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The position of the gates also - since the western part of the south wall, and they would surely be designed with some that the precincts of the Temple which regard to symmetry -- is another guide he built extended over the sites of Solto the selection of the oldest part omon's Temple and Solomon's palace, as of the work. Now, without going into also over the space near those buildings details, we may say that the evidence of in the south-west angle, Herod's Temthe walls is quite in harmony with the ple, in short, is thought to have had its supposition which places the first Temple north wall on the same line as Solomon's, on the summit as above described. This but to have been goo feet square, instead also is quite new evidence, like that con- of 900 by 6oo. cerning the form of the rock. If the Somewhere near the present north wall Turkish authorities had not expressly of the Sanctuary was the Pool of Bethesforbidden excavations within the Sanctu-da. There are pools in that vicinity now, ary, it would be advisable to try to find | fed, no doubt, by the same spring which the foundations of the north and south fed the Bethesda of St. John's Gospel ; but walls of Solomon's Temple. If these at present it cannot be ascertained which should be discovered on the sites where-of them, or whether any of them, is that on they are supposed to have stood, little pool. There is reason to believe that doubt could remain as to the plan of this pools which once existed in that neighbuilding; but we must wait for more lib- borhood have disappeared, and that the eral times before this test can be applied. water is now collected in newer reserIt has been ascertained, however, by ex-voirs. The Pool of Siloam remains as of amination of the ground outside the old just at the junction of the Tyropæan Sanctuary walls, and by some observa- and Kedron valleys. A fountain known tions which it was possible to make now as “the Virgin's Fount” has been within them without disturbing the ground, identified with En-Rogel, which was a that along the line which is thought point in the boundary line between Judah to have been that of the north wall of and Benjamin, as recorded in the Book the Temple, the side of a natural valley of Joshua ; it is the same En-Rogel by or an artificial ditch extended. Proba- which Ahimaaz and Jonathan* the son bly the two containing valleys of Mount of Abiathar waited on David's behalf for Moriah turned inwards and nearly met tidings of the determination of the counthere ; and advantage was taken of this cil of Absalom's rebellion ; and it is that circumstance by connecting the two with at which Adonijaht slew sheep and oxen a ditch. Some part of the rock on this when he laid claim to the kingdom. This ditch side is known to be scraped — that is a very recent discovery, due to the is, cut to nearly a vertical plane. All survey which noted the rock Zoheleth, this favours the idea that the wall of Sol- and so led to the identification of the omon's Temple stood here.
fountain. The pools of Solomon were But there is a portion of the present supplied from a fountain at Hebron, and south wall which is, there can be no they again supplied water to the city. doubt, as old as the walls which have Two aqueducts by which the water was been suggested as being the east and conveyed have been traced. One is west walls of the Temple enclosure. If quite useless now, and the other of but the south wall of the ancient Temple was little use. From the great number of 300 feet away from this wall, what can channels and cisterns which have been this wall have been? The answer is that discovered, it is clear that the Holy City it was probably the wall of Solomon's was once very well supplied with water; palace, which is of antiquity equal to that but the aqueducts have been destroyed, of the Temple. The former building may or suffered to fall to decay, and the cishave been built a little below the brow of terns have been turned to the vilest uses. the hill although the latter might not — The very soil has been so poisoned by indeed, if we suppose the Temple on the impurities, that a scratch or a cut on a plateau of the summit, there is no place workman's hand would not heal for a long near it for the palace without going a time ; and as for the water, it is in many little down the hill. But if the palace places so contaminated by the neighbouroccupied only a portion — to wit, the hood of the drains as to be offensive to south-east angle - of what is now the the taste. Sanctuary, how comes it that the Sanc- The ancient articles brought to light tuary is now a rectangle with a continu- by the exploration were but few. They ous south wall running right across ? Well, the supposition is that Herod built* 2 Samuel, xvii. 17. t Kings, i. 9.
were principally lamps and vases, weights, them down-bring down, that is, some of bronze figures, and sepulchral chests. the finest and most massive masonry in The seal of Haggai the son of Shebniah the world, which rested on the rock, by was found in the rubbish of the Tyropæan removing some of the rubbish which had valley, at a depth of 22 feet. But of the accumulated beside it! Captain Warren few articles found, it is remarkable that was, however, even with the intelligent hardly any are Jewish. A great mass of Pacha as far as examining the walls went, details has been given, which, though as as we shall see directly. First let us exyet they have led up to nothing positive, plain that the method of examination may, after further inquiry, be found to which Captain Wilson, when he made contain the keys to many disputed ques- the survey, was not provided with the tions; for the work of the survey is not means of following, and which Captain likely to perish ; what has been done is Warren did adopt in all his principal exdistinctly recorded on drawings with di- aminations - was the rough-and-ready mensions and levels, so that the work style of mining made use of in sieges, can at any time be farther prosecuted the same being taught to all officers of without having to repeat any of the oper- Royal Engineers at the school of Miliations already registered.
tary Engineering. A well or shaft, three But while we are gratified at the clear or four feet square, is commenced, and unquestionable results of these en- and as soon as it has been excavated terprises, we must not overlook the risk to a slight depth, wooden frames of a and toil by means of which they were strength in inverse proportion to the successful. Captain Warren and his as- self-supporting power of the earth, clay, sistants would seem to have been daily I gravel, or other soil, are introduced. in peril of their lives ; the climate pun- Where the ground has any tenacity at all, isled them, their work was dangerous, the first three or four feet of shaft can be and the Turkish officials continually sunk before a frame is fixed, and then thwarted them. One of these enlightened the frames can be built in one over anpersons explained to Captain Warren the other from the bottom upwards ; but as whole structure of the noble Sanctuary—the depth increases, this method becomes the very place that the Christian world impossible, and a frame has to be fixed is yearning to know even a little concern- under those already in place as soon as ing - "winding up with the information there is space dug out for it. The cases that the sacred rock, Sakhra, lies on the lor frames are in four parts, made with top leaves of a palm-tree, from the roots mortises and tenons, so that they may be of which spring all the rivers of the earth; easily put together; and if the soil be and that the attempt of a Frank to pry very loose indeed, it may be necessary to into such matters could only be attended excavate one side only of the shaft, then by some dire calamity befalling the coun- to fix the half of the frame, and aftertry." From functionaries with minds wards to excavate the other side and fix thus cultivated much sympathy or aid the rest of the frame. The series of was not to be expected ; and although cases or frames forms a strong wooden our explorers were fortified by a vizierial lining to the shaft. Any part of the linletter from Constantinople, excuses were ing liable to extra pressure may, of course, continually invented for interfering with be strengthened by screwing on addiand restricting the proceedings. The tional planks. Captain Warren appears probability that they might disturb the to have carried these shafts to a greater graves of some of the faithful was contin-depth than is usually necessary in miliually put forward as a reason for inter- tary mining, for we find him sometimes rupting the search. The orientals, it sinking 90 feet below the surface of the seems, can form no higher idea of our ground. But the art of military mining objects than that we are seeking for includes something more than making buried treasure, which, although they wells and going up and down in them; have not the energy to look for it them- it can from the bottom or from any stage selves, they cordially grudge us. The of the shaft commence and produce a vizierial letter unfortunately excepted the subterranean passage or gallery, either Noble Sanctuary from the places where horizontal or inclining upwards or downdigging was to be permitted ; conse- wards, and so give means of moving quently Captain Warren commenced op- about in the recesses of the earth. The erations outside its walls; whereupon galleries are supported by timbers and the Pacha forbade him to dig within 40 planking much in the same way as the feet of the walls, lest he should bring mines are lined. The breadth and depth
of them are kept as short as possible, l in jeopardy being Captain Warren himand there is usually no more than room self, and his most useful and adventurous for a man to crawl along in them. It chief assistant, Sergeant Birtles. The was by means of his burrowing power Sergeant, while they were examining that Captain Warren out-witted the Pacha. some vaults near the west wall of the He obeyed the direction to dig at least Sanctuary, “ clambered up a piece of 40 feet away from the walls ; but as soon wall where the stones were sticking out as he was down to a convenient depth he like teeth. At about 8 feet from the burrowed back to the wall, and then along ground one of these gave way, and he its face, so as to examine it, without the fell back with it in his arms. Luckily, Pacha being, in the first instance, at all it was so heavy that they turned in fallthe wiser. Afterwards, the limit of 40 ing, and fell together sideways ; it then feet was encroached on, little by little ; rolled over on to him, and injured him and the Pacha, when he came to know severely, so that he could barely crawl that the miners had had their will in spite out into the open air. He suffered from of him, seems to have taken the frustra- this injury for some months.” At anothtion of his orders with the philosophy of er time the same adventurous explorer a Turk, and not to have been extreme in was, by a fall of rubbish behind him, marking the distance of the shafts from blocked up without a light for two hours. the wall. But he continued to be ob- The following adventure occurred in a structive and disagreeable in a variety vault under the convent of the Sisters of of ways; and first among the difficulties Sion :with which Captain Warren had to con
I looked into this passage, and found it to tend, and which he patiently grappled
open out to a width of 4 feet, and to be full of with, was the hostile spirit of the local
sewage 5 feet deep. I got some planks, and government. Then came the morbid made a perilous voyage on the sewage for about effects of the climate, and of the air of 12 feet, and found myself in a magnificent pas. wells and tunnels in soil charged with all sage cut in the rock 30 feet high, and covered manner of impurities. The party sick- by large stones laid across horizontally. Seeing ened one after another; every one ap- how desirable it would be to trace out this paspears to have been attacked by fever; sage, I obtained three old doors, and went down some of the non-commissioned officers
there to-day with Sergeant Birtles. We laid had to be invalided and sent home ; and
them down on the surface of the sewage, and
| advanced along by lifting up the hindermost one of them died. Thirdly, there were
and throwing it in front of us. ... In some the natural difficulties of making the ex
places the sewage was exceedingly moist and plorations, which were so great and nu- very offensive, and it was difficult to keep our merous that the party may be said to balance whilst getting up the doors after they have wrought constantly in peril of their had sunk in the muck. [The earth level sudlives. The shingle, or stone-chippings, denly changed and they had to descend.] Evwas, as has been said, so loose that when erything had become so slippery that we had to once set in motion it flowed like water. exercise great caution in lowering ourselves It rushed into the shafts and galleries at
at down, lest an unlucky false step might cause a times, completely flooding the passages,
| header into the murky liquid. and threatening to overwhelm the ex- Another time Captain Warren descendplorers. Sometimes it ran away from ing from a private garden through a outside their casings, or from beneath tank's mouth found part of the aperture them in their shafts, or from before them to be so small that he could not succeed in their galleries, leaving vast and dan- till he had stripped nearly to the skin. gerous chasms; and on one or two occa- Then he found himself in a cistern havsions compelling them to leave the place ing in it three feet of water ; but on where they were, fill up their excavations, lighting up some magnesium wire, he saw and be cheated of their reward after days such a series of arches as made him of labour. And the flowing of the shingle think at first that he must be in a church. was dangerous, not only for what it could So he signalled for Sergeant Birtles to do itself: when it gave way, it allowed come down too ; but the Sergeant, after heavy stones that might have been rest- considerably injuring his shoulders in the ing on it to fall; and these thundering attempt, was unable to pass the narrow into a shaft ar gallery were anything but opening, and had at last to go and get the pleasant or harmless intruders. Scarcely owner's permission to pull down the upan excavation was undertaken without a per mouth of the shaft. This accomcontretemps that might have been a fatal |plished, he speedily got down and joined accident — the persons most frequently 'his officer, who was waiting all this time in the cistern. The Captain, however, ! place. Just here I involuntarily swallowed a while directing Birtles' steps, fell himself portion of my lead pencil, nearly choking for a over a large stone into the water flat on minute or two. We were now going in a zigzag his face. The weather was frosty, and a
tv and direction towards the northwest, and the height bath in one's clothes, as he says, not
increased to 4 feet 6 inches, which gave us a litpleasant under the circumstances. The
tle breathing space ; but at 1050 feet we were
reduced to 2 feet 6 inches, and at 1100 feet we building they were in was not a church,
were again crawling with a height of only I foot but an extensive underground area, sur to inches. We should probably have suffered mounted by groined arches resting upon more from the cold than we did, had not our many piers. Its present use is as a tank, risible faculties been excited by the sight of our but it is not yet clear whether it was fellah in front plunging and puffing through the originally so or not. In following the water like a young grampus. course of an aqueduct which they traced for 250 feet in one direction and 200 feet
One can hardly wonder that these poor in another, this was the sort of passage
men got fevers; the marvel rather is how which they had in some places to make :
. they were able to persevere at all with “Sometimes we could crawl on hands
:such work to its completion. They cerand knees; then we had to creep side
Stainly were strangely protected. Once on ways ; again we lay on our backs and
| having worked their way to the bottom wriggled along." But this was a mild
l of a well, they saw a piece of loose maaqueduct adventure compared with an
sonry (which was afterwards found to other which we quote :
weigh 8 cwt.) hanging 40 feet above their
heads. One of the feebly-held stones Our difficulties now commenced. Sergeant starting would have sent the whole mass Birtles, with a fellah, went ahead, measuring on them, and there they would have endwith tape, while I followed with compass and ed their labours, crushed and buried in a field-book. The bottom is a soft silt, with a deep enough grave, had the least thing calcareous crust at top, strong enough to bear gone wrong; but with the greatest coolthe human weight, except in a few places where ness and care they climbed up to the it lets one in with a flop. Our measurements of
using many odd means of raising themheight were taken from the top of this crust, as it now forms the bottom of the aqueduct ; the
selves, but doing all so cleverly as to mud silt is from 15 inches to 18 inches deep.
emerge unhurt. Here is another of CapWe were now crawling all fours, and thought tain Warren's escapes, quite as worthy to we were getting on very pleasantly, the water be called hair-breadth as many that make being only 4 inches deep, and we were not wet the excitement of fiction, which we canhigher than our hips. Presently bits of cab- not refrain from quoting: bage-stalks came floating by, and we suddenly awoke to the fact that the waters were rising. About a mile south of the village of Lifta, The Virgin's Fount is used as a sort of scullery on the crest of a hill, is a chasm in the rocks, to the Silwân village, the refuse thrown there about which there are many traditions, and being carried off down the passage each time which we failed to explore in the spring. We the water rises. The rising of the waters had went there last Monday, provided with three not been anticipated, as they had risen only two ladders, reaching together 120 feet, and a dockhours previous to our entrance. At 850 feet the yard rope 165 feet long. We had three men to height of the channel was reduced to i foot to assist in lowering us on the rope. The entrance inches, and here our troubles began. The water from the top just allows of a man squeezing was running with great violence, I foot in through; but as you descend the chasm opens height; and we, crawling full length, were up to out, until at 125 feet it is about 15 feet by 30 our necks in it.
Jinches. At this point is a ledge, and we rested I was particularly embarrassed : one hand ne- there while we lowered the ladders another 30 cessarily wet and dirty, the other holding a pen- / feet, to enable us to descend to the bottom, cil, compass, and field-book; the candle for the which is at the great depth of 155 feet from the most part in my mouth. Another 50 feet surface. The chasm is exactly perpendicular, brought us to a place where we had regularly to and the bottom is horizontal. Water was driprun the gauntlet of the waters. The passage ping quickly from the rocks, but ran out of sight being only I foot 4 inches high, we had just 4 at once. On the floor was a rough stone pillar, inches breathing space, and had some difficulty and near it the skeleton of an infant; close to in twisting our necks round properly. When the pillar is a cleft in the rock, very narrow, into observing, my mouth was under water. At 900 which water was running. I got down into this; feet we came upon two false cuttings, one on but it is a crevice which gets narrower and nareach side of the aqueduct. They go in for rower, and there being no hold, I slipped down about 2 feet each. I could not discover any ap- until my head was about 4 feet below the sur. pearance of their being passages : if they are, face. Here I stuck, every moment jamming me and are stopped up for any distance, it will be tighter down the cleft. Ten minutes of desDext to impossible to clear them out in such a perate struggling, and the help of a friendly
LIVING AGE. VOL. II. 54
grip, brought me to the surface again, minus a the Arabs, and was in every way qualified considerable portion of my skin and clothing. for his office. The people who did the On ascending we had some little excitement :/ work were Arabs from Siloam and Lifta, at one time the grass-rope-ladder caught fire ; villages near Jerusalem, and Nubians and at another, the men suddenly let me down nearly 3 feet, the jerk nearly wrenching the rope out
men from the city. There was, of course, of their hands.
the usual higgling about wages ; but when
this was over, it was found that the true Now and then they had a comic adven- I believers were constantly seized with an ture — as, for example, when Sergeant inclination to pray during working hours, Birtles, down a shaft and working lateral- \ although they were never seen to do so in ly through a wall, found himself in an un- | their leisure times, so that it became nederground smithy. The conscience of cessary to make a deduction from the pay the smith told him that the intruder must for every prayer, which had the effect of pe a gin come to torment him for his hard considerably moderating the religious arbargains, and he accordingly fell on his dour. One good old fellow and old fellah, knees before the apparition. It is, how-l though, did submit to the deduction, and ever, comforting to know, that of all their | ask leave regularly on Fridays to go to moving accidents in
the Mosque; and the directors cleverly Antres vast, and deserts wild,
proposed that he * should pray for all, Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads and, in consideration of so doing, receive touch heaven,
pay for the time of absence. This aronly one had at all a serious termination. rangement smoothed matters greatly. They had been making a cut some 20 feet | The wages fixed were rather high, but deep through a bank of earth that lay the officer was able to adhere to them, and against a wall of the city, and the men the men did not at all relish being sent (natives) were just getting into the exca- off the works. It was customary for the vation to set to work - only six of them sergeant to keep always enough money were dangerously advanced -- when the about him to settle with a man and disbank gave way, falling in upon the wall, charge him on the spot, if he wouldn't be and partially inhuming the six men. One obedient and work. When the offence of them was wholly buried; but before was idleness, the culprit had the choice the second slip occurred which took him of being punished with the corbatch, or from their sight, they saw for a second or being discharged, and he generally chose two his ghastly face. They were all ex- the corporal punishment. The fellahin tricated the other five with ease, but understand, Captain Warren says, the this man only after some digging; and meaning of justice, but not the power of when the latter was got out he had to be kindness. After a time they began to uncarried to his friends at Bethlehem. His derstand him, and he could always compay was drawn for two weeks ; but they mand labour at the known rates. In a could never see the man again, and were strange village the higgling would have left to conjecture either that he had not lasted a day or more, and, after all, the been much hurt and had been drawing employer would have been imposed on. pay while able to work, or that he had | The arts of these people are very cundied soon after the accident, and his ning. They practise upon Europeans, brother had concealed the death that he and act their parts so cleverly, that it remight get the pay.
quires much experience to escape being Of course the small staff sent out from taken in. Though some of them are England could do no more than direct the smart, strong men, they cannot manage various operations and keep account of barrow-work at all; wheeling seems in a them. Native labour had to be largely very short time to exhaust them altogethused, and very troublesome and inefficient er. The patriarchal feeling is still so gangs they appear for the most part to strong among them, that it was soon found have been, requiring all the skill and tact that by treating the elders with a little of the Engineers to get work out of them. consideration, a pretty stern discipline It is a remarkable fact that Jews, as work- could be maintained among the younger. men, were found to be utterly useless. Every man was searched when he came We might have added that they were use-off the works, and as another precaution less in any capacity as regarded the ex- against dishonesty, people of different plorations, had it not been that one Jew races were mixed together in the gangs. turned out a capital overseer, who admin- No thief could trust a man of another istered the corbatch in first-rate style when the men were idling, showed no fear of
* It seems that he was a descendant of the Prophet.