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ness and isolation perhaps awakens the most careful and fussy about the temperidea, and at the sight of grown creatures ature of its eggs is a creature that cannot of its own kind it recognizes the friends sit on them at all: I mean the ant. it needs. It is not magnetically drawn Many phenomena show that the bird to its own parent, but it has an idea of does not sit, as a rule, out of any pasthe parent and recognizes the parental sion for sitting. She does not continform.
ue, as a rule, to sit after her eggs are What is it again that makes the new taken. That the impulse works occasionborn creature at first sight anticipate dan-ally through inherited habit, when the ger from those things or persons that reason for it is absent, and that a broody have proved hostile to its race ? It may hen or turkey will sit hard on the bare be said, if creatures recognize at first ground does not invalidate what I say: sight things familiar to their ancestors, Only take a seat of eggs to a broody bird why may not the first step of some old sitting on the bare ground : notice how æonian sequence suggest, by association, she rushes at them and hastens to extend the second, and the second the third, and herself over them. She recognizes them so on? Why may not the bird's pairing at once as the things she craved. As a bring to its mind the nest building, and rule we may say the bird's impulse to sit that the incubation, and that the hatch-adjusts itself to the needs of the embryo ing? Wonderful as such reminiscence - it is an impulse to supply to them the would be, it seems to some, at first sight, shelter or warmth which they need. Witless wonderful than the supposition that ness the way birds relieve one another birds as well as insects provide for the in the task of sitting, and the energy with wants of the coming generation without which they avail themselves of the reliefs. knowing the purpose for which they Here the sitting is not a pleasure but a work. The bird builds, or finds, or cap- task, the pleasure is being relieved from tures, or repairs some nest or hole, or it. The need of the embryo compels the nook, not for herself, but for her eggs. service of the parent bird. As the emShe does not build at a season when she bryos need a more equable temperature, requires personal warmth or repose, or a more equable temperature is supplied; when she is shy and retiring. She builds the bird leaves its nest seldomer and rewhen she enjoys the coming spring, and turns to it sooner. when she is least shy, least timid, least Considering the elastic adjustment of retiring.*
the parent's acts to the embryo's needs, I That broodiness does not prompt her cannot wonder at the theory that the hardly needs asserting, for the desire of bird anticipates, by some innate tradition, sitting does not come on till some time the coming of its eggs and its offspring. later. She builds her nest first clearly as Only I maintain that this theory is not a deposit for her eggs. If we are asked needed to account for her acts, because what is the impulse that moves her we there are a set of acts similar to hers that can really only answer, she is impelled by cannot be attributed to anticipation of the needs of the coming generation. When results. Of those insects that make such the embryo needs warmth for its devel-careful provision for their eggs, some die opment she sits on them to give them the as soon as they have deposited their eggs, warmth they need. Audubon notices and in general, as we believe, they see that in many cases the same bird sits and know and care nothing about their laxly or assiduously according as little or eggs after they have been deposited. much heat is needed to supplement the Anticipation of an offspring that not only natural temperature. The Telegalla, or they but their ancestors have never brush turkey, does not sit at all because known or seen, instead of explaining anythe bottom heat of the great grass mound thing would only be itself an inexplicable she makes for her eggs suffices for the marvel. There are birds that know hatching. For the same reason the os- care nothing for their eggs after it is detrich does not sit by day, and the African posited — as the cuckoo — who is neverLeipoa does not sit at all, but leaves its theless careful where she deposits her eggs to be hatched by the heat of the eggs. Some birds behave in a way inconsand mound in which it deposits them. sistent with the idea that anticipation of The creature that of all others is the offspring is the inspiring motive of their
care of their eggs. I remember a hen * Audubon. That animals in seeking their own com-corncrake at Newton Valence which sat fort accidentally provide a place of shelter for their young may be plausibly affirmed of some nest-building on its seat of twelve eggs in a grass field or hole-boring mammals, but not of birds or insects. all through the mowing and haymaking
that went on all around it with no protec- trusts to a guidance, the rationale of tion from gazers except a few boughs which he cannot fathom. His feeling, which the mowers had stuck round its not his science, informs him of the exnest. It sat with a courage marvellously tent of his powers. We acknowledge the foreign to the usual nature of the bird, authority of undefinable instincts also and grew bolder and bolder as the time when we allow the unaccountable attracof hatching drew nigh.
tion of two for each other to determine Was this courage due to the anticipa- the important question of marriage. But tion of offspring? It did not seem so; we all of us acknowledge it in more ways for the moment her young were hatched than can be enumerated, and no one conand needed her less, her natural fears re- sistently denies it. When we hear it asturned, and she left them. The power serted that certain things are not to be that seems to rule the bird as well as the done — however advantageous the result insect is the need of the unborn offspring. may be — because they are of themselves What they need, that the parent is led to hateful, unlovely, unclean ; we must provide for them, without apparently any either assert that these reasons for conscious motive beyond the gratification avoiding them are all nonsense, or else of an impulse; and it seems as if this we must admit the authority of unreasimpulse was obeyed oftentimes, not as a soning impulse; of an authority within pleasure but as a duty which could not be that will not be disobeyed when, for reagainsayed.
sons we cannot fathom, it bids us do cerThat animals perform provident contain things and avoid others. structive acts without having learnt by I have given you my reasons, reader, experience how to do them, or without for thinking that before we knew anyinheriting the experience or skill which thing or could provide for ourselves, a their parents have acquired, is generally providence that was the property of our supported by reference to the instincts of life wrought for us and brought us what the sexless working bee, and other sex- was needed for our development. We less working insects. Darwin most as- were first provided for, then made to do suredly does not overlook this, but per- the things our needs required, and then haps there is a danger that his disciples by degrees came to learn providence by should overlook its bearings. The bee seeing it in actual operation, noticing not cannot have got his connate working only the things which it was impelling powers from its ancestors, because its others to do but the things which it was ancestors have not been working bees at impelling us to do, and so the same powall from time immemorial ; they cannot er that first made and sustained us, from transmit their powers to their descend- being our Maker, passed on to become ants, for they have no descendants. Nat- our Inspirer and Teacher. ural selection ought to destroy the bee's I find, as I shall show, our goodness working powers, for all the workers die and religion unfolding themselves out of and leave no seed, and only the non- our natural affection, and our natural afworkers transmit their kind. The only fections again are but an extension of thing I complain of in Darwin is that he that impulse which makes each creature dwells so strongly on the wonder of this maintain itself and its kind ; and this iminstinct. There are other instincts which, pulse again presents itself as that which with the knowledge we have of brute moves and thus makes the structureless animal nature, it is impossible to suppose protista into organized forms. were ever connected with anticipations of results in brute creatures ; I speak of NATURAL DEVELOPMENT OF GOODNESS the instinct to which the perpetuation of every sexual race of animals is due. It is scarcely necessary to say that the What do dumb beasts know or think of lowest forms of life have nothing of the the providential meaning of their act character of monads or individuals about when they propagate their race ?
them. Of what the elementary molecules Again, let me ask, what man, however of living matter may be we know nothing, wise and scientific, is not compelled to but the lowest molluscs are associations obey impulse or appetite to some extent rather than individuals ; they may be cut in order to know what to eat or what to into very small pieces, and each piece berefuse, when to eat and when to cease comes a separate association. The unifrom eating, when to work and when to ty of these creatures is a unity of co-operrest from working. As often as he does ation and sympathy; the rudest associaso, he acknowledges a providence and tions are republics not kingdoms.
The hydra, though it has a certain or- have other offspring secretly substituted ganization, may be turned inside out for her own. She is a mother to them. I without destruction to its working power, have not space to add my little contribuand may be cut into as many pieces as tion to the interesting facts with which you like and not be destroyed, but only Darwin illustrates this. The impulse multiplied by the process, and yet when which makes the mother delight in shieldits internal cavity is empty its tentacula ing and sustaining and educating the spread themselves out on the chance of little unformed creatures committed to catching any passing food, if one of these her charge is precisely on a limited scale touches a fly or water-flea it immediately that love which the Christian man attriclasps it, the other tentacula come to its butes to his Saviour and his God. And aid and coil round their prey and draw it it contains in it that expansive potentialinto the digestive cavity.* This sym- ity which needs only sufficient breadth of pathy also, as Hunter and others follow- sympathy or intelligence to transform it ing him have noticed, exists between the into that very same love which is spoken parts of plants, which are associations of by St. John as the simply convertible and not individuals.
attribute of the supreme God.* So that we may say co-operation aud Of filial love I must give the results of sympathy manifests itself almost as soon my thoughts briefly. It is at first simply as life manifests itself. In the earliest the natural craving for food, warmth, stage of life this co-operation and sym- comfort, safety. If it was merely this it pathy does not extend beyond the united would offer no aspects of sentimental portions of one isolated mass. The de- beauty; but the creature inherits mothtached bits, or buds, or globules floaterly love from its parents. A person away and draw to themselves the nour- must be unobservant who has not noticed ishment they need. As we rise in the the strength of motherly love that there scale of beings, the sympathy and help of is in girls, or even in quite little children. the parent is extended to the offspring Thus the well-formed child not only forms after the offspring has become isolated pleasant associations with its mother as from it. And it is curious to observe that the supplier of its wants, but also symin proportion as the egg or young one pathizes with her in her motherly love. needs the care and help of the parent it Filial attachment wins the name of goodgets it. The higher the grown-creature ness, because it involves parental love. is advanced in the scale of intelligence, Motherly love is the purest type of what the more it is left to provide for itself and men prize and praise in their fellow men. to learn by experience — and the more It is the most disinterested and self-sacrithis is the case the more helpless is the ficing, the most careful and considerate young creature that has not yet got its love that is ever seen in the mere aniexperience. Thus, as intelligence in- mal or in the mere animal man. The creases, the need of parental help in-mother is emphatically the supplier of the creases, and though the parental impulse creature's wants, and so she is emphatito help does not in all cases keep pace cally the creature's good. For what does with the increased demand, yet it does so goodness mean? It is important that the in some cases, and only those races con- word should not be used at all in an essay tinue and save their children in whom the like this unless it is used in a strict, unparental impulse is strong; others die mistakable, scientific sense. The word is out.
a perfectly plain one, if people would not The instinct of self-preservation in the saddle it with fanciful ideal meanings. It case of oviparous creatures seems first is simply a term of praise. It is what to extend into a love of possession. It men praise, or prize, or count dear. Men loves its eggs as its own property. This want help and sympathy, and praise those instinct, on the hatching of the eggs, finds who freely yield it. And this being the itself transformed into motherly love, meaning of the word goodness, the mawhich ever remains to man the very ternal instinct at once takes its place as purest type under which he can conceive at once the earliest and purest incarnaof the highest goodness.
tion of it. The idea of the parent dwellAnd this instinct cannot be said to be ing in the mind becomes by degrees reproperly understood if we overlook the fined and purified from all those earthly fact that it contains within it the seed of limitations that obscure it, especially after universal compassion. The mother may
* “He that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, for Gud Carpenter's “Comparative Physiology."
the parent's death. And so the soil of| Thus I find human goodness and human's nature, even among the rudest and man religion existing as a laient property most uncultivated races, is prepared to of the living substance. receive the doctrine of an all good, all provident parent, unchangingly the same. THE FUNCTION OF ADVERSITY. The love of the parent is the purest
Now, how is this parental love, the type of all goodness. It is a mercy that contains in it the seeds of justice and parent of all that we subsequently call every other social virtue. When we talk goodness in the creature, evoked ? By
those outward accidents that press on life, of a mother labouring to do justice to her and that make life, and that make life imchildren, we are not using the word jus- possible for the young without the partice in its secondary sense, but in its ent's aid. If the outward pressure on primary sense. For justice in its primary vital development was so 'feeble that form is simply motherly in its character, distributing to each what they need, what young creatures could at once maintain they can hold, and what they can profit foated away like Medusa buds from the
themselves without parental aid, and by. The fierce, passionate corrective or víndictive form of justice is secondary. then parental love and compassion, which
parent substance in perfect independence, That motherhood renders a woman un
is really the other of all virtue, or, at just to those who are not her children is no negation of what I say.. It merely ish.' The meaning of the word “mother”
least, the nurse of all virtue, would vanmeans that all those affections out of would vanish. Our worship of the Fawhich justice springs, instead of being ther would vanish, the word becoming diffused among her neighbours, are concentrated on her children. Parental love meaningless. Prayer would vanish, for then is the purest type of all goodness; Instinct, worn deep by æonian habits into
is the child's cry. It is the filial and, on the other hand, filial piety, which the creature's being, which makes man proceeds from the indwelling of the spirit capable of receiving the idea of a divine of the parent in the child, is the purest type of all religion. The antiseptic in- parent, and capable of prayer. fluence of the mother's home that
That pressure of outward adversity may
be seen banishing impurity, not only from the idea of a God, actually generated the
which some modern men say excludes the Christian man's family circle, but idea and kept it' alive in the hearts of from the Iroquois,* or modern Red Indian
We see in vital action a provicabin, and the passionate valour of the
dence. Shall we say that we mother defending her child, show that the domestic sphere is the cradle not only of providence in outward accident, even the social but of the self-asserting virtues. though such accidents should be not only I must ask my reader not to misunder: apparently but really undesigned ? Well,
at least outward accident is needed to stand me here. If I was to assert that
manifest it. the thing men emphatically praised or prized in their fellows was parental love,
THE CHRISTIAN'S PRESENTIMENT. I should not be asserting a fact. Good motherhood by no means makes a woman It will still, after all, be said by a Chrisloved or praised by her neighbours. All tian man who would otherwise approve of I assert is that parental love manifests my argument: “You say that Providence in a contracted sphere that affection is manifested in life but not in life's enwhich is called goodness when a man vironment. I grant that I cannot see it feels it not exclusively to his own chil- manifested in the accidents of life, but I dren but to his neighbours and fellow- believe that it acts through them, though citizens also. So far as man has this all- | I cannot see it.” And so do I. All I embracing benevolence and sympathy, so argue for is that we should first confine far he shows men the Father.
our attention to the place where it is unAs parental love contains the germ of mistakably visible. That is in life. Life all goodness, so Filial Piety contains the is provident in its action. germ of all religion. Our Saviour made And what do we mean by life? We His followers religious men by showing mean a certain activity resembling in its them what a Father really meant. They character that activity to which we feel learned to know and love and trust the our will impelling us. Men have probaFather in Him. That was their religion. bly learnt to call trees and plants alive
even in unscientific times, because in atLafitau.
Schoolcraft. tributing to other things certain charac
ters like our own they found no stopping mere automaton, unless I attributed acts point.
like mine to needs or desires like mine. In our fellow-men we see an activity There are certain acts common to all liv. like our own which we attribute to mo- ing things, I mean hunger-like acts; and tives like our own. In the higher quad- I trace these from the (so-called) conrupeds we see a fainter likeness to our scious man to the (so-called) unconscious own acts, and consequently a fainter infant, or the (so-called) unconscious molsuggestion of our own motives. As we lusc or plant. When I call these living approach the ruder forms, and so on to acts, I assert that I am attributing them the structureless ones, we see the resem- to motives like ours, and that otherwise blance to our own acts and the sugges- the application of the common word life tion of motives like our own rapidly ap- to us and them would be a misnomer. If proaching a vanishing point. When we you forbid me to attribute their hungerreach the colloids it vanishes altogether. like acts to hunger on the ground that The Christian man denies that the prov- they are unconscious, you are forcing me idence visible in living matter is really to do what no man can do without shutabsent from non-living. Now let me ting himself out from truth. You are show him that in this he is really not far making me draw lines of demarcation from those men whom perhaps he has where nature has drawn none. been apt to consider most opposed to I see no lines in nature : the Highest him. I do not assume that Huxley would dwells potentially in the lowest, irritabilagree with all I have said about provi- ity involves sentience, sentience involves dence. I rather hope than feel convinced consciousness and self-consciousness, that he will do so. But, at all events, and these involve — I know and can deHuxley, Bastian, and others, are really fend what I am saying - omniscience. one with me on this point. They conjec- Yes : omniscience ; for a man only knows ture that the power which from its like himself or anything else in so far as he ness to what we find in ourselves we call knows his or its relation to all other “life," is not isolated from inorganic things. nature, but is only a new phase of it. Strange to say, the only writer I know This entirely, I think, coincides with our of who, without introducing the question views that the providence which is imme- of consciousnesss, heartily accepts the diately visible in those forms of activity necessity of attributing like acts to like which are so near our own that we can motives, is William Law. He does not understand and sympathize with them, hesitate to speak of the desire or working works unseen in those forms of being will of a plant. I think he is right. It which are too remote from our own for seems to me intolerable that the introducus to understand them.
tion of consciousness should compel us to
draw a line through the animal kingdom THE POWER OF NEED.
where nature has drawn none. It is no metaphysical assertion to say It will be asked, do you attribute will that need — desiderium -- desire — pre- or desire to structureless organless jelly cedes and causes all living motions, specks ? — I say nothing about their conwhether conscious or unconscious. First, sciousness of what moves them. I only we attribute all human conscious acts to say I find that which moves us moving desires. But many of these acts which them, and I assert that I cannot draw any we attribute to desire are not the least line between consciousness and uncondependent on consciousness. We per- sciousness, or say where consciousness form them in those states which we call begins. I cannot assert that consciousunconscious. Must I no longer speak of ness or sense does not exist where the need or desire as the motive of an action, organs through which it seems to act are because it is done what we call uncon- absent, because I see living things that sciously — that is, because the actor can- are organless and structureless ; first exnot recall it? Only think what a vague temporizing, and subsequently making shadowy thing consciousness is, and by the organs they need. I see the function what imperceptible gradations it sinks - the movement to compass an endinto unconsciousness, and rises out of preceding the organ, and only gradually
, unconsciousness again. When I see acts in more highly organized beings, becomlike mine I attribute them to motives, to ing entirely dependent on the organs it needs and desires, like mine, leaving out has made. Not being able, then, to sever the question of consciousness altogether. their activity from ours, I find myself on I should look upon a fellow-creature as a the other hand forced by a current of