ter qualified to start such an enterprise upon the right lines. The provisional committee has now been dissolved, and a permanent managing committee has been appointed with full powers.

But it is time to inquire what this school is intended to do. The question will be best answered, in the first instance, by a statement of the objects of the school as defined in the regulations which have just been drawn up by the managing committee. They are these I.-The first aim of the School shall be to promote the study of Greek archæology in all its departments. Among these shall be (i.) the study of Greek art and architecture in their remains of every period; (ii) the study of inscriptions; (iii) the exploration of ancient sites; (iv.) the tracing of ancient roads and

routes of traffic.

II.-Besides being a School of Archæology it shall be also, in the most comprehensive sense, a School of Classical Studies. Every period of the Greek language and literature, from the earliest age to the present day, shall be considered as coming within the province of the School. III. The School shall also be a centre at which information can be obtained and books consulted by British travellers in Greece.

IV. For these purposes a Library shall be formed and maintained of archæological and other suitable books, including maps, plans, and photographs. This programme will be felt to be at once explicit and comprehensive. The enthusiasts who founded the French School at Athens are said to have founded it in the first instance for the purpose of studying the Greek Classics under the beautiful sky of their own land. However this may be, it is certain that the blossom of sentiment has borne the fruit of solid work. Many an historical problem, many an obscure point in the religious and political and social develop ment of the Greeks, many an interesting question in the history of art, of industry, or of commerce, has received illumination, if not solution, from the patient investigations of the successive directors and students of the French and German Institutes at Athens. It is enough to mention the excavations at Delos and Olympia, and the researches of Messieurs Dumont, Köhler, and Foucart. They have shown the way, and it is now for English scholars to follow in their footsteps, and emulate their achievements. But even apart


from such problems, scores of which still invite the labors of generations of students, the advantage to the classical teacher of personal familiarity with Greek scenes and monuments can scarcely be exaggerated. Emphatic testimony on this point was recently borne by the head-masters of Eton and Harrow. Dr. Warre, at the recent meeting of subscribers to the British School, sp ke of the advantage to be derived in teaching from the accurate delineation and description of the works of ancient art and manufacture. Fearon went so far as to say that he would like to see a personal knowledge of the countries about which he was to teach insisted upon as a preliminary qualification for every classical lecturer, or master in a public school. On the same side we may quote the still more emphatic testimony of Professor Goodwin, the first Director of the American School at Athens. In the report issued after his year of office Professor Goodwin said, in speaking of those who were to carry on the classical teaching of schools and universities:

"I am conscious of no better preparation for enthusiastic work, after they have obtained the book-learning commonly deemed necessary for their profession, than to spend eight months in the study of Greece herself, in viewing her temples and learning the secrets of their architecture, and in studying geography and history at once by exploring her battlefields, her lines of communication through her cities. So you can study history in riding mountain passes, and the sites of her famous over the plains of Boeotia, and visiting in quick succession Orchomenos, Charonea, Leuctra, Platea, and Thebes. So you can study history in making the circuit of the plain of Mantinea, passes which lead to the beautiful valley of and in forcing your way through the rocky Sparta. Before you get to Sparta you will see why none of these rough stones were needed to build walls for the city; and before you leave the valley you will understand better the discipline of Lycurgus, with its iron money and its black broth, and the hardihood of Leonidas and the men of Thermopyla.'

words which will be echoed by most "I believe," adds the Professor in people who have thought seriously about have spent even a short time in Athens, the subject, and especially by all who

"I believe, that any scholar who should take in these object lessons, with the host of others which follow them, in a rapid journey through Greece, and then make a study of the monuments of Athens herself, and of the topography


of Athens and Attica, would never regret the year devoted to the pleasant work; and I be lieve, further, that any school or college which might hereafter employ him as its teacher of Greek would have made the best possible investment if it had paid his expenses while he was doing it. And, apart from all the purely antiquarian interest which every stone in Athens awakens in the scholar, I am sure that no one can dwell in daily sight of the dark rock of the Acropolis, crowned with the stately Parthenon, meeting his eyes at every turn in the crowded streets of modern Athens, as it met the eyes of the ancient Athenians, and become familiar with the calm beauty and dignity, of this favorite home of Athena, without feeling that merely to live under its shadow is in

[ocr errors]

The final sentence strikes once more the chord of sentiment which thrilled the founders of the French school. And true it is that sentiment is no small factor in such an enterprise. But surely it is a noble sentiment, springing from a recognition of the high services. rendered by the Greeks to the cause of humanity, and leading moreover to a practical result in the enlargement of the bounds of knowledge. What Mr. Burn has said in the preface to his Rome and the Campagna," applies with at least equal force to the case of Greece. "The importance of archæological and topographical research continually increases with the progress of criticism, and the more mistrustful modern science renders us with regard to the primitive traditions recited by Roman historians, the more indispensable becomes the appeal to actually existing monuments and sites.' If the truth of these words be admitted-and few, we imagine, would now venture to question them-it follows that the establishment of what may be called a biological station for the study of the history of the Greek nation, in the very centre of its activity, is an object which has a direct significance for, and deserves the support of, all concerned in the higher education of the country.

Enough has perhaps now been said to show that the objects of this school are definite and worthy of encouragement. It remains to speak of the conditions of its management, and of the admission and work of its students. The managing committee consists of three trustees, of a treasurer* and secretary, of

* Mr. Walter Leaf, Old Change, London.

five members elected annually by the subscribers, and of members nominated, one by each corporate body which undertakes to subscribe at least fifty pounds a year toward the maintenance of the school. In this committee is vested the government of the school, including the power of appointing the Director. The Director's chief duties, as defined in the regulations drawn up by the committee, are (1) to guide and assist the studies of students of the school, (2) to deliver at least six free public lectures at Athens during the season, (3) to report to the committee, at the end of each season, on the studies pursued by himself and by each student; and on any other matter affecting the interests of the school. To prevent misapprehension we should add that although Mr. Penrose's other engagements do not permit of his acting as Director for more than one year, it is not intended that future Directors shall hold office for less than three years. The system of yearly Directors, adopted from force of circumstances in the case of the American school, has been proved to be at least as unsatisfactory in practice as any one could have anticipated. It takes at least a year for even a trained archæologist to qualify himself to perform efficiently all the varied duties of such a post. The students fall into three classes: (1) holders of travelling fellowships, studentships, or scholarships at any university of the United Kingdom or of the British Colonies, (2) travelling students sent out by the Royal Academy, Royal Institute of British Architects, or other similar bodies, (3) other persons who shall satisfy the managing committee that they are duly qualified to be admitted to the privileges of the school. Intending students are required to apply to the secretary,* and no student will be enrolled who does not intend to reside at least When three months in Greek lands.

attached to the school a student will be

expected to pursue some definite course of study or research in a department of Hellenic studies, and to write in each season a report upon his work. Such reports will be submitted to the Direc

* At present, Mr. George Macmillan, 29 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London.

tor, and may afterward at discretion be published under the sanction of the managing committee. Students will have a right to use the library of the school, and to attend all lectures given in connection with the school, free of charge. At present no arrangements are possible for their boarding and lodging, but it is hoped later on that means may be found to accommodate at least some of them at a fixed rate. Not the least important part of the work of such a school, as has been abundantly shown in the case of the French and German schools, would be that of the exploration or excavation of ancient sites. This object will be kept steadily in view by the governors of the British school, and if possible a special fund will be established for application to such purposes. This brings us to the financial aspect of the undertaking. It was clearly pointed out in the recent report of the executive committee that although an income of four hundred pounds secured for three years seemed to justify the appointment of a Director and the opening of the school, yet this income is of a precarious nature, and is not enough to insure the efficiency of the school. The University of Oxford and the Hellenic Society have each granted the sum of one hundred pounds a year for three years, and there is a reasonble prospect of these grants being renewed. The remaining two hundred pounds a year is made up of individual subscriptions, and rather more than half of it has been guaranteed by a single donor, who conceals his generosity under the veil of anonymity. The thousand pounds of capital which remain after the building of the house at Athens will be absorbed in the preliminary expenses of furnishing it, and purchasing the nucleus of a library. It will be seen at once that this is not a very satisfactory state of things. Not more than two-thirds of the present income can be reckoned upon at the end of the first three years. A competent Director can hardly be found for a less salary than four hundred pounds a year, even with the house to live in. The library, if it is to serve its purpose, must be kept up by the annual purchase of new books, and archæological books are necessarily expensive. The wear and tear of the house and furniture, the printing of reports,

and other incidental expenses must be provided for. A fund for travelling and exploration is most desirable, if not indispensable. Taking all this into account, it seems obvious that whether by donations, or by annual subscriptions, an endowment of at least five hundred pounds a year beyond the present resources of the school must be raised if its work is to be efficient and fruitful. To establish such an institution, and then to starve it by an inadequate endowment would be a national disgrace in face of the achievements of the French and German schools. These are supported, and liberally supported, by their respective governments. In England and in America such institutions depend for their support upon private enterprise and liberality. The Americans, who opened their school in a hired house, are now building one of their own on a site (also presented to them by the Greek government) adjoining that of the British school. They, too, have had some difficulty in raising all the funds that are needed, but the scholars who are in charge of the undertaking are hopeful of ultimate success. All who feel that England ought to be at least on a level with her neighbors in the pursuit of every liberal study are bound to see to it that the British school, inaugurated under such favorable auspices, shall not stand out in contrast to her rivals as a conspicuous failure on financial grounds alone. If funds do not fail, we may count upon a constant supply of able and zealous workers. Time was when English scholars were foremost in the work of exploration and research in Greek lands. The splendid work both of discovery and of publication performed by the Society of Dilettanti, which still fourishes among us, has done lasting honor to the name of English scholarship and munificence. It was two Englishmen, Stuart and Revett, who first published anything worthy to be called a complete account of the monuments of ancient Athens. The topographical writings of Colonel Leake are of still undisputed authority. It should surely not be said that the country which has produced such men, and others like them happily still with us, is less zealous than of old in a field which it was among the first to cultivate.-Macmillan's Magazine.



FOR part of a London Season Slumming was a fashionable pastime. Dainty dames, delicate damsels, and golden gentlemen, went to the dark, dank, and dismal slums that abound in Modern Babylon, and, while they sniffed at pretty little camphor bags, feasted their eyes upon the dire distress of their fellow creatures. I do not mean that they were so fiendishly brutal as to absolutely enjoy the sight of the misery with the full consciousness that their fellow creatures were the sufferers. Nay, I have been told, and I do not in the least doubt the statement, that the dainty dames shuddered, the delicate damsels were tearful, and that even the golden gentlemen shook their heads dolefully. Their enjoyment was of the theatrical kind, and so was their sympathy. They were amused and affected, in the same manner and degree as they would have been amused and affected at a theatre in witnessing a pathetic drama of Life in a London Slum.

Why do I assert that the sympathy, as well as the enjoyment, of the slumming parties was altogether theatrical? Because I assume, and confidently assume, that the dainty dames, delicate damsels, and golden gentlemen, are not inhuman, and they would indeed be heartless as wolves, if they had realized that the suffering they beheld was real, since the slumming pastime had no more practical effect than if it had been merely a theatrical recreation. It was rumored that in the opinion of a distinguished physician, the slumming, despite the pretty little camphor bags, was perilous to health, and so it ceased, but surely those who had been to the slums would have tried to do something to mitigate the misery of Lazarus, if they had understood that the scenes they saw were real life scenes.

It may be that much, very much, too much of all the sympathy for the poor is of the theatrical sort. To feel for the sufferer of a woe you have never suffered, and that apparently you never can suffer, cannot be easy. If you visited hospitals your sympathy with the sick would not be merely theatrical, for

you know that sickness strikes and shatters the rich as well as the poor. If you went a dead-housing, got up mortuary parties, to while away an hour betwixt luncheon and your Rotten Row drive, your emotion would not be mostly theatrical, for death is the doom of prince as well as peasant, of Dives as well as Lazarus. But your land and your houses, and your settlements, and your consols, and your shares, assure you against meeting pestilential slum pauperism. Your property is practically a gulf that separates you from such a direful condition, as seemingly impassable as that which separated Dives in Hell from Lazarus in Heaven. So your sympathy with the poor, anent suffering you have never suffered, and apparently can never suffer, is apt to be theatrically unreal.

Perhaps it would be far better for Dives, in all respects far better for him, if he realized the fact, the terrible fact, that the misery of the poor is a reality, a fearful reality. Fearful for Dives as well as for Lazarus.

Dives! I suppose the certain rich man of the parable was in his way a philanthropist. Or else why should Lazarus, the beggar full of sores, have been laid at his gate? Perhaps it was known that the rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen and fared sumptuously every day, gave to hungry beggars the crumbs that fell from his table. Only the crumbs, and no substantial part of his wealth.


Oh, modern philanthropist ! Lazarus in his suffering and sorrow and torture and torment speaks of you as Dives. Art thou Dives? I do not ask you what portion of your income is given to the poor. That is not the point. The certain rich man did not redeem the beggar Lazarus from his beggary. you try to redeem the abject poor from their abject poverty? Just preventing death from destitution is what Dives did. Just preventing death from destitution seems to be what is done with the poor of to-day. Oh, modern philanthropist ! Art thou Dives?

My brother! Well you are my brother

despite your wealth, even as Lazarus is your brother despite his poverty. My brother, you and I being quite alone, that is as alone as two human beings can be, let us with fraternal frankness consider the question: Art thou Dives? Are you Dives in very deed though not in thought? If you are Dives, in your treatment of Lazarus it matters not to him whether you act with thought or thoughtlessly. Does your lack of consciousness matter to you, supposing you are as Dives to Lazarus? If you have eyes to see and shut them, and you stumble, is not your fall your fault? So the question closely, cleavingly con

cerns you:

Art thou Dives ?"

Lazarus thinks you are. He says in effect :-" He, the rich man, just keeps me alive with the crumbs that fall from his table, with what remain when his dogs are too gorged to eat any more, but he leaves me in the depths of distress. He only prolongs my misery. He calls himself a Christian, but he is the rich man of the parable, he is Dives."

Lazarus does not say so to you. On the contrary, with his lips he thanks you for the crumbs. But he says it when you cannot hear him, and when he feels free to speak out of the fulness of his heart, out of the fulness and the soreness of his heart.

Crumbs! Is Lazarus blind? Is he deaf? Can he not see the noble charitable institutions that you have reared, and that you support? The hospitals, for example. Lazarus has cynical has cynical counsellors who whisper to him-"The hospitals! Bah! They are founded They are founded and maintained so that surgeons and physicians may have the practice that enables them to attend to the ailments of the rich." Surely that imputation of a selfish motive is unjust. Let Lazarus be mindful of the command to judge not. He is not a Searcher of hearts. He has to do with the deednot the motive that prompts the doer of the deed. Some of the counsellors of Lazarus are most malevolently cynical, for they whisper to him-" The charity of the rich is intended as a sin-offering for the exceeding sinfulness of their exceeding selfishness. Those who love their wealth too devotedly to willingly part with any portion of it, keep it while

they live, and since they must part with it at death, a portion is bequeathed to charity. The charitable bequest is a dodge for making a sin-offering without any personal sacrifice; for it is a charitable gift only to be given after death has sent the so-called donor naked out of the world." Such cynicism is deplorable, and though the sores of Lazarus are many and very sore, how can he be excused for assenting or even half assenting to the imputation of iniquitously unworthy motives for deeds that are in themselves kind? Perhaps that imputation of motives has something to do with the blindness and deafness of Lazarus as to the great sum total of your charity. Crumbs that fall from the table! Surely, oh modern philanthropist, you give away more, much more than the fallen crumbs. Still there is Lazarus in his dire distress, and you, speaking figuratively, are clothed in purple and fine linen, and fare sumptuously every day. So, my rich brother, be not angry with Lazarus for his harsh judgment, and whether it is unjust or just it is very harsh. Think of your condition and his condition! Do you wonder he calls you Dives? But art thou Dives? It may be unawares, but art thou Dives?


Crumbs, indeed! Lazarus knows not the statistics of your charity. do you not manifest a deep interest in the welfare of the poor? Is there not to be a People's Palace reared in the midst of a region of squalor? Are not men of culture nobly using their talents to give mental culture to the poorest? Do not men of genius go from the wealthy West to the pauperized East and deliver lectures? Are not the children of the poorest being educated? Are not the Ministers of the Gospel, who labor for their Master in the poorest districts, aided in their most blessed work by zealous lay helpers, by men and women who prefer the service of God to the pleasures of Mammon? Yes; and yet Lazarus is still in dire distress.

[blocks in formation]
« VorigeDoorgaan »