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specially bounde and beholdyng to the small pinnesse, which by means of the ryghte honourable Ambrose Dudley, great storme he supposed to be swalEarle of Warwicke, whose favourable lowed ' up of the sea," – imagine the mynde and good disposition, hath alwayes hardihood of taking her there — “wherein bin readye to countenance and advance he lost onely four men." The crew of all honest actions wyth the authors and the other ship, the Michael, “mistrusting executors of the same ; and so by meanes the matter, privily conveyed themselves of my lorde hys honourable countenance, away," and reached England in safety, hee recyved some comforte of hys cause, reporting Frobisher lost. Frobisher in and by little and little, with no small ex- the Gabriel stood on alone. The perilous pense and payne, brought hys cause to character of the enterprise the following some perfection, and hadde drawen to-passage from Lok's MS. will reveal, while gither so many adventurers and suche it brings out the character of Frobisher summes of money as myghte well defray in high relief: “On the 13th July, in the a reasonable charge to furnishe himselfe rage of an extreme storme, the vessell to sea withall.”

was cast flat on her syde, and being open “He prepared two small barkes of in the waste was filled with water. . :. twentie and fyve and twentie tunne In this distress, when all the men in the apeece, wherein he intended to accom- ship had lost their courage, and did displish his pretended voyage. Wherefore payr of life, the captayn, like himselfe, being furnished wyth the foresayde two with valiant courage, stood up, and passed barkes and one small pinnesse of ten alongst the ship's side, in the chayn wales, tunne burthen, having therein victual and lying on her flat syde, and caught holde other necessaries for twelve moneths pro- on the wether leche of the forsaile ; but vision, he departed uppon the sayde voy- in the weather coyling of the ship the age.” One of the little ships was named foreyarde brake.” But, says Beste, * The the Gabriell, and the other the Michaell. worthy captayne, notwithstanding these Frobisher sailed in the Gabriell. The discomfortes, although his mast was crews numbered some thirty-five hands. sprung, and his toppemast blowen away There is a narrative in Hakluyt (vol. iii. overboorde with extreame foule weather, p. 52) of the first voyage, written by Chris- continued hys course towards the N.W. topher Hall, who was master in the Ga- knowing that the sea at last must needes briell, which supplies an interesting little have an endying, and that some lande anecdote. “ The 8th being Friday * we shoulde have a beginning that way; and wayed at Deptford ... and bare down determined therefore at the least, to bring by the Court, where we shotte off our true proofe what lande and sea the same ordinance and made the best possible might be, so farre to the N.W. beyonde shew we coulde. Her Majestie behold- anye man that hath hitherto discovered." ing the same commended it, and bade us At the end of July — the dates in the diffarewell, with shaking her hand at us out ferent accounts are perplexing — they fell of the window. Afterward she sent a in with high land in latitude 62° zom, gentleman aboord of us, who declared which they named Elizabeth Foreland in that her Majestie had good liking of our honour of the Queen. Standing on N. doings, and thanked us for it, and also | another foreland was descried in latitude willed our Captaine to come the next day 63° Sm, which formed the southern point to the Court to take his leave of her. The of a “greate gutte bay or passage, devidsame day towards night M. Secretaire ing as it were two maynelands or conWoolly came aboorde of us, and declared tinents asunder.” He would have crossed to the company that her Majestie had ap- this, still continuing to press northwards, pointed him to give them charge to be “but was alwayes by contrarie winde deobedient and diligent to their captaine teyned overthwarthe these straytes, and and governours in all things and wished could not get beyonde.” Observation of us happie successe.”

the currents and the drift of the ice made On July ist they “hadde sighte of a him determine “ to make proofs of this highe and rugged lande ;” it rose “like place to see how far that gutte had conpinnacles of steeples, and all covered tinuance, and whether he might carrie with snow." Evidently the southern part himself through the same into some open of Greenland, from the latitude. “ Not sea on the backe syde, whereof he confarre from thence he loste company of his ceived no small hope." Accordingly he

sailed up the inlet some fifty or sixty * They were not afraid of Friday. Nor was Colum

leagues, and named it Frobisher's Straits bus, who also sailed on Friday, and landed on Friday in the New World

“ lyke as Magellans at the south weast ende of the worlde having discovered the againe at liberty, but he would not seem passage to the South Sea, and called the to understand his meaning, and therefore same straites Magellan's Streightes.” * he was still kept in the ship with sure He found “upon eyther hand a great garde.” “Whereupon when he founde mayne or continent; and that land upon himself in captivitie for very choller and his right hande as he sayled westwards, disdaine, he bit his tongue in twayne he judged to be the continente of Asia, within his mouth ; notwithstanding he died and there to be devided from the firme of not thereof, but lived untill he came in America which lyeth uppon the lefte Englande and then he died of a colde hande over against the same.” After which he had taken at sea." It was now sailing sixty leagues they landed, “and far on in August; little had been discovfounde signe where fire had been made."ered except ice, snow, and the salvage Here they fell in with the “salvage peo-people ; but the set of the Straits enple," and with some difficulty entered into couraged the hope that a path might friendly relations with them. They great- under more favourable circumstances be ly resembled Tartars in appearance, but found along that inlet to Cathay. But "perceeving these strange people to be the weather was already growing winterly, of countenance and conversation proced- the little ship was shorthanded, the peoing of a nature given to fyersnes and ple were much worn by their battle with rapyne," the captain had to be on his storm and ice, and after earnest consultaguard. A native came on board the ship, tion it was resolved to return. They a sailor being sent on shore as a hostage. anchored for a few days at the mouth of This led to further intercourse, conducted the Straits, and then, on August 26, they most lovally on the English side, and Fro- weighed for England. They reached bisher induced by signs one of them to be Harwich on the 2nd of October, “ where his pilot into the West Sea, who gave they tarried to refresh their sick and them to understand that it would be but weake men, and so came on to London two days' sail. But he was found useless, with their ship Gabriel on the ix day of and sent on shore in a boat manned by October, and there were joyfully received five men. They disregarded their orders with the great admiration of the people, about the landing of the native at a certain bringing with them their strange man point, and rowed further. Then they and his bote, which was such a wonder were seen to land, first three of them, unto the city, and to the rest of the then the remaining two, and neither men realme that heard of it as seemed never nor boat were ever heard of more. This to have happened the like great matter to loss or desertion, it is difficult to deter- any man's knowledge.” Arrived at home mine which it was — in Lok's circumstan- "the saide Captaine Frobisher was highly tial account it looks more like the latter commended of all men for his great and - was the cause of great sorrow and notable attempt, but specially famous for anxiety to the General. He tried every the great hope which he brought of the means to get knowledge of their fate and passage to Cataya, which he doubted if possible to recover them. Their loss nothing at all to find and passe through left him terribly shorthanded, for the com- in those partes, as he reporteth." plement of the Gabriel was but eighteen Thus ended this first great and notable men ; and it seemed to destroy all hope attempt of one of the hardiest and most of accomplishing anything that year. gallant of Elizabethan sailors to force the After a good deal of management he suc- North-west Passage. He was the pioceeded in laying hold of the wrist of a neer of a long and glorious line of advennative who came along side, fascinated turous seamen, who, if the “cheap defence by a bell which he held out to him ; and of nations " be worth maintaining, and “ suddenly by mayne force of strength he if Economics be not the Queen of the plucked both the man and his bote out of sciences, deserve all honour as our hethe sea into the ship in a tryse, and so roes'; men whose memories we are bound kept him without any shew of emnity, to cherish, and whose work we are equally and made signes to him presently that yf | bound, if possible, to complete. Frohe would bring his V men he should go bisher was in the north-west again in

1577, and 1578, but it was less to discover • The idea that a strait would be found in the North the massage than to search for gold. He Corresponding to Magellan's Straits in the South, was a kind of ignis f1?ins to our early explorers. But it gave

brought home with him something, alas! ther heart and led them on. Lord Bacon was the first besides the hope of the passage to Catava, to observe that the Continents were broad to the North,

and the second and third expeditions were whole they ran to a point in the South. In Frobisher's ture that physical fact was unknown.

perverted, much to Frobisher's sorrow, to a baser aim. We have no space to gold ore had been found spread rapidly, dwell upon their fortunes. Nor have and raised an eager expectation,* and it they the special interest of the first, was resolved that a larger expedition, which was conceived and carried out in with a royal ship, should be sent out goldthat true adventurous spirit, which solved hunting the following year. There sailed at last, after the lapse of centuries, the in May, 1577, the Aid, nearly 100 tons, problem which Frobisher was compelled with 100 persons on board, the Gabriel, to abandon in disappointment and dis- with 18, and the Michael, with 16. The tress.* With gold-hunting, strife, vio- instructions to the “ Generall” † were to lence, angry passions, and mutinous con- search only for the ore, and to referre the duct make their appearance. There are further discovery of the passage to annoble passages in the history ; terrible other time.” It seems that a considerdangers bravely fronted and skilfully able portion of the expenses of the voyovercome. The cruise of Captain Bestages was contributed by Lok. He comwith “manful and honest John Gray” plains bitterly that he had to make up in a pinnace rudely put together, and in £800 for the first expedition, and £1,400 which the carpenter who did the work for the second. The poor man was utterdeclared that he would not adventure ly ruined. There is a most dismal letter himself for £500," is one of the most from him dated from “ The Fleete Pryson daring exploits even of that daring time. in London," in which he says that he, Frobisher's character stands out through with his family of fifteen children, are inthe whole in bright relief. He was a true volved in irremediable ruin. He writes captain and leader of men. But he had fiercely against Frobisher, after the fashlittle heart for the gold-hunting ; and the ion in which men could rave and rail in expeditions ended in utter disappoint- those days. But his wailings would touch ment and loss. They grew out of the us more deeply if he had not appealed following circumstances.

from the judgment of three honest Eng. The sailors of course brought home all lishmen to that subtle Italian to find him kinds of curious things, and one brought some trace of gold. "a piece of a black stone, much lyke to a The expedition of 1577 accomplished seacole in coloure, which by the weight nothing. Frobisher shewed a true capseemed to be some kind of metall or tain's interest in his lost men, whom he mynerall.” One of the adventurer's wives tried by every means to recover, but by chance threw a piece into the fire and without the slightest success.I A dim burned it so long “that at the length being gleam of light is thrown on their fate by taken forth and quenched in a little vin- the traditions of the Eskimo, which, with agre, it glistered with a bright marqueset some relics of the expedition, Captain of gold." There is another story told by Hall, the American explorer, collected in Michael Lok. He says that he obtained a piece on board Frobisher's ship. Hel* See an interesting extract from a letter by Philip took it to three gold refiners in succes- Sidney, in Mr. Bourne's “ English Seamen under the

Tudors," i. 134. sion, who reported that they could find no

I t In those days the officer in chief command of a

naval expedition was the general; the admiral was the

leading ship. it to be gold ore, he took it to an Italian,

I He wrote a letter and sent it on shore, hoping that one John Baptista Agnello, who being it might reach them. It is the first Arctic letter and

runs as follows: “In the name of God in whom we all

believe, who, I trust, hath preserved your bodyes and of gold, remarking in answer to Lok's ex

soules amongst these infidels, I commend me unto you. I will be glad to seeke, by all mcanes you can devise, for your deliverance, eyther with force or with any com

modities within my shippes, which I will not spare for this result to the Queen. Mr. Secretary

vour sakes, or any thing clse I can do for you. I have Walsingham — no more keen-sighted man aboord of theyrs a man, a woman, and a childe, which I

am contented to deliver for you ; but the man I carried in England - looked into the matter,

away from hence last yeare is dead in England. More 66 And did thynk it to be but an alchemist over, you may declare unto them, that if they deliver

you not, I wyll not leave a man alive in their countrey.

| And thus unto God, whome I trust you do serve, in been brought to hir Majestie by others haste I leave you, and to him we will dayly pray for you. without trewthe.” But the report that | Yours to the uttermost of my power,

**MARTIN FROBISHER."

The first Arctic watchword is singular. Article 8 of

11 his own and his wife's the sailing orders of the third expedition is as follows: means. She was the widow of a rich merchant. There"If any man in ye flecte come up in ye night, and hale is a very lamentable letter from Dame Isabel Frobisher his fellow, knowing him not, he shall give him this to Walsingham, complaining that her husband ---"whom watchword, Before the world was God. The other shall God forgive!” – had spent everything, “and put them answere him, if he be one of our ticete, After God, came to the wide world to shift."

| Christ, His Sonae.

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1861 and 1862. But it is too dim to be High Admiral, writing to the Queen, says of use. They captured a woman too, and -* Sir F. Drake, Mr. Hawkins, Mr. Frowere much struck with her modest car- bisher, and Mr. T. Fenner, are those riage, which they had the manliness to whom the world doth judge to be men of respect ; and, together with a large quan- the greatest experience that this realm tity of the supposed ore, they brought hath.” To men trained as they had been, home " a dead fish having a horn two it was but a merry sport, a “morice-dance yards long growing out of its snout, on the waters," as one of them called it, which being, of course, the unicorn,' to scatter and destroy the most mighty they reserved as a jewell for the Queen's and splendid armament which has ever wardrobe." The ore was not found to be threatened the liberties of mankind in satisfactory, but there was immense ex- these modern days. Frobisher played his citement; and an extensive expedition, part so gallantly, that he was one of the consisting of fifteen ships was sent out four who were knighted by the Lord High the following year, to bring home a larger Admiral “when the fight was done.” În quantity of ore, and to effect a settlement 1594 he was in charge of a squadron on on Meta Incognita - for so the new land the French coast, when the Queen adwas named. The most notable event of dressed to him a characteristic and flatthis voyage was the discovery accidentally tering letter. It was his last service. of Hudson's Straits, along which Fro- Brave soldier that he was, he writes to bisher longed to force his way, but he was the Lord Admiral a report of his achieveprevented by his instructions and the ments, and then in the last paragraph says murmurs of his people, who were all mad quietly, “ I was shoott with a bullett in for the old inlet, which proved in the end the battrie alongst the huckell-bone. So to be no strait at all — and for gold. A as I was driven to have an insision made large quantity of ore was loaded, and to take out the bullett. So as I am aiter tremendous buffetings and hair- neither able to goa nor ride. And the breadth escapes the fleet reached Eng- marriners are verie unwilling to goa Exland. The ore was soon found to be not cept I goa with them myselfe : yett yf I only poor but worthless. Then began bit- find it to come to an extremitie we will ter recriminations and complaints. Fro-try what we are able." The letter is bisher was assailed with the most vehe- dated November 8, 1594. On November ment abuse, which he seems to have re- 22nd his brave heart had ceased to beat, turned with hearty good will. He was a and his “actions " passed into his counhasty, choleric, passionate man ; but just, try's history. generous, and humane. He was a con- The path that he opened has been summate sailor and a daring adventurous explored for three centuries by some of leader, sure to be in the foremost ranks the boldest, hardiest, and the most heroic in all the most important and enterprising of our race. English, Dutch, Scandinamovements of his time. The Queen knew vians, Germans, French, Americans, have his value, and used him on special ser-carried on the Arctic siege with unflinchvices. His part thenceforth was to be ing resolution ; and the question seems played on a wider field. A brave and now to be, who shall be the first to comable man, one of the simplest and noblest plete the enterprise and win the crown. of the great sailors of that day, Jchn It will be strange if the tercentenary of Davis, carried on his work in the north- Frobisher's first expedition, which is rapwest. He reached 73° N., and discov- idly approaching, should find the problem ered the passage which is known by his solved, and the mystery of the Polar Sea name.*

revealed. I occupy in this matter the Frobisher was in command of the Tri- room of the unlearned; but I may be umph, one of the largest ships in the permitted, in closing this brief narrative, navy, at England's Salamis. The Lord to express my conviction that it will be a

stain on that peculiar honour of our coun* I would that I had space for a brief notice of John try which George Beste held so dear, if, Davis and his work. He was up as far as 660 19m. N. now that volunteers are not only ready "in a little boat of thirty tons," in 1536. In 1588 he

as out in a boat of twenty tons, in the great Armada fight, to strike a blow for England and the gospel.. He lomy, should refuse to complete the great afterwards piloted the first Dutch ship to the East Indies, and made no less than five successful voyages to discovery, which was a life-long passion those remote lands; "an instance," says simple-minded

nast Prince in his Worthies of Devon," of "a wonderful heroic sons. Providence, and an argument that the very same Lord who is the God of Earth, is the God of the Seas."

LIVING AGE. VOL. II. 60

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From Good Words. sided with his friends. It was his boast THE PRESCOTTS OF PAMPHILLON. that no one could tell the time when there BY MRS. PARR, AUTHOR OF “ DOROTHY Fox."

hadn't been Carthews in Mallett. From

his father he inherited Sharrows, an unCHAPTER I.

pretentious, rambling sort of residence,

visible from the high road, while the A LITTLE CONTRE-TEMPS.

grounds — if such the tangle of flowers AMONG the inhabitants a tradition ex- and shrubs could be designated - ran isted that when the great naval port of down to the sandy beach below. Captain Dockmouth was a fishing village, Mallett Carthew had married somewhat late in was a thriving town, and sent two mem- (life, on account - so he said — of his bers to Parliament. It needed a consid- having been little on shore, and not har. erable amount of faith to credit this as-ing been a good hand at keeping up a sertion, and of imagination to picture the running fire in the shape of epistolary quiet, old-fashioned place as other than wooing. When at length he had made it now stood -a quaint, ill-built cluster of his opportunity, he did not long enjoy houses stretching from the water's edge domestic felicity. His wife died soon by a steep street to the high road above, after the birth of their first child, named and terminating in a straggling colony of Hero in honor of the dashing frigate pretty cottages, villas, and pleasant de- which the Captain then commanded. tached houses. These last were the resi- Since that time, by his ardent admiration dences of military and naval men, with of the fair sex, and his devoted attentions, large families and small means, and re- Captain Carthew had raised many a fluttired officers, maiden ladies and widows, tering hope among the spinster portion of who formed the principal gentry of Mal- Mallett society ; but one by one these lett. The noses of the Mallett folk were not illusions fell to the ground. It gradually at all offended by the odour of fish, sea- came to be understood that such flattering weed, and old rope, which pervaded every gallantries were only part of the Captain's nook and corner of their primitive village. chivalrous manners, that they meant nothWhen strangers, pointing to the refuse ing in particular to anybody, and that it heaps rotting here and there, declared that was more than improbable that the dead even the delicious breezes from the adja- mistress of Sharrows would ever have a cent commons could not counteract such successor. baneful poison as this, the Mallett folk Twenty years had passed since Mrs. only smiled. They treated as new-fangled Carthew's death, during which time the notions the talk of the Dockmouth people Captain had been placed upon the retired about the drainage being so bad that vis- list, the navy had gone to the dogs, and itors could not stand it. And when a his daughter had grown from the “Capsuspicion dawned upon their untutored |'en's little maid," who shouted with deminds that some slur was thus intended light as her rough devotees swung her in to be cast upon their beloved home, they their brawny arms, into a bright, fearless would turn suddenly, as was their wont, girl, whose presence was greeted with dequick and fierce, and ask, “Who wanted light by every inhabitant of Mallett. It strangers ? Not they. Folks as couldn't took outsiders some time to comprehend, abide a good wholesome stink o'fish had or in the least degree to understand, the best stay away. Who was they, they bond of faith and trust which existed bewondered, for whom Mallett must be al- tween the owners of Sharrows and their tered ? 'Twas good enough for the Cap-humble friends. It was patent to all that ’en and Miss Hero ; and if any man or a man with nothing beyond his pay and woman at Dockmouth, or at any other good-service pension could not win popuport, would say that they could lay finger larity by gifts or money. Yet not a joy on their betters, why p'raps they'd stand or sorrow entered one of the village out and say it." And this challenge be- homes without sympathy and help, to the ing given by men, who, noted as wrest- best of their means, coming from Sharlers, are strong and sturdy of limb, it was rows; and there was not a man or woman rarely taken up, and a surly silence, an in all Mallett but felt securely confident unintelligible growl, was accepted by the that, no matter what happened, the doors Mallett champions as an acknowledgment of Sharrows would never be closed against that the Cap'en, the King o' Mallett, as them ; that if the Cap'en had but one many fondly called him, ranked second loaf of bread he would share it with them, to none.

and that if he had a fortune left him they The Captain would most assuredly have would be all gainers.

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