Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting
Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting deals with liquid scintillation counting and its applications in fields such as the biosciences, medicine, environmental and space sciences, chemistry, and physics. These applications include dual-labeled counting; Cerenkov counting; radioimmunoassay, chemiluminescence and bioluminescence; pulse shape discrimination; flow cell counting; and large-volume counters.
This book is comprised of 18 chapters and begins with a historical overview of the liquid scintillation method, the first liquid scintillation counters, and early scintillator solutes. The following chapters focus on the theory of liquid scintillation counting; the components of the liquid scintillator solution; and the development of the liquid scintillation counter and multiplier phototubes. The discussion then turns to the detection and measurement of different types of particles produced by radionuclides using liquid scintillation techniques; the techniques and problems of sample preparations (homogeneous and heterogeneous); oxidation techniques; and importance and difference of several types of counting vials. The sources of quenching in counting samples and methods of monitoring and correction for variable quench within samples are also considered. Several special applications of liquid scintillation techniques are presented, including dual-labeled counting, radioimmunoassay, and flow cell counting. In conclusion, the statistical considerations involved in determining the reliability and accuracy of data obtained by nuclear counting techniques are highlighted.
This monograph will serve as a reliable source of information for those who are already using or starting to use liquid scintillation counting techniques.
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CHAPTER III SCINTILLATOR SOLUTIONS
CHAPTER IV LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTERS AND MULTIPLIER PHOTOTUBES
CHAPTER V PARTICLE COUNTING TECHNIQUES
CHAPTER VI PREPARATION OF COUNTING SAMPLES
CHAPTER VII OXIDATION TECHNIQUES
CHAPTER VIII COUNTING VIALS
CHAPTER XII CHEMILUMINESCENCE AND BIOLUMINESCENCE
CHAPTER XIII RADIOIMMUNOASSAY RIA
CHAPTER XIV CERENKOV COUNTING
CHAPTER XV PULSE SHAPE DISCRIMINATION
CHAPTER XVI FLOW CELL COUNTING
CHAPTER XVII LARGEVOLUME COUNTERS
CHAPTER XVIII STATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Overige edities - Alles weergeven
acid alpha particles amount Anal anthracene aqueous background beta emitters beta particles C. T. Peng Cerenkov radiation channels ratio Chem chemiluminescence coincidence combustion Compton edge Compton scattered concentration conversion electrons count rate counter counting channels counting efﬁciency D. L. Horrocks decay dioxane dissolved dynode eﬂiciency Emax emission emitted energy transfer ethanolamine excited molecules external standard F. N. Hayes ﬁlter ﬁrst ﬁssion ﬂask ﬂuorescence fraction g/liter Horrocks and C. T. Instrum Integral counting Isotop Liquid Scintillation Counting liquid scintillator solution measured method molecules multiplier phototube neutron nsec Nucl nuclide number of photons obtained Organic Scintillators p-xylene phenethylamine photocathode photoelectrons photons Phys probability produced Pulse spectrum quench radioactive radionuclides rays reaction reﬂected scintillation efﬁciency scintillation yield Scintillators and Liquid secondary solute shown in Fig shows singlet solubility solvent speciﬁc spectra Table technique temperature toluene tritium types vial wavelength y-ray