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PORT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE BLACK SEA.-Russia is making rapid progress with the port improvements she has taken in hand in the Black Sea, and upon which she proposes to spend a million sterling. At Novorossisk, which is to be the outlet for the railways of the Cis-Caucasian region, the engineers have been at work for some time past, and nearly 1,000 navvies are being assembled for vigorous operations during the winter. The first work to be taken in hand is the construction of a mole of concrete 900 yards long, which will terminate with a turret and lighthouse. The blocks of concrete to be used are to have an average weight of 27 tons, and many are already being placed in position. Along the mole a branch will be extended from the Rostoff-Vladikavkaz Railway. This will be employed principally for grain, of which the export from Novorossisk is expected to reach 100,000 tons a year. With regard to petroleum which will rank next to corn as an article of export, a special haven will be erected on the opposite side of the new port. The bay of Novorossisk is so large that its land-locked waters afford means of establishing a dozen different ports, and thus there will be no difficulty in keeping one part of it devoted exclusively to petroleum. The site selected for the new port being situated on the side of the bay opposite to the town, the latter is to be dismantled and shifted thither. At Batoum, the works for enlarging the port are being pushed on under the guidance of M. Bungé, a nephew of the Minister of Finance who is one of the contractors for the undertaking. The cost of the improvement will be £380,000, and most of the work is to be completed within a twelvemonth.-Engineering.
THE FINANCES OF PERU.-The estimates of the Peruvian Finance Minister for 1887-88, of which the details have just reached this country, are of a very gloomy character. The revenue for the two years is estimated at 6,551,000 dols. per annum, of which the bulk is derived from the Customs duties; the guano,
railway, and telegraph receipts figuring for next to nothing. The expenditure is estimated at 9,811,000 dols. per annum, showing a deficit of no less than 3,260,000 dols. per annum. To cover this, it is proposed to impose a poll tax of from 2 to 2 dols. per head; but it is very doubtful if this tax, even if adopted by the new Ministry, will realize anything like the amount required. If not, the unwieldy internal debt will be, no doubt, still further increased. together, Peru appears to be financially in a hopeless condition, and it is clear that her foreign creditors have nothing to hope for from her. In fact, to do them justice, they do not seem to expect anything, but centre their hopes upon Chili, who is by no means disposed to assume any obligations in regard to the Peruvian Debt.-Economist.
THE LANGUAGE OF MONKEYS.-In the way of language monkeys manifest their passions, emotions, desires and fears by cries and gestures, emphasized by significant accents, which vary with the species. Monkeys and children, together with savages and uneducated people of civilized nations, manifest an inclination to mimic the gestures and motions of all persons whom they see. We think that this trait is especially prominent in monkeys, but thousands of instances might be cited to show that mankind, old and young, share it with them. The attitude and the sagacity of monkeys are so human that some savages believe that it is out of maliciousness that they do not talk. In fact, a monkey might pass for a dumb man, because he does not articulate the consonants clearly, as we do; but not all men have this power of articulation in an equal degree. We have stammerers by birth and by habit. Some savage tribes have a scanty alphabet, complicated by clicks and nasal and guttural sounds that cannot be imagined till they are heard. All monkeys have voices, and many of them have very strong ones. Excepting the solitary and taciturn orang-outang, the species which live in troops are chatterers, and keep up a great hubbub. The principal tones of their noisy and rapid language, with the frequent repetition of the same sounds, may also be found in the languages of the most savage peoples. They are, for the most part, complex, guttural and harsh articulations, with few variations. But the alphabets of some of the African and Melanesian nations are not much richer. In both it is generally the labials which are wanting. Laughter is not wholly peculiar to men, for some monkeys have a
noisy and explosive laugh analogous to ours. Cook has stated that natives of the New Hebrides express their joy by a kind of guttural whistle, analogous to the jerky, rattling laugh of some monkeys. Monkeys are also capable of showing sorrow and weeping; and it is possible to follow on their faces the equivalents of the physiognomical changes which in man answer to the expression of his various emotions. Among these are the drawing back of the corners of the mouth and the contraction of the lower eyelid, which constitute the monkey's smile, and the depression of the eyebrow and forehead in anger. --Popular Science Monthly.
NORWEGIAN HOSPITALITY.-In no land is hospitality more open-handed and more unaffected than in Norway, and though these features are naturally becoming blunted along the beaten lines of travel, the genuine goodness of heart, fine "gentlemanly feeling, and entire absence of that sordidness which is so often seen even in primitive regions, cannot fail to strike the unprejudiced observer. Nor is etiquette ignored by even the rudest of the people. In the cities the stranger is apt to make many blunders. In the country, however, this is not less marked, though perhaps the visitor will be less conscious of its presence. One of the peculiarities of the Norwegian farmer is that, when visiting a friend, he must ignore all the preparations made for his entertainment. He will see the coffee roasted, and the cups set out, and then, just when the good wife is about to offer him her hospitality, he gets up, bids the family goodby, and is only persuaded to remain after some resistance. Every cup must be filled to overflowing, otherwise the host would be thought stingy. When milk, brandy, or beer is offered, the guest invariably begs that it will not "be wasted on him," and then, after emptying the cup, declares that "it is too much"-going through the same formalities, it may be, three or four times. In the farm-houses, or upland 'saeters," the guest is left to eat alone, silver forks and spoons being often substituted for the carved wooden ones used by the family, and a fine white cloth for the bare board which serves well enough on ordinary occasions. To a punctilious guest this may not be a drawback, for at the family table, as, indeed, among the peasants in Scandinavia everywhere, the different individuals dip their spoons into the same dishes of "gröd" and sour milk; but for any one desirous of studying a people, a
load of foreign prejudice is a grievous burden to carry about. When a child is born the wife of every neighbor cooks a dish of "flödegröd " (porridge made with cream instead of milk), and brings it to the convalescent, there being a good deal of rivalry among the matrons to outdo each other in the quality and size of the dish. When any one has taken food in a Scandinavian house he shakes hands with the host and hostess in rising from table, and says "Tak for mad" ("Thanks for food"), to which they reply, "Vell bekomme" ("May it agree with you''). In many parts of Scandinavia all the guests shake hands with each other, and repeat the latter formula; and in Norway, at least, it is the fashion for a guest to call on the hostess a few days later, and when she appears to gravely say, Tak for sidst" ("Thanks for last time"), great gravity on this formal visit being a mark of good breeding.-Peoples of the World.
A JEWISH PIRATE.-The Jews have played many parts in their day, but not even the most virulent anti-Semites have ever suggested that they at any time affected buccaneering. Perhaps they would say, in their amiable way, that they had not sufficient pluck. The fact, however, remains, that they have produced at least one pirate of distinction, and it is interesting to recall it, not so much, perhaps, because of his distinction as because his story contains some touches of humanity rare in the bloody chronicles of the Skull and Cross-bones. He flourished in the East in the sixteenth century, the golden age of Ottoman Judaism, when Juan Miquez was almost the greatest personage in Turkey; when Solomon Ashkenazi was Court physician and the most trusted Councillor of the Padishah; when Esther Khiera was private secretary to the Sultana and corresponded in her own name with Queen Elizabeth; and when the Jews were so powerful that one of them was nominated to the ViceSultanship of what is to-day Roumania. The Arabs called him Sinam, the Turks Ciefut Pasha, and the Italians Il Giudeo. It is principally by the name of Il Giudeo, or The Jew," that he is remembered, and, under this name, he is frequently referred to in the English State papers of the period. Born at Smyrna of Jewish parentage, he abandoned the religion of his fathers when still a boy. Little is known of his youth, but it seems that he early developed vagrant and predatory tastes, and, after some years spent in service on various vessels, joined a piratical crew. He soon
distinguished himself among the Bedouins of the sea, and the next that is heard of him is as a leader among them. After the conquest of Rhodes the pirates infested the Mediterranean like a pack of hungry wolves, but Il Giudeo surpassed them all in astuteness and in an intimate knowledge of the creeks and hiding places along the coasts and among the islands. Monte Argentaro, Elba, Ponza, he knew them all, and could play at hide-and-seek among them with his swift and treacherous galleys. He had a fleet of thirty-four of them, and ravaged the coasts of Sicily, Naples, and the Roman States. For the most part he was successful and almost unmolested in his marauding expeditions. But once three ships belonging to the Knights of Rhodes, and commanded by Captain Paolo Vettori, made a raid upon the robbers and captured some of their galleys off Gianutri, a tiny islet of the Tuscan Archipelago. But this was a comparatively unimportant check to Il Giudeo. None the less for it did he scour the Mediterranean to his own great profit and the terror of the littoral populations. In 1533 we find him triumphantly carrying off from near Messina three vessels belonging to Andrea Doria, laden with silk-a very rich prize. In 1535 he defended La Goletta with a body of 6,000 Turkish troops against the Christian armies commanded by Charles V. in person. The Moslems made a valorous defence, but were overpowered and compelled to fly to Tunis, where Barbarossa was then reigning, having forcibly seized that kingdom from the descendant of the ancient Berber dynasty of the Hafsit. Within the city of Tunis at that time were upward of 10,000 Christian slaves taken by the pirates. These were Spaniards, French, Germans, and, more numerous than all, Italians; people of both sexes and all ages and conditions, merchants, soldiers, knights, sailors, priests. These unfortunates, on the first approach of the Christian army, had been huddled into some underground caverns called the Gune, originally intended for storing grain. Barbarossa, seeing the fortune of war go against him, absolutely proposed to massacre all these helpless wretches, and was with difficulty dissuaded from his atrocious purpose. Il Giudeo chiefly opposed it, and it was mainly owing to his intercession that the prisoners' lives were saved. This victory of La Goletta was of considerable importance for the Christian arms. Besides utterly routing and dispersing the enemy, the Christians captured all the Moslem ships, without losing one
on their side. Among the prisoners taken was Il Giudeo's favorite child, a boy of ten years old, who is stated to have been serving as a sort of cabin-boy on board of one of the captured Moorish vessels. The child fell to the share of the Prince of Piombino, who caused him to be baptized, had him educated in all the accomplishments of a gentleman of that day, and brought him up in his own house, 'where he lived honored and beloved by all." Meanwhile Il Giudeo was advanced to even greater honors by the Sultan. Escaped from the disaster of La Goletta and of Tunis he was nominated by the Sultan Admiral of the fleet of the Red Sea, the principal scope of which was to harass and oppose the Portuguese, whose progress in the Indies was giving umbrage to Soliman. Il Giudeo's head-quarters were at Suez. He was enormously wealthy, powerful, and honored. But the ter
rible pirate had a heart. It is evident that his apostasy had not cancelled the strong parental affection so characteristic of his race and of the teachings of the Hebrew religion, and he never ceased to lament the loss of his son. Nearly ten years after the disaster of Tunis, Barbarossa attacked the island of Elba, which was a possession of the Prince of Piombino. He threatened to ravage the island with fire and sword if Il Giudeo's son were not given up to him. This act appears to have been dictated less by friendship for his comrade in piracy than by greed of gain. There is little doubt that he expected the Prince to pay a heavy ransom for the youth to whom he had become attached. Only a short time previous the Republic of Genoa had been brought to the humiliation of buying him off from destroying Savona.
However, the young man at once declared himself willing to go and see his father, but stipulated that the dominions of his benefactor, the Prince of Piombino, should be respected. Accordingly the baptized son of Il Giudeo set out for Egypt, where his father awaited him. But when one day he appeared before him, a handsome and elegant cavalier, richly attired, and surrounded by a train of servants and attendants, the old man embraced his long-lost son in such a paroxysm and transport of joy that "his heart burst and he fell dead." The circumstance is well attested by Bosio, Mambrino, Jovious, etc. And, as Padre Guglielmotti remarks, Il Giudeo was probably the only one of the dreaded company of Moorish pirates to whom it could possibly have happened.-—Jewish World.
ANARCHY (av-dpxn), the No-Government system of Socialism, has a double origin. It is an outgrowth of the two great movements of thought in the economical and the political fields which characterize our century, and especially its second part. In common with all Socialists, the anarchists hold that the private ownership of land, capital, and machinery has had its time; that it is condemned to disappear; and that all requisites for production must, and will, become the common property of society, and be managed in common by the producers of wealth. And, in common with the most advanced representatives of political Radicalism, they maintain that the ideal of the political organization of society is a condition of things where the functions of government are reduced to a minimum, and the individual recovers his full liberty of NEW SERIES.-VOL. XLV., No. 4
initiative and action for satisfying, by means of free groups and federationsfreely constituted -all the infinitely varied needs of the human being. As regards Socialism, most of the anarchists arrive at its ultimate conclusion, that is, at a complete negation of the wagesystem and at communism. And with reference to political organization, by giving a further development to the above-mentioned part of the Radical programme, they arrive at the conclusion that the ultimate aim of society is the reduction of the functions of government to nil-that is, to a society without government, to An-archy. The anarchists maintain, moreover, that such being the ideal of social and political organization, they must not remit it to future centuries, but that only those changes in our social organization which are in accordance with the above double
ideal, and constitute an approach to it, will have a chance of life and be beneficial for the commonwealth.
As to the method followed by the an archist thinker, it differs to a great extent from that followed by the Utopists. The anarchist thinker does not resort to metaphysical conceptions (like the natural rights," the I duties of the State," and so on) for establishing what are, in his opinion, the best conditions for realizing the greatest happiness of humanity. He follows, on the contrary, the course traced by the modern philosophy of evolution-without entering, however, the slippery route of mere analogies so often resorted to by Herbert Spencer. He studies human society as it is now and was in the past; and, without either endowing men altogether, or separate individuals, with superior qualities which they do not possess, he merely considers society as an aggregation of organisms trying to find out the best ways of combining the wants of the individual with those of co-operation for the welfare of the species. He studies society and tries to discover its tendencies, past and present, its growing needs, intellectual and economical; and in his ideal he merely points out in which direction evolution goes. He distinguishes between the real wants and tendencies of human aggregations and the accidents (want of knowledge, migrations, wars, conquests) which prevented these tendencies from being satisfied, or temporarily paralyze them. And he concludes that the two most prominent, although often unconscious, tendencies throughout our history were: a tendency toward integrating our labor for the production of all riches in common, so as finally to render it impossible to discriminate the part of the common production due to the separate individual; and a tendency toward the fullest freedom of the individual for the prosecution of all aims, beneficial both for himself and for society at large. The ideal of the anarchist is thus a mere summing-up of what he considers to be the next phase of evolution. It is no longer a matter of faith; it is a matter for scientific discussion.
In fact, one of the leading features of our century is the growth of Socialism and the rapid spreading of Socialist
views among the working classes. How could it be otherwise? We have witnessed during the last seventy years an unparalleled sudden increase of our powers of production, resulting in an accumulation of wealth which has outstripped the most sanguine expectations. But, owing to our wage system, this increase of wealth-due to the combined efforts of men of science, of managers, and workmen as well-has resulted only in an unprevented accumulation of wealth in the hands of the owners of capital; while an increase of misery for the great numbers, and an insecurity of life for all, have been the lot of the workmen. The unskilled laborers, in continuous search for labor, are falling into an unheard-of destitution; and even the best-paid artisans and skilled workmen, who undoubtedly are living now a more comfortable life than before, labor under the permanent menace of being thrown, in their turn, into the same conditions as the unskilled paupers, in consequence of some of the continuous and unavoidable fluctuations of industry and caprices of capital. The chasm between the modern millionaire who squanders the produce of human labor in a gorgeous and vain luxury, and the pauper reduced to a miserable and insecure existence, is thus growing more and more, so as to break the very unity of society-the harmony of its life-and to endanger the progress of its further development. At the same time, the working classes are the less inclined patiently to endure this division of society into two classes, as they themselves become more and more conscious of the wealth-producing power of modern industry, of the part played by labor in the production of wealth, and of their own capacities of organization. In proportion as all classes of the community take a more lively part in public affairs, and knowledge spreads among the masses, their longing for equality becomes stronger, and their demands of social reorganization become louder and louder they can be ignored no more. The worker claims his share in the riches he produces; he claims his share in the management of production; and he claims not only some additional wellbeing, but also his full rights in the higher enjoyments of science and art.