. sion they have of parental love in their in- Is there anything which the Creature fancy, which vision, by the law of vital pro- must, as long as it continues a Creature, gress, as it remains in the memory, be possess in deficiency? There is. Is there comes gradually purified from all those any deficiency in which as long as it conlimitations which mar and obscure the tinues a Creature, it cannot acquiesce ? reality ; but as it issues at first in leading There is. It is sympathy. The good men to dream, each one of their own par- which the Creature craves; the good ents, as beings that need to be propitiated, whose attractive power must always stimit is only by a long and tortuous process ulate the Creature's activity, till life loses that men come to worship in common one all that makes it to be life is sympathy. unseen parent. A man's prayers, how- No living man can acquiesce in the ever, to whomsoever addressed, indicate feeling that justice is not done him. He his destiny. The impulse that is making wants justice done not only to his acts, man into something better makes him but to his powers, his intentions, his strive and pray for that “better ;” and good-will, just allowance made for his prayer would be a great source of strength trials, his difficulties. He wants justice if it was only for its efficacy in purifying done to his abilities; just consideration for and intensifying, and defining a man's his sorrows : and such justice must remain aim, and revealing to him his real wants. imperfect as long as sympathy is imperfect. An inventor will tell you that there is Imperfect sympathy means imperfect jusnothing like defining to yourself precise- tice ; imperfect mercy, imperfect considly the result you wish to accomplish ;eration of one's case in all its bearings, imthat when you have clearly defined your perfect education, imperfect co-operation. aim, you are often half-way to its accom- It is an imperfection in which man can plishment. But prayers are also the de- never acquiesce. Thus we find the disfinition of our desires under correction ; quietude that is the vital impulse of all they bring out the question, are my de- living nature, and that seems to have sires pure ? Do the things I cry out for made all living forms, at work in man, under my present passion satisfy that making him something better than man; permanent will which I feel in the hour and we find that this disquietude is the of passion's lull to be my own true will ? attractive power of an unseen magnet, Prayer keeps alive the salutary thought that will not let the creature rest in its that our real needs, and, consequently, isolation, but impels it ever to seek a what our Creator desires for us, is deeper wider communion. than any conscious want.

If life is an irrepressible movement But it may be asked, “Suppose a man's towards sympathy, co-operation, and comwants indicate his destiny, will he always munion, one thing is clear, it must start want what he wants now: in other words, from an unendurable isolation. The will what seems good to him now seem state of life that is ours, and still more the good to him æons hence ?A most im- state of life out of which we have risen, portant question.

must present itself to us as unendurably

isolated, and it must seem unbearable to THE IMMUTABILITY OF GOODNESS.

us to feel that we are shut out from the What is goodness ? what do men mean when they call a thing “good ?” It is

Aristotle's “ Ethics."

sympathy we crave, and we cannot but, seeking a wider sympathy. And if a condemn ourselves when we feel that we man is hard enough, or enough habituare a part of nature, and that the limita- ated to the world to have no sentitions of sympathy which excite our indig- mental feeling about the bloodshed and nation in others are our own limitations. oppression that he sees around him, yet What we hate, and call diabolical in na- he will not endure hardness or oppression ture, witnesses to the truth that a spirit towards himself or those he loves. His of love is working in us. And what is indignation is aroused, and ever will be till love? It is an impulse to fresh commun- he and those he loves are treated with ion; it is a rebellion against the limita- perfect mercy and consideration. That is tions that close us in. It would not be till he meets with perfect sympathy. love unless it was an impulse that rebelled against the limitations that im

THE UNITY OF GOODNESS. prisoned it; it would not be life unless it Perfect sympathy! Think what that was a movement that sought to find or involves ! To understand and feel the make itself new associated substance, or sorrows and joys of all others absolutely new external associations. Thus we see, as you do your own. Why, if you did this, in every living thing, a desire transcend- you would be equally present to every living its limited power of continence, strain- ing man. As men's pains and sufferings ing to grasp new life, and in its vehement are of a mere animal nature, many of them, effort to clasp the new, letting go of that to feel these would involve sympathyalready held. Here is the twofold in- equipresence to all things that live and terior motion of composition and decom- suffer. Here we arrive at the idea of one position so much talked of as constituting living sentient centre of all life, feeling all life ; but, in reality, constituting death as the things of life in absolutely true promuch as it constitutes life. For life, portions. Two beings that attained to properly speaking, belongs only to the im- this omnipresent-omniscience you will pulse to associate; the dismissal of that find could no longer be spoken of as two. already held belongs to its limitation. Their duality would cease to have a meanOwing to this limitation we find the two- ing; they would be one - the one cenfold aspect of life. That love which in tral mind. Perfect sympaihy involves the central mind we view as all-embracing, mental unity. becomes, in a limited being, twofold in Sympathy, the goodness that attracts its aspect-at once life-giving, and dead- the Creature can only have its perfection ly, lovely, and hateful. The hungry mol- in one central mind.' Hence the saying, lusc, in its craving after food, becomes a there is none good but One, that is God. deadly and horrible gulf of death to all it So that life, seen in the light of its highest lays hold of. The love of the parent consciousness, means the attracting poweagle makes it tear its prey to pieces to er of One who is drawing all creatures feed its little ones. The very passion of into communion with Himself. * love assumes the aspect of passionate hostility to all that stands in its way, or of

AGNI. pitiless cruelty to all that can be made to Perfect sympathy does not exclude but minister to the comfort of its little ones. involves purity. In attaining wider symThe love is there and growing. It is in- pathy with the wants of humanity, we atternally that motion that is drawing the tain a proportionately clearer insight into creature to communion with other living our own. Under this light those past things. The gentlest and most confiding conceptions of our wants, on which our animal, when she becomes a mother, be- present habits are formed, appear alloyed comes surely fierce and suspicious to all with error, that is, impure.f Dyaus is who hover round its little ones. Her love Agni : Light is the purifier. It purges that is on the concave side the signature us by convicting us of impurity. A man of the parental love of God, is on its out- feels that he is not pure ; the passions side dark. That which is (in respect of that hold temporary sway over him slink what it embraces) the chosen type of all that is merciful, is (in respect of what it It may be said this central mind — this perfect symrepels) the chosen type of that is terrible. pathy— lies beyond the reach of our conception and of

That these limitations of sympathy medium. And such a medium nature supplies: she present themselves to us at once as nega- shows us the Parent, and so suggests to us the unseen tions of God and as unendurable, are in eternal Parent; the only aspect under which we are reality a token that an impulse works in capable of loving and worshipping our Creator.

† I do not restrict the word pure to its sense of us which will not let us rest but in chaste, but use it in its original sense of free from alloy. away ashamed at those times when he past relations which we expect to find in feels, in all its force, the divine dissatis- brutes, but which we do not expect to faction which comes from the vision of find in man. We punish a man for these an unattained better. I am thankful to acts; we say he deserves punishment for see that this work of the purifier is no them. Why? because we believe that if providential accident, but a latent proper- he is really the rational being he appears, ty of life. Our mind is formed not only we shall

, by punishment, make him perby the reminiscences which it retains, ceive the horror these acts cause us, and but by the things that it forgets. A thing that so we shall awake him to a sense of or person remembered becomes more or those past relations that make them hateless transfigured, so that the ideal world ful. that is in man's mind is by no means a I have not gone so fully as I could looking-glass reflection of what he sees. wish into this question of the existence of So far as he is young and healthy, he re-evil. But if we think of our Creator as tains only that in the past which strength- now creating the world, and creating it ens and cheers his mind, and quickens through us by making us unable to acquihis reforming or creative power. Thus esce in our present state, we shall find he gains and transmits an ideal heritage, evil the name we give to those conditions and thus the best formed children enter that have become intolerable to us. Such life with an ideal world in their mind with evil, so far from being a negation of a which some things in the outward world good God, is the only thing that can rencorrespond and are welcomed like native der a good God visible to us, for He can things, while others fail to correspond, only show Himself good by doing good, and seem strange and unnatural. But that is by destroying evil. The only who, with Wordsworth's great ode on point where Natural Theology clashes their library shelves, can want a descrip: not with Christianity;- no, God forbid; tion of this matutina cognitio. Granted but with orthodoxy,' is in this. Orthoper contra that we see reversions to the doxy views the Creator as rectifying a sower nature from which we are receding: world that was originally made perfect, Still we are receding from it — the old but has since gone out of gear. Natural man is growing weaker the new man is Theology views Him as gradually creatslowly, very slowly, with frequent periods ing a better world than has been yet of reversion and temporary outbursts of seen. Under the first view, I confess, the old wild blood, still advancing. Life the existence of evil seems to me a neis working itself clear.

gation of Omnipotence. Under the sec

ond view evil is the only groundwork on EXISTENCE OF EVIL.

which the antagonistic ideas of omnipoWhat is that evil which we cannot tol- tence, or love, or God, or goodness, or erate, but strive to subdue in the outer righteousness can be rendered palpable world? Are we to debit the Creator with to human vision. If we once take in the it? On the contrary it is non-creation ; idea that the world is not madı, but that it is chaos that excites our indignation. the Creator is making it through us; Our pain arises from a view of the non-making us dissatisfied with the world realization of that which our Creator im- around us; making us condemn our prespels us to realize. In one sense, then, ent social, mortal, animal state as evil God does not create evil; for evil is that as a state in which it would be shameful unendurable sense of the non-completion to sink down into sensual enjoyment - I of the Creator's work which urges us to will not say that all the difficulties which activity. And in another sense again encompass the question vanish, but I God of his very goodness creates subjec- think we see daylight through them. tive evil. He makes that which was once

GEORGE DOYLY Snow. good become to us evil — that is, something to overcome. Acts that are perfectly blameless and harmless in brutes, become hateful and abominable in man, simply by reason of his crescent humanity.

From Blackwood's Magazine. Táke' for instance, acts of ingratitude and

THE PARISIANS. incest. These acts become vicious in man simply because they show an oblivion of * Between reformation and creation I can make no

CONFORMABLY with his engagement to distinction.

meet M. Louvier, Alain found himself on

BY LORD LYTTON.

CHAPTER V.

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the day and at the hour named in M. / would have contented an American. And Gandrin's salon. On this occasion Ma- how radiant became Louvier's face, when dame Gandrin did not appear. Her hus- amongst the entrées he came upon laiband was accustomed to give dîners tances de carpes ! “The best thing in the ď hommes. The great man had not yet world,” he cried, “and one gets it so selarrived. “I think, Marquis,” said M. dom since the old Rocher de Cancale has Gandrin," that you will not regret having lost its renown. At private houses, what followed my advice: my representations does one get now? - blanc de poulet have disposed Louvier to regard you favourless trash. After all, Gandrin, with much favour, and he is certainly when we lose the love-letters, it is some filattered by being permitted to make consolation that laitances de carpes and your personal acquaintance."

sautés de foie gras are still left to fill up The avoué had scarcely finished this the void in our hearts. Marquis, heed little speech, when M. Louvier was an- my counsel ; cultivate betimes the taste nounced. He entered with a beaming for the table ; that and whist are the sole smile, which did not detract from his im- resources of declining years.

You never posing presence. His flatterers had told met my old friend Talleyrand -ah, no! him that he had a look of Louis Philippe ; he was long before your time. He cultitherefore he had sought to imitate the vated both, but he made two mistakes. dress and the bonhomie of that monarch No man's intellect is perfect on all sides. of the middle class. He wore a wig, He confined himself to one meal a-day, elaborately piled up, and shaped his whis- and he never learned to play well at kers in royal harmony with the royal wig. whist. Avoid his errors, my young Above all, he studied that social frank- friend - avoid them. Gandrin, I guess ness of manner with which the able sov- this pine-apple is English - it is ereign dispelled awe of his presence or perb.” dread of his astuteness. Decidedly he

“ You are right

a present from the was a man very pleasant to converse and Marquis of Hto deal with — so long as there seemed to 66 Ah ! instead of a fee, I wager. The him something to gain and nothing to Marquis gives nothing for nothing, dear lose by being pleasant. He returned man! Droll people the English. You Alain's bow by a cordial offer of both ex- have never visited England, I presume, pansive hands, into the grasp of which cher Rochebriant ?” the hands of the aristocrat utterly disap- The affable financier had already made peared. “Charmed to make your ac- vast progress in familiarity with his silent quaintance, Marquis - still more charmed fellow-guest. if you will let me be useful during your When the dinner was over and the séjour at Paris. Ma foi, excuse my blunt- three men had re-entered the salon for ness, but you are a fort beau garçon. coffee and liqueurs, Gandrin left Louvier Monsieur, your father was a handsome and Alain alone, saying he was going to man, but you beat him hollow. Gandrin, his cabinet for cigars which he could my friend, would not you and I give half recommend. Then Louvier, lightly patour fortunes for one year of this fine fel- ting the Marquis on the shoulder, said low's youth spent at Paris ? Peste ! what with what the French call effusion,“My love-letters we should have, with no need dear Rochebriant, your father and I did to buy them by billets de banque !Thus not quite understand each other. He he ran on, much to Alain's confusion, till took a tone of grand seigneur that somedinner was announced. Then there was times wounded me; and I in turn was something grandiose in the frank bourgeois perhaps too rude in asserting my rights style wherewith he expanded his napkin - as creditor, shall I say? - no, as feland twisted one end into his waistcoat - low-citizen ; and Frenchmen are so vain, it was so manly a renunciation of the so over-susceptible fire up at a word fashions which a man so répandu in all take offence when none is meant. We circles might be supposed to follow; -as two, my dear boy, should be superior to if he were both too great and too much such national foibles. Bref, I have a in earnest for such frivolities. He was mortgage on your lands. Why should evidently a sincere bon vivant, and M. that thought mar our friendship? At my Gandrin had no less evidently taken all age, though I am not yet old, one is flatrequisite pains to gratify his taste. The tered if the young like us pleased if we Montrachet served with the oysters was can oblige them, and remove from their of precious vintage. That vin de madère career any little obstacle in its way. which accompanied the potage à la bisque Gandrin tells me you wish to consolidate

61

LIVING AGE.

VOL. II.

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