Hong Kong Landscapes: Shaping the Barren Rock
Hong Kong has a largely mountainous terrain, very little flat land, no major rivers, no great forests, and a paucity of mineral wealth. The relative poverty of the place led the British Foreign Secretary to remark, in 1841, that Hong Kong was a "barren rock with hardly a house upon it". Prior to that date, the rugged landscape of Hong Kong had evolved, with little human interference, over about 400 million years. Subsequently, large influxes of people and their farming, building, reclamation, and economic activities have markedly transformed that original landscape. This book explains, in simple terms and with numerous photographs and figures, the origins of these varied landscapes, examining the contributions of different rocks, geological structures, and modern processes, as well as the profound impact of people.
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The Southeastern New Territories
The Eastern New Territories
Kowloon and the Lion Rock Ridge
Hong Kong Island and Lamina
Seas and Islands
Landscapes Past Present and Future
The Western New Territories
The Central New Territories
adjacent photograph beaches boulders caldera Chek Lap Kok China cliffs coast coastal coastline colluvium conglomerates corals corestones Country Park delta deposits developed dominated dykes eroded erosion eruptions example extends fault feldspar flat flooded floodplain flow Formation geological Granite granitic rocks ground gullies Harbour High Island hillsides Hong Kong Island Human Impacts joints Kung Lamma land landscape Lantau lavas Leng located Ma On Shan magma mangrove marine materials million years ago minerals Mo Shan mountains mudstones Needle Hill northern occur Peninsula photograph shows Ping Chau Plover Cove Po Toi produce quartz reclamations region Reservoir rhyolite ridge river Sai Kung sand sandstones sea level sediment sedimentary Sha Tin Shek Shing siltstones slopes steep stream surface Tai Mo Shan tidal tide Tolo Channel Tuen Tuen Mun tuffs Tung Chung tunnels urban valleys villages waves weathering western New Territories Yuen Long