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similar results were attained. Education under the pre-Christian methods was divided into the trivium and quadrivium. The former included grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic, and the latter music, arithmetic, geometry and astronomy. To understand these terms it must be said that grammar included literature and criticism, as well as abstract grammar, and dialectic, logic metaphysics and ethics.
The first influence of Christianity was iconoclastic in its effects on education, and even many of the learned Christian fathers as late as the fifth century laid down the severest injunctions against the desirability of study, especially of the ancient literature, except for the training of the priesthood, and even then under the most rigid restrictions. It was not till the time of Charlemagne, one of the greatest monarchs the world ever saw, that there was any genuine intellectual awakening in this respect on the Continent, though both in England and Ireland, where the effect of ecclesiasticism was far less repressive, a number of admirable schools had grown up under the shadow of the monasteries, and a number of brilliant and earnest scholars shed light on the violent and warlike times in which they lived. Charles, the Emperor-King, far-seeing both as soldier and statesman, reformed the episcopal and monastic schools. Not only this, but he established palace schools for the laity, and brought the most exigent measures to bear to force his rude barons and all men of social rank to send their children for instruction in letters. Among the learned men whom he attracted to his court were Alcuin of York, and Leidrade of Noricum, and Claud Clement, and John of Melrose, who were Irish or Scotch. The British islands sent to the Continent, and Ireland must be named chief among them, a stream of priestly professors and teachers, who played a most important part in the mental growth of Europe. The important schools at Paris, Bologna, and Pavia were greatly enlarged and extended, and the most eminent professors who could be found were brought here under salaries from the State as well as fees from the students. He was the first Christian patron of education to perceive clearly that the variety of sciences, human and profane, which secular academies require is inconsistent with the practice and devotion of ascetics, and so made these higher schools, studia generalia as they were called, independent of the monkish spirit and control. It is interesting to note that for a long time the old Romano-Hellenic courses of the trivia and quadrivia not only marked the terminology of
the schools, but guided their curriculums. The studium generale was gradually established at many centres, and thus was laid the foundation of the modern university.
A great step in educational progress was made by the appointment of John Scolus Erigena to the palace school under Charles the Bald. The succession of great lecturers through William of Champeaux, and, finally, the greatest of them all, the gifted and unfortunate Abelard, made Paris the most brilliant intellectual centre of Europe. The first establishments of what is now understood to be a university were at Salerno for instruction in medicine, and at Bologna for legal training. Oxford, England, soon after made its mark, and Naples became the seat of a great institution, which was a corporate body, including a great number of schools, law and medicine as well as literature in general, and endowed with the power to confer degrees. This institution was the first fully developed body organized on the complete plan of the modern university, though others had embodied its more important features.
One of the most interesting sections in the volume is that which shows the gradual development of the University of Paris from the palace school of Charlemagne to a studium generale, and thence to a great institution, including a number of schools or colleges with a full corporate endowment. The history of such a university is in one sense the history of the social and intellectual age, and Dr. Laurie has traced it out with great learning and care. It is difficult to leave such a fascinating theme, but we can do no more here than to give a suggestion of the scope and value of the book. To use a much-abused expression, this volume fills a need, and brings into clear and compact sequence the essential facts of patient investigation. As an epitome of an important branch of medieval history, as well as a lucid sketch of the development of the highest educational institutions, the book leaves little to be desired by the general reader.
"My object is not the training of the arms or legs, or larynx, or the facial muscles. My object is not to lay on rules from without, but to awaken the will and the instincts that the speaker finds within. I would induce him to cultivate his will, his ear for elocution, and his eye for his audience. I do not propose to teach him how to entertain by a display of elocutionary recitation, which is child's play, but to give some suggestions that may enable him to reach and move and influence men by means of sermon, lecture, speech, or plea, which is man's work."
The primary rule of Mr. Shepherd's teaching is expressed in the title-to wit, that speakers can cure their defects by carefully listening to their own voices and articulation--in other words, criticising them as they would the utterances of other people, "to see themselves as others see them." He disdains all the set formularies and artificialities of the elocution teachers with infinite disgust, and impresses the fact that all needed help can be had by the aid of gumption," careful attention, and a strong will. Most men can easily analyze what pleases them in a really effective public speaker, and why it pleases them. Knowing, then, how these effects are produced, let them set to work intelligently and patiently to master the same powers for themselves. This intelligent self-criticism is the root of everything in the opinion of our author, and there is but little doubt that he is more than half right. Great powers can never be attained by rule, they can only be developed by the good sense and observation of the man himself. Our author does not claim that all men can become public speakers of excellence, but some natural aptitudes and the oratorical temperament, the essential thing of all, being given, it is easy to make these gifts effective by the suggestions he makes. The subject of public speaking is treated in its different aspects in an easy, pungent, epigrammatic way, and made lively with much anecdote. Mr. Shepherd is a hard hitter, and in his pugnacity and desire to be original we think he occasionally threshes men of straw, but never threshes old straw. He even contradicts himself sometimes, but, on the whole, he is amusing and instructive. Most of what he says is good "horse" sense, to borrow a vulgarism, and those who would cultivate oratory will find in these lectures plenty of wise and useful hints. Unlike most books on the subject it is thoroughly readable. He has something to say, and he knows how to say it.
FROM DAWN TO DUSK, AND OTHER POEMS. By Hunter McCulloch, Author of How John's Wife Made Money at Home," "Amour: A Drama," etc. Philadelphia: 7. B. Lippincott Company.
Volumes of verse are so frequent that they have become a weariness and a thorn in the flesh. Some men are born poets, some achieve poetry, others have poetry thrust on them by their own vanity or innocent enthusiasm. Such men as Tennyson, Browning, Longfellow, Whittier, and many another immortal name are baptized from birth with water from Helicon. To sing their thoughts in glowing numbers, to put their imaginings into the swing, the cadence, the lift of metre is the instinct of nature. Prose composition is a comparatively ungrateful task. It is rarely that the author can, like Lowell, shine through either medium, and it is for just this reason that Lowell, however noble his thought and splendid his imaginative power, lacks the spontaneous musical singing power which stamps the verses of Tennyson, Shelley, Burns, Longfellow, or Whittier. There are poets again who, without the born equipment of the great poet either in musical form or largeness of utterance, by sheer dint of craft, technical skill, and pungent epigrammatic thinking, make themselves as famous as the "born" poets. Of such men one at once singles out Pope, the glorious dwarf, who makes even the more spontaneous and original genius of Dryden pale. Of those who have poetry thrust upon them by their own vanity or innocent enthusiasm, we need not cite examples, for are they not as 'thick as leaves in Vallambrosa"? It is with a profound feeling of melancholy that the reader attempts to peruse a volume of verses by these poetrymakers. He thinks, "I, too, once tried to perpetrate such follies, and wasted many a ream of paper and much unsuspecting ink innocent of the purpose to which it was put, but I burned these efforts. O friend, honest and worthy friend, why less discreet !"
To quit this lighter vein, we regret to find Mr. McCulloch's verse, for the most part, lacking in what constitutes poetry. It is easy to discover earnest, even fine thought, great sincerity of purpose, clever locutions, and now and then apt imagery. But all these exist in prose composition as well. Goethe's utterance, that the heart of poetry is what remains after the poetry is transformed into prose,' is absolutely false, and his own marvellous verse gave the lie to his criticism. Poetry derives
its value from the perfection and beauty of its special form, and if the artistic power is so far lacking as to force its defects on the reader's mind, even a fine thought or a brilliant fancy cannot make the utterance good poetry. There is no such thing as prose poetry, though the phrase is in the mouths of many who ought to know better. The author, whose lucubrations in verse are the subject of this notice, appears to us to lack both the fine internal sense of harmony in the word music of verse, and also to be a bad craftsman in the technique of his work.
The rhymes are frequently not only slovenly but dissonant, and the rhythm is so faulty in many a verse that it is impossible to make it scan. These are faults of the gravest kind in the poetic aspirant. But it is not merely
with faults of form that we have to do. McCulloch, with no unfrequent aptness and suggestiveness, very often falls into the bald commonplace of thought. The marriage of felicity of phrase and music of rhythm to noble thought is a delight, but when we have neither, only the servant putting on the clothes of her lovely mistress, and putting them on askew, as she would slattern rags, the effect is distressing. But why break a butterfly on the wheel? It is hardly worth while to go on and cite instances of verse bad, both in form and substance, for the volume before us is replete with them, and our space is too valuable. Yet it would not be difficult to find examples of poetic expression in this collection by no means lacking in felicity, and thought sufficiently strong and suggestive to catch the attention. complaint is that the faults we have pointed out are far too common to permit us to credit the author with that fine artistic temperament and craftsmanlike skill which are satisfied only with the best. We will not say that he does not know the best.
FOREIGN LITERARY NOTES. THE Academy, commenting on the publication of the last volume of the "Arabian Nights," says: And so Sir Richard Burton ends, 'to his sorrow,' the labors of a quarter-century. Who shall say that he has not fulfilled his promise of putting before Orientalists and other students a manual of the inner life of the East, vivified by his own genius, learning, and plainness of speech ?''
THE King of Italy has presented a copy of the "Divina Commedia" to the City Library of Trieste, a gift which has excited a good deal
of comment, as Trieste is by far the most important spot in "Italia irredenta." The Communal Council has, a Naples correspondent says, accepted the book with affectionate thanks."
THE Bolton Weekly Journal is going to print the parish registers of Bolton from 1570 to 1850, and transcribe an earlier register preserved at Chester.
THREE important libraries of deceased professors have lately been sold in Berlin-that of Prof. Scherer, which was bought for 28,000 marks by an American university; that of the historian Waitz, which fetched 16,000 marks; and that of Prof. Müllenhoff, which has been purchased for the new Germanische Seminar of the University of Berlin. Scherer's library is reported to have been one of the finest private collections in Germany.
DON L. DE EGUILAZ Y YANGUAS, professor in the university of Granada, has just published (imprenta de La Lealtad, Granada) a Glosario etimológico de las palabras Españolas de origen oriental. The work deals with the Portuguese also, and with all the other dialects of the Peninsula. The Oriental languages treated are Arabic, Hebrew, Malay, Persian, and Turkish. It is thus fuller and more extensive than the Glossaire of Dozy and Engelmann, whose derivations are constantly discussed, and whose work it will probably to a great extent supersede.
ADMIRAL MEHMED PASHA, who, like some other Ottoman naval officers, was educated in England, has published in Turkish an illustrated work on naval tactics, the first of its kind in that language. The few Turkish officials who speak English chiefly belong to the navy.
H. R. H. PRINCESS CHRISTIAN is at present engaged on a translation of the interesting 'Memoirs of the Margravine of Bayreuth." The translation will be accompanied by an introduction of some length from the pen of her Royal Highness, which will throw considerable light on the influence which the Margravine possessed on the mind and actions of her illustrious brother Frederick the Great. The volume will be ready before Easter and published by Mr. Stott.
MR. P. LE PAGE RENOUF, the successor of the late Dr. Birch at the British Museum, has been elected also to succeed him as president of the Society of Biblical Archæology.
PROF. DE GOEJE, of Leiden, and Dr. Bretschneider have been elected foreign corresponding members of the Académie des Inscriptions, in the place of two Englishmen who died recently -Dr. Birch and Mr. Edward Thomas.
in Italy had better examine Mr. Quaritch's No. II.
It is well known that the two persons for whom Lord Byron had the greatest respect, and whose advice in literary and other matters he was willing to follow, were William Gifford and Walter Scott. In 1813 he wrote to Mr. Murray that "the kindest letter he had ever received in all his life" was from Mr. Gifford. That letter has recently been discovered among the papers of Lady Byron, and by permission of Lord Wentworth will be published in the second number of Murray's Magazine, along with one from Sir Walter Scott full of admirable advice; but the leading feature in "Byroniana," No. 2, is a copy of verses, the last Lord Byron ever wrote, found after his death among his papers at Missolonghi, which have never yet seen the light-indeed, none of these
M. CH. WADDINGTON has published (Paris: Picard) a paper that he read recently before the Academie des Sciences Morales upon the authenticity of the writings of Plato. In opposition to what may be called the German point of view, started by Schleiermacher and developed by Trendelenburg-which would classify the dialogues on à priori grounds according to their contents-he adopts the conservative theory, based upon external evidence, represented in this country by Grote. He accepts, therefore, the received canon of Plato's works. He maintains that Plato wrote nothing during the lifetime of Socrates, and that the Apologia was his first work. Following Aristotle (Met. Byroniana fragments has ever been seen by xiii. 4) and Cicero (De Fin. v. 19), and here at variance with Grote, he argues that it is possible to distinguish between the views of the historical Socrates and those of Plato himself. He even goes so far as to suggest that the results of Plato's relations with Archytas, and of his visits to Sicily, may be traced in the Pythagorean allusions of the Timaeus, and in the letters and in the political disquisitions of the Respublica and the Leges. M. Waddington's paper is reviewed by M. F. Picavet in the Revue Critique of January 3.
THE extraordinary activity of the press in Italy during the first half century of its existence has been frequently observed as an interesting fact; but it has seldom been brought so forcibly to the mind of the student as in the classified list of Monuments of the Early Printers, one of Mr. Quaritch's catalogues, of which the second part contains the section "Italy," and is on the point of publication. Such a development would seem incredible in our own days. Town after town caught the enthusiasm of the time. Even in out-of-the-way places the typographer established himself or was called in, found protection and encouragement from lords and scholars, and printed works of the highest importance. Books of exceptional value and magnitude, such as Murray, and Longman, and Didot, and Brockhaus produce occasionally and at intervals now, were brought out by hundreds in the cities of Italy before ten years had elapsed since the introduction of the art. Any one who wants statistics to compare with the history of the revival of learning
any former editor.
MESSRS. TILLOTSON & SON, of the "Newspaper Fiction Bureau" at Bolton, have completed arrangements with authors for the simultaneous publication in newspapers in various parts of the world of over a dozen novels during the year which has just begun. The majority of them will be illustrated. Among the writers are Miss Braddon, Mr. Walter Besant, Mr. James Grant, Mr. Joseph Hatton, and Mr. W. Westall. The same firm have also organized a series of one-volume stories, to include contributions from the pens of Mrs. Alexander, Mr. B. L. Farjeon, Mr. Thomas Hardy, Mr. D. Christie Murray, and the author of "Molly Bawn." Other novels by popular authors will also be published during the year. Besides, Messrs. Tillotson & Son have arranged for stories by Mr. W. Clark Russell, Mr. Wilkie Collins, and Mr. H. Rider Haggard. The one by the author of "King Solomon's Mines" will be the first he has written for publication by a newspaper syndicate.
THE Trustees of the British Museum have approved of the suggestion made to them by the Rev. Dr. Adler, Delegate Chief Rabbi, to hold an exhibition within the walls of the Museum of such objects in the different departments as would come within the scope and province of the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition, to be opened at the Albert Hall in April next.
DON EDUARDO TODA has printed in the Boletin of the Institucion libre de Enzeñanza of October 15 (Madrid) translations of some of
the graffiti on the walls of the portico of the mosque of Sultan Hassan at Cairo. They cover a range of five centuries, and are still being added to. The majority are unsigned and religious-a profession of faith and an ora pro nobis, others are lamentations over the disappointments of life, two are amatory, one of which, in Turkish, is more refined than might have been expected. It is to this effect: "Oh! thou beloved of my heart, thou delicate soul, Would that thy beauty were a garden flower, And I, the poor slave of thy love who weep thee afar, The gardener who then would tend thee forever."
THE Athenæum takes occasion to comment on the strong growing attachment of many cultivated Americans for England in a brief obituary notice of an American who spent several years at Oxford in special studies: 'Mr. Brearley was one of that growing class of Americans who look upon England as their old home, and feel divided from it by nothing but the Atlantic. The old animosities are completely forgotten, and the love of the old country is more intense with them than with many Englishmen. They are, in fact, Englishmen who happen to live in America, and who prefer some of the American institutions, though by no means all. Many of them, when they have to leave us, look forward to the time when they may come back again. No one yearned more truly to see his old Oxford friends once more than he whose death is now mourned, and whose upright bearing and genial kindliness will long be remembered among us."
THE reproduction in facsimile of the "Hundred Merry Tales," 1526, from the unique perfect copy in the Royal Library at Göttingen, will be ready shortly. It will be accompanied by notes, a glossarial index, and an introduction, in which the editor, Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt, will make an effort to throw light on the literary history of the earliest jest-book in the English language. Only 125 copies are to be printed, and the size will strictly follow the original, which is a small folio.
THE University of Zürich opened its WinterSemester (1886-87) with 482 matriculated students, the largest number since its foundation. They are divided among the faculties as follows: theology, 41; jurisprudence, 56 (1 female); medicine, 241 (36 female); philosophy, 144 (18 female). In addition to the "Immatrikulirten," there is also a great increase in the number of the so-called "Hörer."
THE next volume in the series of Eminent Women will be Mrs. Siddons, written by Mrs. A. Kennard.
THE Queen has been pleased to accept the first copy issued of Lady Burton's edition of the Arabian Nights.
MR. HUGH A. WEBSTER, one of the permanent staff of the Encyclopædia Britannica, and editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine, has been elected to the librarianship of Edinburgh University, vacant by the death of Dr. John Small. There were in all more than seventy candidates.
THE memoirs of Count Beust will be published some time this month. They are not quite complete, Count Beust having been prevented by illness from continuing the narrative beyond the close of his tenure of the Austrian Embassy in London. Their title is "Three Quarters of a Century."
THE CHURCH MILITANT.-The following story from The Reminiscences" of Sir Francis H. Doyle was told to the author by a parson who had served in the Hussars :-" 'As you may suppose, sir, while in the Hussars my life was very much the same as the life of other young officers. Among other things, I became a favorite pupil of the late Mr. Jackson's; you have heard of Mr. Jackson, sir?' Now, at Eton, though not equal to Shrewsbury men in the manipulation of Greek particles, we were strong in our knowledge of Boxiana, so I answered him without a moment's pause. 'Of course I have; why, he beat the Jew Mendoza in ten minutes.' Then his heart warmed to me at once, and he replied: True, sir, as you observe, he beat the Jew Mendoza in ten minutes; and, as I told you just now, I reckon myself to have been his favorite pupil. On arriving at my post I found my parishioners in a thoroughly barbarous condition. One of their habits was that the women stripped to the waist, with their hair cut short, had to fight pitched battles in the public-house, their husbands giving them knees, according to the accepted rights of pugilism. I resolved to put a stop to this practice, and a contest having been arranged between two renowned championesses, I stepped into the arena and forbade it. Upon this the bully of the place turned upon