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prepared themselves to withstand the enemie. This is very true, (and how they are §pared in other places, I know not,) but I may justlie feare, that wee (in this Countie) are worse able to resist then before. Our Castles (God hee knowes) are farre (and farre againe) weaker then they weare; and (formerly) wee had often trayning and mustering; but now, wee scarce heare of such a thing as a trayning or mustering daie. I would be anatomised ere I wrote thus largely, but onely that I hope my writing shalbe perused by none but the judicious (for whome I prepared the same, and who hath authoritie and power to rectifie and reforme these faultes); for myne owne part, I wish (from the verie ground and bottome of my heart), that all our errours might be done awaie and forgotten in the sight of God and the world, as soone as they should die to me; and that my worthie country-men would so correct all these enormities, that all indifferent judges might account mee a most malicious slanderer, and inflicte punishment upon mee for the same: assuredlie my disgraces in that kinde, should exceede any (the best) earthlie joyes, wo" can now present themselves unto mee. Yet (I would not be misunderstood) for mee to dispraise a whole kingdome for some few delinquente, were great rashnes and follie; for I know some ptes, and namelie the countie of Lancaster, (where I was diverse yeares an Attendant to the hono" Sir Raphe Asheton,) where they have their trained and untrained bandé, which joyntlie (as I have heard) amount to 3600; and this I will affirme, (and all that knowe the martiall discipline there used will concurre wo mee therein,) that there be not in this kingdome any men better furnished wo armes, or qualified w” practise, then in that Countie; (all, or most of, the trained souldiers being as fitt to comande others, as to be commanded themselves;) and I doubt not, but that many other pts of this kingdome can (& doe) equalize them in this, or any other of their chiefest vertues, excellencies, or ornaments. It were not amisse (in this respect) for us to looke abroade into the practises of other nations, and we should plainely discerne that

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martiall discipline hath bene a chiefe cause of the raising of kingdomes (as the neglect thereof is of their subversion). Let us examine howe the Romanes became conquero" of the worlde, & wee shall discerne, that they had their legions as well at home as abroade, and those at home were not kept idle; for those souldiers (as I have read) wo" were (by reason of age or infirmitie) past the service of warre in forraine countries, taught and trained up the rest: that there were few (or none) amonge them, w" were not as fitt to be generalls of whole armies as comón souldiers' Some men of our age, (whose valo'é & discretions are confined to nothing more then vanitie,) will not much doubt to saie, that they regard not much the practise of trayninge, and it requireth much cost to litle purpose. If it be so, then a man would thinke, that the great Turke, whose vast and huge dominions reache over the third pt of the worlde, would reject it ; and by the same reason, if hee had our fortresses & imperiall castles, hee would sell the leades, the iron, and the stones thereof, and why? because being such a great Prince, who dare assaile him 2 Well, (some may thinke thus, but) give mee leave w” patience to write what I have read (of the trayning up of their youth there), and make yo' owne beliefe. The great Turke hath Christians inhabiting in many partes of his dominions, some whereof paie him a pecuniarie tribute, and others pay him tribute of their children, wo" children are brought yearely (by officers appointed for that purpose) to the Arsenall (or palace) of the great Turke, and some of them are appointed to attend upon the Janisaries, the rest are sent into a place called (as I remember) AEtolia, and there they are taught plowing, sowing, making of haie, and such other husbandrie, as the countrie useth ; then, after they have remained a certain tyme, they are againe committed to other maisters, who teach them to make engines for warre, &c. and instruct them in the use of armes; and so (in tyme & by degrees) they themselves come to be Janisaries, when any of them die, or are removed to higher places. And here I may relate (by the waie), that no man can arise to preferment there (through monies or freinde), except their owne excellent vertues or qualities meritt the same. And when any of these Janisaries waxe ould & past service, they are made governo'e of fortresses, and have great allowance for the same. The rest of the captive children, (w" are of a more rude and indocile capacitie,) are kept still in the AEtolia, and do follow the exercise of husbandrie; except that in the tyme of warres, two or three thousand of them are appointed to attend upon the armie, to make haie, keepe horses, &c. From whence I collect these foure observačóns: first, they traine up their youth in husbandrie, (wthout w" no comón wealth can be maintayned); secondlie, in martiall affaires, and other artes (that they maie not onely preserve their comón-wealth in peace & plentie, but also augment it); thirdly, they have especiall regarde, that vertues be rewarded, and it is like by the same reason, that they punish vices; and lastlie, they fortifie their strong houldes will men and munition, not onely for the strength & safetie of their countries, but also to the terror, amasement, & confusion of their enemies. Thus wee see, that the greater their dominions are, they use the greater care! wo" is altogether contrarie to the practise of our tymes; and yet such is the simplicitie of many of us, that wee would be called and accounted statesmen, politicians, and fathers of our countrie, quando omniscelere patriam laceramus, et in ea funditus delenda omnino occupati sumus, as Cicero saith, when our actions tend (by all likelyhoode) to the subversion thereof. From consideračān of the premises, give mee leave to draw this conclusion, that martiall discipline, (next to Gode service) is the firmest staffe of a weale publiq, and the neglect thereof giveth a fearefull demonstračán of future miseries to that kingdome, wo" is insensible (and perceiveth not) that it is ordained as a good meanes to Pserve Gode children, and Christian Comónweales.

IV. ABUSE.

The want of this martiall discipline, and the (too much) abundance of idleness (and other vanities) hath so distracted, & pulled awaie, the affections of our countrymen from the ancient Brittish worth and valoure, that you would not saie that they were of the same of springe; yet, were our alehouses (alias Hell-houses) divided into foure parts, and three of them (together wth all the remnants of devill-wort, alias Tobacco, and other open & knowne offences wherein wee live) sent into Tartary, to yeir first father and founder, wee might hope (through submisse acknowlegment, & carefull amendment of our errours) that God would be mercyfull unto us, and grant us (not onely wisedome to foresee, but) valour to resist all the malicious devises of our enemies. But (foole that I am) why doe I write thus simply It is in a manner (even) impossible to number the ale-houses of this Countie; for the one halfe of every towne is alehouses, and then upon every corner of a common or moore there must be one at least, to entertaine shepestealers, &c. otherwise the poore wandring raskalls might starve (or give over their traide) for defect of receiptoe. It is much to be lamented, yt our wor" Justices of the peace will not provide some goode meanes to roote out threpts of them, considering how many gallant gentlemen & yeomen have shipwrackt their best fortunes, and split their whole estates, upon the rockes of Drunken-nes; yet I denaie not, but that there might be good use of them, if onely men & women of good estima&n and honest demeanor were licenced (& yet but a few of them neither, one or two in a towne, &c.). But, alas ! every one, cut and longtaile, man & woman, honest & vicious (I might saie, rogue and ), if they can procure money to buy lycences, may be pmitted to keepe tipling houses, and to sell their ale at xx" the gallon, or keepe what measures they will. And although in many licences I have sene them prohibited to vent or sell any Tobacco, yet now nothing is halfe so common; for the first salutaôn (after a man sittes downe in an alehouse) is, Sir, will you taist a pipe of excellent & rare devill-wort (Tobacco I should saie) 2 and now every tinker, rogue, scavenger, or hangman is a Tobacconist. Nay, if such base mettall’d villaines were onely the professore and practisers of such illiberall sciences, it were a happie thinge; a rope & three trees might presentlie purge a whole countrie of such a pestilence; but it seemes, that these base scoundrelles are but the apes to their betters. Hath never a man seene those lips (and sacred mouthes, out of wo" the oracles of God should proceede) dishonoured (I might say, polluted) wth the filthie smoake of Tobacco on the very*Lords day ? yes! ad confirmandam memoriam, to strengthen the memorie! Well, let it be so ; yet I am of a firme opinion (and know ptly by experience), that it is many waies injurious to the breath, braine, sight, memorie, and the whole bodie of man. But (to proceede) can our countrie produce nevran officer, magistrate, or man of worth, who hath exclaimed against (and punished) the sinne of in oth's, and yet lived in it himselfe? No, some will saie, these are but meere skandalls, dispersed abroad by Papists and prophane psons; wee have nothing to doe will them. I wish it were so, and I hope it is so ; and this I must and will ingeuouslie confesse, in the commendaôn of the gentlemen of this Countie, that no Countie of England (in myne opinion) can excell them in chaistitye ; and I much rejoice to heare (& know) it, for lamentable experience manifesteth, that incontinencie is a forerunner of the subversion of houses, kindrede, & kingdoms. In the last place, wee must write something touching the abuses wo" flowe from vanitie of apparaile, for it is a sore wo" onght to be touched, and I wish it were to be cured. Would ever any man have thought, that the valient English, (after so many glorious battailes & conquests in France,) should so farre forget themselves, as to turne French apes, and weare none other apparaile but French * The Ile of Ree nevr brought such a blessing to

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