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is not the least attractive subject for such treatment. Dana's Three Years Before the Mast" is one of the most delightful books in the English language, and it is understood that Herman Melville's wonderful sea stories were largely drawn from actual reminiscence, if not in the literal fact, at least in the thousand and one details worked into the background of the picture. Captain Samuels, who at the time of this writing is driving a fast yacht over the ocean in a great race across the Atlantic, has given us in the book before us a fascinating record of life at sea in every position, from a deck-hand to a captain, and told the story of his life in a fresh and lively strain, which will command attention. If he has not written a classic, as Dana and Melville have done, he has succeeded in telling a most entertaining narrative. Captain Samuels ran away from home and shipped as a mere younker, and his first experiences were such that, if he had not been hard-headed and tough-hearted, it would have gone hard with him. In those days the forecastle of a ship was a veritable hell, the captain and his mates being tyrants and task masters of the cruellest order, the men cutthroats and scoundrels but little, if any, better than pirates. His accounts of experiences on board ship are enough to make the decent reader shudder. He finally devoted himself to mastering the intellectual parts of his business -mathematics, navigation, etc.-and rose rapidly. Only the second voyage after he got to be second mate he was lucky enough to be made captain of a fine ship. He tells us that he was husband and father at but little over twenty, and presumably skipper. His log as captain is very entertaining, and he describes his various adventures as trader and commander of a ship in the days when it meant something to command a big merchantman, with rattling vivacity and unflagging zest. Among the multitude of yarns he spins is a very romantic narrative of his adventure in helping a Swedish captain to carry off an odalisque from a Turkish harem, a story he tells with great dramatic go. Shipwreck, mutiny, adventures with pirates, the perils of storm, meetings with distinguished men-all our jolly captain reels off with delightful dash, and the interest never lessens. The most important portion of his life was that which marked the ascendancy of the American clipper ship, when these fleetsailing greyhounds contested the palm almost with steam for quick voyages. Captain Samuels commanded the celebrated Dreadnaught, the fastest ship that ever sailed the seas of her

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kind. She was built at Newburyport, under his own eye, and she showed her heels to everything that carried sail. He says of this famous craft: By the sailors she was nicknamed the 'Wild Boat of the Atlantic,' while others called her the Flying Dutchman.' She twice carried the latest news to Europe, slipping in between the steamers. The Collins, Cunard, and Inman lines were the only ones at that time. There are merchants still doing business in New York who shipped goods by us, which we guaranteed to deliver within a certain time or forfeit freight charges. We commanded freight rates between those of steamers and sailing packets." He tells us that he always himself kept the deck at night, "when it requires nerve to drive the ship to her utmost capacity without losing her sails or carrying away her spars. Any lubber can do the former, but it requires good judgment and pluck (not?) to do the latter." Our sea-veteran has written an exceedingly readable and instructive book, and it will be read with the more interest when it is remembered that snowy hair has not quenched the daring of his youth, for he has been selected to drive the Dauntless in her great race to Queenstown, a responsibility to tax the most consummate qualities of a sea-captain-coolness, knowledge, daring, and judgment. Let us hope that one who has shown himself little less at home in writing than as autocrat of his own quarter-deck will not fail to give us something else in the same direction.

THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. By Angelo Heilprin, Professor of Invertebrate Paleontology at, and Curator-in-Charge of, the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia; Professor of Geology at the Wagner Free Institute of Science, etc., etc. New York: D. Appleton & Co.

The object of Professor Heilprin in this work is to present to his readers the more significant facts connected with the past and present distribution of animal life, such as might lead to a proper conception of the relations of existing fauna; and secondly that of furnishing to the student a work of general reference, wherein the more salient features of the geography and geology of animal forms could be sought after and readily found. In many respects this book stands alone in its field, though other works cover the plane in part, or incidentally. Of course the subject is too vast to be covered within a limited number of pages, as Professor Heilprin properly states

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THE English book publishers' announcements teem with the reproduction of American books. This shows no lack of creative activity in England, but shows that our English brethren are beginning to appreciate keenly

the merits of American authors.

In spite of the strong war feeling between, France and Gerinany, there has never been a time when in literature, aside from the polemics of politics, the allusions by writers of one nation to the people of the other have been more kindly. This would indicate a deepseated flow of the milk of human kindness, which even the thunders of war talk cannot sour.

THE report on the publications registered in the Bombay presidency in 1885 states that there has been an increase in the number of books printed in nearly every spoken and classical language in the presidency during the year. One remarkable fact is the fewness of the books written in the vernacular languages by members of the university. Out of nine hundred books published in Marathi and Gujarathi, only about twenty were written by gradu

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'WE regret," says the Athenæum, to hear of the death of Mr. R. H. Patterson, the clever author of The Economy of Capital.' He was born in 1821, and was educated at the High School of Edinburgh. When quite young he entered the printing-office of his cousin, John Ballantyne, as corrector of the press, and began before long to contribute to Chambers's Journal and other periodicals. He left the printing business to become editor of the Edinburgh Advertiser, a Tory journal now extinct, and wrote a good many articles for Blackwood's Magazine, contributing also to the Quarterly and the Edinburgh. Eventually he removed to London, and was connected with the Conservative press, being editor of the Press, Globe, and other journals. During this period of his life he published a number of political and economical works: The New Rev

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olution; or, the Napoleonic Policy in Europe' (1860), Essays on History and Art' (1862), The Economy of Capital; or, Gold and Trade' (1865), The Science of Finance' (1868), 'The State of the Poor and Country' (1870). He also published a treatise on the currency, entitled The New Golden Age,' a volume on The Gas and Water Supply of London,' and a work styled 'Light Theories: Suggestions for a New System of Cosmical Science.' He for some years held an appointment in the office of the Gas Referees."


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DR. B. W. RICHARDSON is writing the life of Mr. Edwin Chadwick, C. B., the veteran social reformer. The life will be largely devoted to a survey of the national health and the development of sanitary ideas during the last half century. It is based upon documents furnished by Mr. Chadwick, and will be published in a few weeks' time.

DR. SIMEONE LEVI announces the publication of the "Hieroglyphic-Coptic-Hebrew Vocabulary," for which the Accademia dei Lincei at Rome awarded him the great quadrennial prize founded by the King of Italy. The Italian Ministry of Public Instruction contributes 80%. to this important publication.

Professor GRAETZ has nearly finished his emended text of the Old Testament, which he will print in parallel columns along with the Massoretic text.

MR. WILLIAM MORRIS has just finished the twelfth book of his translation of the Odyssey," which is in the metre of his " Story of Sigurd the Volsung." The twelve books have gone to press, and will be published apart from the rest of the work as soon as possible.

WITH the close of the year, Messrs. Samp

son Low have issued in the Publisher's Circu

lar their usual analytical table of books published during the past twelve months. As was to be expected, the total for 1886 shows a considerable decrease when compared with the total for 1885, and a still larger decrease when compared with the total for 1884. Eliminating new editions, though these followed the same law, the following are the figures for new books only-in 1884, 4,832; in 1885, 4,307; and in 1886, 3,984. In the course of two years, therefore, there has been a decline of no less than 17 per cent. A comparison of the several classes of books is yet more instructive, for the apparent changes are so great as to indicate something like a revolution in literary productiveness. Theology alone remains pretty constant, though sharing in the general decline -from 724 in 1884 to 616 in 1886. But juvenile books have decreased in the same period from 603 to 390, while fiction shows the extraordinary increase from 408 to 755. On the other hand, if these figures can be trusted, only 60 books of poetry appeared in 1886, as compared with 179 in 1884; while the lawyers have contented themselves with the ridiculously small number of 18 new books and 15 new editions during the past year, while they enjoyed a total of 279 of both kinds two years ago. Apart from novels, the only other important department to show an increase in both years is that of political and social economy, trade, and commerce.

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Flags." I have served under five flags in my time--three of them Imperial standards and two of them those of rebels. I have known as commander or as foe some of those men whom to this day heroes worship, as well as others less celebrated, but who still have carved their names with their swords on the page of history. Among these are Gordon, Garibaldi, Stuart, the Confederate raider; Belle Boyd, the invincible scout; the Countess de la Torre, the lovely Garibaldian leader; Burgevine, the filibuster; Turr, the Hungarian, and a host of others. Gordon, for instance, saved my life. It happened in this way. I was only a youngster, when, getting tired of the endless routine of barrack life in the -th Dragoon Guards, I went out to China to fight the Täepings, who were then in full revolt. General Ward, who commanded the "Disciplined Chinese Field Force," had just "joined the majority," and Burgevine had succeeded him in the command. General Burgevine, a little dark man, who had come out to China as a ship's steward, but who had been one of Walker's filibusters at Nicaragua, was an able soldier and as brave as a lion. He was swarthy almost to blackness, and wore little gold rings in his ears. I joined his brigade. His men were well armed with American rifles and bayonets, carefully drilled, and had about thirty of us-English and American officers-to lead them. We defeated the Täepings in a continuous series of battles, until our men began grumbling for their arrears of pay, which were then something like six months overdue. General Burgevine applied to the Foo-tai (or military mandarin governor of the province) for the money. He solemnly declared he had none. Burgevine happened to know that a few days previously the Foo-tai had received a thousand bars of syce silver, which were then in his palace. He ordered us to storm the palace and help ourselves. We did so, with the natural result that the next morning placards were posted all over the place, offering 150,000 taels of silver for Burgevine's head, dead or alive. We stuck to our commander; and the whole body, 3,000 strong, went over to the Täepings. We were placed in the army commanded by "The Shield King" and we defeated the Imperial troops as easily as we had the patriots. All went well until one fine day we heard that the Imperial Government had borrowed from the English 200 officers and non-coms., who had formed another Disciplined Force;" and, under the command of one Major Gordon, R.E., were then within three days' march to

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attack us. They duly arrived, and when we saw the pith helmets of the English officers we refused to draw swords from their sheaths.


the short engagement which followed our men bolted, and we thirty white men were Gordon's prisoners. The next morning he paraded us, and, standing in front of the line, said, "Of course, you know that I shall hang you all; not merely as rebels in arms, but as deserters from the Imperial army." He looked at us all individually, very sternly, leaning on his thin rattan, which he always carried and used in action, instead of his sword. He was beginning to address some more observations to us, when Burgevine, turning his quid of honeydew over in his mouth, spat vigorously close to Gordon's well-polished boot, and said, "D-n it, Gordon, if you're going to hang, hang! but don't give us so much of that G-d d-d jaw!" Gordon looked first at his boot, and seeing that it was still spotless, gazed at Burgevine half a moment with an expression as though he would like to have laid his rattan about his shoulders. Then, saying calmly, "You shall be quite satisfied, presently, sir," turned on his heel and marched off. Burgevine and one or two of the other Americans, who were perfectly untameable, had been previously tied hand and foot, or it would have gone hard with Gordon at that moment. While we were watching the nimble Chinamen rigging the ropes on trees for our accommodation and stopping every minute to sing out Fanqui !" (red devils) an aide came from Gordon to say that our lives would be spared, but that he should deport us from the country. Burgevine simply expectorated again, and said, Wal! tell him from me he's a good old son!" and we marched cheerfully into the calaboose provided for us. Gordon afterward sent Burgevine and the Americans to New York in a Yankee ship and the English to England. That is the way in which Gordon saved my life."-Pall Mall Gazette.

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PREMATURE BURIAL.-Much has been said and written concerning the danger of premature burial, and the subject has even become to some nervous persons the persistent horror of their lives. That a few authenticated cases have occurred in which the still living body has been by some strange oversight consigned to the grave we are not disposed to deny. It is probable, however, that the number of such cases has been exaggerated. Too much has possibly been made of the evidence of movement in corpses which have been exhumed. A

critic writing on this subject throws the whole responsibility for live burials on our professional brethren. This is a sweeping and certainly an unfair judgment. He accuses them solely on the ground that in many cases they do not, in order to certify death, proceed to make an examination of the supposed corpse, and suggests that certificates of death might be fraudulently obtained by unprincipled attendants on the sick as a preparatory step to murder. Now, this is one of those arguments which, however they may sound in theory, have little, if any, practical meaning. Medical men, we admit, do not always think it necessary to view the body of a deceased patient before certification. In many instances there is no need that they should do so. They have been in regular attendance; have ascertained the nature of the disease; have gauged its probable issue; and, finally, have seen the actual approach of death, which in a few hours' time has occurred, and of this they are assured on the testimony of persons whom they know to be well principled and judicious. Surely they are entitled in all the circumstances to accept the statement as true. Where there is doubt either as to the signs apparent or the character of informants, it is the duty of every practitioner to inspect the body of his patient, and any departure from this rule must, we are sure, at all events in this country, be very exceptional. Lancet.

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THE LARGEST FARM IN THE WORLD.-In the extreme south-west corner of Louisiana lies the largest producing farm in the world. It runs 100 miles north and south and 25 miles east and west, and is owned and operated by a syndicate of Northern capitalists. Their general manager, J. B. Watkins, gives an interesting account of this gigantic plantation, which throws the great Dalrymple farm in Dakota into the shade completely. 'The million and a half acres of our tract," Mr. Watkins said, was purchased in 1883 from the State of Louisiana and from the United States Government. At that time it was a vast grazing land for the cattle of the few dealers of the neighborhood. When I took possession I found over 30,000 head of half wild horses and cattle. My work was to divide the immense tract into convenient pastures, establishing stations or ranches every six miles. The fencing alone cost in the neighborhood of 50,000 dols. The land I found to be best adapted to rice, sugar, corn, and cotton. All our cultivating, ditching, etc., is done by steam-power. We take a

tract, say half a mile wide, for instance, and place an engine on each side. These engines are portable, and operate a cable attached to four ploughs, and under this arrangement we are able to plough thirty acres a day with only the labor of three men. Our harrowing, planting, and other cultivation is done in a like manner. In fact, there is not a single draughthorse on the entire place. We have, of course, horses for the herders of cattle, of which we now have 16,000 head. The Southern Pacific Railroad runs for thirty-six miles through our farm. We have three steamboats operating on the waters of our own estate, upon which there are 300 miles of navigable waters. We have an ice-house, a bank, a shipyard, and a ricemill."—Missouri Republican.

WHAT GERMANY IS DOING.-It would be hard to explain why the German Government, besides augmenting the country's already bloated armament for a third time, insists upon the increase being legalized, and that immediately, for a term of seven years! Nobody can doubt the final acceptance, by the Reichstag and by the nation, of this portentous fresh impost of 41,135 men, at an additional cost of £1,300,000 annually, and a far greater outlay


accoutrements, barrack accommodation, etc., during some years. But why fix that augmentation for a number of years? why not entrust it to annual votes. For this phenomenon no other explanation is possible, than by pointing to a totally unfounded suspicion against parliamentary majorities. Seven, five, three years are equally objectionable. If annual, the vote on army estimates would be taken, like that upon the navy, as a matter of course, and at the conclusion of a one day's debate. The experience of this country has conclusively shown that each approaching renewal of the septennate throws its dark shadow before, that party animosities are thereby envenomed, that every decision of Government is cribbed, cabined, and confined. The venerable and deservedly beloved Emperor, however, is said to be unyielding on this point. Probably a compromise for a term of three years instead of seven will be concluded, Herr Windthorst's party having declared, and with good cause, that in a country of Triennial Parliaments no provision for more than three years at the outside ought ever to be taken. There is no truth, of course, in the assertion that the estimates of the Imperial Budget show a deficit of £2,000,A deficit is impossible. What money is

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not forthcoming through the usual channels of the Empire's income is, and will be, drawn from the treasuries of the individual States, the budget-requirements of the Empire taking precedence over all others. Yet the desire of placing the Imperial finances on an independent footing is intelligible, and the decline in the productiveness of most of its resources is painful. Customs, stamps, and various other forms of indirect taxation produce less revenue; so do even spirits and sugar. For this latter falling-off the policy of Bismarck's Government is alone responsible. Nobody denies that duties on sugar, spirits, and tobacco, instead of on corn and manufactures, ought to produce nearly the whole of the sum which the Empire requires for the purposes of defence and the maintenance of its relations with the rest of the world. Unfortunately, the Chancellor is not a financier, or, if a financier, then one belonging to the eighteenth century. Prince Bismarck does no more than every weather-wise statesman of the present day is doing when he considers the possibility of safeguards, as effective as those at work in America, against the power of Democracy. It is true that he helped to accelerate the advent of that power by the introduction (in 1866) of Universal Suffrage. The result of his reasoning differs, in all probability, from that at which English politicians would have arrived. His programme is peculiar to him. He astonishes his countrymen by the vastness of projects, all tending to the one purpose of strengthening the hands of Government. Cæsarism is out of place in a country that has certainly never felt the evils of being too little governed, in a country, too, which is devotedly attached to some of the most distinguished and oldest dynasties in the world. All his labors in internal policy-apart from the passing interests of electioneering-are directed toward rendering the Executive omnipresent, omnivorous, omnipotent. He is credited with the desire of " nationalizing"-i.e., converting into a government monopoly the entire machinery of life insurance, fire insurance, and every other kind of insurance throughout Germany. He has tried for a government monopoly in the sale of spirituous liquors. He has tried for a tobacco monopoly. The extinct mediæval guilds, and trade-corporations generally, are being resuscitated in a form which will render them directly dependent upon the central Government. By expanding immeasurably all indirect taxation, especially duties on corn and

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