phrases and words, in the notes, as far as was practicable; and where I could not conveniently do this, have inserted them in the English character, believing such a course would be acceptable to a majority of my readers. With this exception, I have endeavored to copy every author fairly and faithfully; and have often quoted more than I desired, rather than have the appearance of mutilating or misrepresenting the passage. The only alteration I have ventured to make is in the orthography. Some very antiquated phrases will be found, and some words of which the meaning may appear obscure. But I chose to let them remain, rather than attempt to alter the phraseology. A few of the words alluded to may serve as a specimen: however frequently occurs, in the more ancient writers, in the sense of at all events; expect is used for await; importance, for import; notation, for signification; consequents, for consequences, &c.

Before closing this introduction, it should be observed that a work of similar character was commenced, a few years since, by Rev. H. BALLOU, 2d, but for want of sufficient leisure was abandoned. The results of his examination were published in the second volume of the Trumpet.' Of course, some of the authorities I have quoted are the same which were adduced by him: I have omitted some, and have added others. I may observe, however, that, with a very few exceptions, my quotations from orthodox writers have been made directly

from the works quoted, and not through the medium of other writers.

Of the authors quoted in this work, it may be sufficient to say, that they are all supposed to have believed the doctrine of endless misery, except Wakefield, Kenrick, and Cappe. But these three believed in a state of torment for the wicked, in the future life, and may therefore be quoted, when the only question is, whether any text relate to misery after death, or not. For a more particular description, see Index of Authors, appended to this volume.

In the Preface to the first edition, I expressed a hope, 'that, by the collection and publication of these testimonies from authors, the works of many of whom have not been extensively circulated in America, I might render an acceptable service to the community generally, and especially to the denomination of Christians with whom I am happy to be in fellowship.' That hope has not been disappointed. Encouraged by the favorable opinion expressed by those who are fully entitled to my confidence, I now offer to the public a second edition, embracing several additional testimonies, selected from works which I have more recently had an opportunity to examine.




'Repent ye; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.' MATT. iii. 2.

THIS passage is sometimes, though not so frequently as some others, alleged as proof that a portion of mankind will not be saved. It is assumed that the kingdom of heaven means the state of endless glory, in reservation for the righteous; it is further assumed that some shall remain 'finally impenitent;' and then it is gravely contended, that, since some never will repent, they can never be admitted into that kingdom: in other words, they can never be saved. As no one pretends that this text affords direct proof of endless misery, I might pass by it, in silence; but I am induced to notice it, because it gives me an opportunity to insert a valuable note, to which I may have occasion to refer more than once, in the progress of my work. The note follows:

HAMMOND. 'The phrase basileia ton ouranon, or tou theou, the kingdom of heaven and of God, signifies in the New Testament the kingdom of the Messias, or that state or condition which is a most lively image of that which we believe to be in heaven, and therefore called by that name. For as God's regal power, exercised in heaven,

consists in assisting, defending, and rewarding all his faithful subjects, and in warning, punishing, and destroying his obdurate enemies, so this kingdom of the Messias is an exact image or resemblance of it; and being, as it is elsewhere affirmed, not of this world, a secular kingdom, but consisting especially in subduing the world to his dominion. That is done first by the descent of the spirit, and preaching the gospel, by his word powerfully working in some, and bringing them unto the faith, and then by his iron rod executing vengeance on others, viz. the contumacious and obdurate, (to this purpose that parable delivered by Christ, Luke xix. 12, on occasion of their thinking that the kingdom of God should presently appear, (ver. 11,) is very considerable,-see the place,) and particularly those of the nation of the Jews after the crucifixion of Christ. And accordingly this kingdom of God will generally signify these two together; not only the first alone, but, in conjunction with it, that other more tragical part of it also. That it is used so here may be discerned,

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First, by that which is said in Malachi, by way of prophecy of John's preaching, (iv. 5,) that he should come before the great and terrible day of the Lord, (see note on chap. xvii. 10,) i. e. before the fatal destruction of this people; and also in Isaiah, that, when he cried in the wilderness, this was part of his crying, prepare ye the way of the Lord: noting him an anteambulo or forerunner of Christ's coming, &c.


Secondly, by that which follows here (ver. 10) as the explication of this text of the Baptist's, (and now also the axe is laid to the root of the trees; every tree therefore that bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down and cast into the fire;) and again, (ver. 7,) by the orge mellousa, the wrath ready to come upon them, which is proportionable or parallel to the approaching kingdom of heaven, as the exhortation (ver. 8) of bringing forth meet fruits of repentance, is to metanoeite, repent; and so directly in that prophecy of Malachi's concerning the coming and preaching of John Baptist, (iv. 5, 6,) the sum of his preaching is expressed by the effect of it: he shall turn the heart of the fathers to (or with) the children, and the

heart of the children to (or with) their fathers; i. e. shall convert all sorts of Jews, young and old, fathers and children, — preach conversion and repentance to them, lest I (i. e. God) come and smite the earth (or land) with a curse; whereas God's coming is interpreted by his smiting Judea, (curses and inflictions on that land,) so is this denunciation of those judgments part of that Baptist's sermon, and the repentance or conversion by him preached, the only means to avert them.

'And so likewise in Isaiah xl. the revealing the glory of the Lord, &c. (ver. 5) may be the preaching of the gospel; and then the visibleness of God's judgments on all the Jews in Judea, and vs. 6, 7, 8, very fitly refer to the sudden destruction of that people, as the withering of grass, or fading of flowers, upon God's blowing upon them, whereby his displeasure is expressed. To which yet his preservation of the remnant, (as here his gathering the wheat into his garner, ver. 12,) his protecting of the few believers, (so that not a hair of their heads shall fall, Luke xxi. 18,) is immediately annexed, vs. 9, 10, 11. And accordingly the kingdom of God here is not to be so restrained to the punitive part, but that it also contain under it that other piece of regality, which consists in protecting of subjects, and rewarding them which do well also, which should be most visible at the time of his punishment on the obstinate, his burning the chaff_with unquenchable fire. To this purpose the words of St. Luke (xxi. 18, 31) are most remarkable, where, setting down distinctly the signs and forerunners of the destruction of the temple and that people, and among those prognostics the great persecutions which the disciples should find from the Jews, he bids them cheerfully look up, (ver. 28,) for their redemption, deliverance from these hazards and pressures, draweth near; and, with a short parable interposed to express it, he adds, (ver. 31,) know that the kingdom of God is at hand, this kingdom surely here, which now approached, but should then be more near, wherein the judgment of God should be most visible in judging betwixt the wheat and the straw, burning up the refuse, destroying the impenitent, unbelieving Jews, but protecting and setting safe on the shore all the disciples

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