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26.-The Agricultural Society of England, established in 1838, receives to-day a Royal Charter of incorporation.
27.-Lady Bulwer again brings an action against Messrs. Lawson and Thackeray, this time in the Tribunal of Correctional Police, Paris, but is defeated on the plea that her husband was not a consenting party to the proceedings.
30.-The wife of the Duke of Sussex created Duchess of Inverness. She was described as the Right Honourable Lady Cecilia Letitia Underwood, eldest surviving daughter of the second Earl of Arran, and widow of Sir George Buggin, attorney.
- In answer to a Royal Message, the House of Commons agree to confer on Lord Seaton (Sir J. Colborne) a pension of 2,000l. per annum, with continuance for two lives after his own.
- Died in the asylum of the Bon Sauveur, Calais, aged 62, Beau Brummel.
31.–Up to this date, the total number of petitions presented against the Corn Laws was 2,141, bearing 980,352 signatures. In favour of the Corn Laws, 2,886, bearing 138,051 signatures.
- M. Guizot arrives in London as French Minister at the Court of St. James's.
April 2.—The House of Assembly at Nova Scotia vote resolutions affirming the necessity of remodelling the Executive Council on the principle of Lord John Russell's despatch of the 16th October, 1839, so as to produce harmony between the Government and the House of Assembly. The resolutions having been communicated to the Governor (Sir Colin Campbell), his Excellency replied, that he had no reason to believe any alteration in the sentiments of the Queen's Ministers had occurred; and that he was in every way satisfied with the assistance he had received from his Council. The Assembly then remonstrated with the Governor, pressing him to carry out the principle laid down by the head of the Colonial Department. Sir Colin replied, that he could at put the same interpretation on the despatch as the Assembly, but promised to refer the address and resolutions of the Assembly to the Government at home. Thereupon the Assembly adopted a petition to the Queen to remove Sir Colin Campbell ; and Sir Colin immediately prorogued his Parliament.
3.-The discussion on Mr. Villiers' annual motion regarding the Corn Laws was brought to an unexpected termination to-night by a division being taken on the motion for adjournment, when 129 voted for, and 245 against.
4.-Died at Kingsland, London, Rev. John Campbell, missionary traveller in Africa.
6.-Mr. Temple Frere drowned at Cambridge, when attempting to save the life of a fellow-student in the river.
7. - Commencement of a debate on Sir James Graham's motion-"That it appears to this House, on consideration of the papers relating to China, presented by command of her Majesty, that the interruption in our commercial and friendly intercourse with that country, and the hostilities which have since taken place, are mainly to be attributed to the want of foresight and precaution on the part of her Majesty's present advisers, in respect to our relations with China, and especially to their neglect to furnish the Superintendent at Canton with powers and instructions calculated to provide against the growing evils connected with the contraband traffic in opium, and adapted to the novel and difficult situation in which the Superintendent was placed.” Sir James delivered an elaborate speech against Ministers, with the view of showing that they had neglected to alter that part of the original Order in Council, and of the instructions to Lord Napier, which directed the Superintendent to reside at Canton, after experience had proved the inexpediency of attempting to carry out that direction; that they had omitted to correct another error in the instruction, by which the Superintendent was ordered to communicate directly with the Chinese authorities, and on equal terms-not as a petitioner ; that although the presence of a naval force off the coast of China was most desirable, and recommended in a memorandum left by the Duke of Wellington when he quitted office in 1835, no such force had been placed at the disposal of the Superintendent till 1839; that they had not supplied Captain Elliot with power to suppress the illicit trade in opium; and throughout the whole of the difficult circumstances in which he was placed, had neglected to furnish him with instructions. Sir James supported his allegations by quotations from the China papers laid before Parliament; calling particular attention to the meagre despatches which, at long intervals, Lord Palmerston vouchsafed in reply to Captain Elliot's pressing representations of the difficulties which surrounded him, and of the serious consequences likely to arise from perseverance in the opium-trade, and the growing jealousy of the Chinese authorities. He then went on to deprecate a war with China on account of the great revenue derived by this country, no less than from the great number and wealth of the people. Speaking of the Chinese jealousy of England, “They have only,” said Sir James, “to look across the Himalayas, and they see Hindostan prostrate at the feet of Great Britain. They are not so ignorant as not to be perfectly aware of the policy that led to this conquest. Hardly a century is passed since our empire, by small beginnings, arose. And how did it arise? It arose under the pretence of trade and the ser.iblance of commerce. Scarcely a cen. tury has elapsed since our first factory was established in that country. We began by
building a warehouse—we surrounded it with | walls—we added a ditch-we armed our work. men—we increased the number of Europeans;
we formed a garrison; we treated with the that the disturbance was in any degree attrinative powers--we soon discovered their weak butable to the new method which had been ness; the garrison marched out-Arcot was adopted, of communicating with the Viceroy. seized--the battle of Plassey was won ; what " It is not,” said Mr. Macaulay, “a question Clive commenced the Wellesleys concluded; of phrases and ceremonies. The liberties and Seringapatam was taken, the Mysore was van lives of Englishmen are at stake; and it is fit quished, the Mahratta war was terminated by the that all nations, civilized and uncivilized, should battle of Assaye, and India became ours. Nor know, that wherever the Englishman may is this all—the Indus and the Ganges no longer wander he is followed by the eye and guarded bound the limits of our empire; the Hydaspes by the power of England. I was much touched, has been passed, Cabul and Candahar have wit- and so I dare say were many other gentlemen, nessed the advance of our armies, Central Asia by a passage in one of Captain Elliot's destrembles at our presence and almost acknow patches : I mean that passage in which he ledges our dominion; and on the borders of describes his arrival at the factory in the moment such an empire, is it not natural that the of extreme danger. As soon as he landed he Chinese, seeing what has passed, should feel was surrounded by his countrymen, all in an the utmost jealousy at the settlement of any of agony of distress and despair. The first thing the British within their territories ?” The pro which he did was to order the British flag to be poser of the resolution concluded :-“When brought from his boat and planted in the bal. they saw on the part of her Majesty's advisers cony. The sight immediately revived the hearts the most pertinacious adherence to the erro of those who had a minute before given themneous course repudiated both by experience and selves up for lost. It was natural that they reason—when they saw that they attempted to should look up with hope and confidence to force on a proud and powerful people a mode that victorious flag; for it reminded them that of proceeding to which the weakest would not they belonged to a country unaccustomed to tamely submit-when they saw that the advice defeat, to submission, or to shame; to a country of one of the greatest and most prudent of our which had exacted such reparation for the statesmen, who himself had warned them, was wrongs of her children as had made the ears of disregarded and rejected—when they saw re all who heard it to tingle; to a country which peated warnings given by the servants of the had made the Dey of Algiers humble himself same Administration equally. unattended to to the dust before her insulted Consul; to a when they saw that branch of the trade which country which had avenged the victims of the the confidential servants of the Administration Black Hole on the field of Plassey; to a country had declared to be piratical, not put down by which had not degenerated since the great Prothe interference of her Majesty's Government tector vowed that he would make the name of when they saw nothing done or attempted to be Englishman as much respected as ever had been done, whilst her Majesty's Superintendent was the name of Roman citizen.”—Mr. F. Thesiger, left without power, without instruction, and the new member for Woodstock, spoke on the without force to meet the emergency which second night of the debate, against Ministers. must have been naturally expected to follow After three nights' discussion the motion was he could not help asking the House, whether rejected by 271 to 261 votes. they did believe that the people of this country
8.-At the Liverpool Assizes, Bronterre would patiently submit to the burden which
O'Brien, found guilty of sedition, was sentenced this Parliament must of necessity impose, and
to eighteen months' imprisonment, and ordered whether that people could repose confidence in
to find sureties in 300l. to keep the peace. an Administration that, by a mismanagement of five years, had destroyed a trade which had
9.-Mr. Duncombe carries a resolution for flourished for centuries, and which, in addition
an Address to the Queen praying that she to the loss the country had already under
would cause the Lord Chamberlain to withdraw gone, had almost plunged it into a war in which the prohibition he had issued against the success would not be attended with glory, and delivery of a lecture on astronomy at the in which defeat would be our ruin and our Opera-house during Passion-week. shame.”—Mr. Macaulay undertook the defence 10.–At a meeting of the Sub-Committee of of the Ministry immediately on the question
the Nelson monument, the offer of Messrs. being put from the Chair. He said it was
Grissell and Peto to erect the column in Traimpossible for Ministers to have given such
falgar-square for 17,860l. in two years, was copious and particular directions as were suffi
accepted. cient in every possible emergency for the guidance of a functionary who was fifteen thousand
- Died at Edinburgh, aged 83 years, Alexmiles off. The trade of China, like the politics
ander Nasmyth, founder of the Scottish school of India, must be mainly directed by officials on
of landscape painting. the spot; and so far as direct interference with 14.-Richard Gould tried at the Central the opium trade was concerned, he sought to Criminal Court for the murder of John Temshow that, during the greater part of a year pre- plemann, at Islington, in March last, and ceding the disturbances, there was every reason acquitted. He was afterwards tried for the for believing that the Emperor intended openly | burglary committed on the premises, and found to legalize and regilate the trade. He denied guilty.
29.-A gardener, named Smith, attacks three police-officers in the prison yard at Hudders. field with a pruning-knife, and inflicts such injuries on Duke, the chief of the force, that he dies in a few hours.
- On resuming business after the Easter recess, the Cambridge Election Committee report that Mr. Manners-Sutton had by his agents been guilty of bribery and trcating, and that an extensive and corrupt system of treating prevailed on the part of many influential members of the constituency of Cambridge. The elections at Ludlow and Totness were also declared void this session.
30.-Marriage of the Duke de Nemours with the Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg.
14.-Royal assent given to the bill affording summary protection to persons employed in the publication of parliamentary papers.
15.—Meeting in the Guildhall, to protest against the establishment of a penal settlement in any part of New Zealand.
- Five footmen, in the service of noblemen in London, charged at Queen-square with assaulting and threatening a servant in Earl Galloway's employment, because he would not conform to the rules of the footmen's club by paying his “footing” for the use of the room set apart for them at the House of Lords. They were fined ros. each.
- Died at the Viceregal Lodge, Dublin, Captain Thomas Drummond, Under-Secretary for Ireland, and inventor of the Drummond or lime light.
17.-In consequence of the refusal of Ferdinand II. of Naples, to discontinue the working of the Sicilian sulphur by private monopoly, in opposition to the treaty of 1816, the British Government commence hostilities. The monopoly was broken up the following month.
18.-O'Connell organizes a new Society in Dublin, to be called the “National Association for Justice or Repeal," and announces that the first sum collected for its support amounted to 441.
20,-Prince Albert thrown from his horse in the Home Park, but injured so slightly as to be able to mount again immediately, and proceed to a stag-hunt at Ascot.
24.-Meeting in the Freemasons' Hall, Earl Stanhope in the chair, to petition Parliament against the continuance of the opium war.
25.-Died at Paris, aged 58, M. Poisson, President of the Académie des Sciences.
29 –The Court of Common Council, by a vote of 56 to 30, agree to present a piece of plate to each of the Sheriffs, in testimony of the Court's approbation of their patriotic and magnanimous conduct in refusing to submit to the decrees of the House of Commons instead of the commands of the Court, whose officers they were.
28.-At the meeting of the Synod of Moray, the “moderate" party carried a resolution permitting the seven suspended Strathbogie ministers to vote on making up the poll, and to act and vote on any business taken up by the Synod.
29.-Disturbance in the Italian Operahouse, caused by Laporte's non-engagement of Signor Tamburini.
- It is reported regarding the wood pavement in the Metropolis, that, over the portion kid down in Oxford-street during the last sixteen months, there had travelled 7,000 vehicles and 12,000 horses, with scarcely any appearance of wear or change on the surface.
May 1.-A penny postage envelope, designed by W. Mulready, R.A., issued to the public.
2.-In the Court of Queen's Bench, Lord Denman reverses the decision of Dr. Lushing. ton in the Braintree Church Rate case, thus affirming the power alleged to be vested in a majority of the vestry.
5.-Sir William Molesworth brings the subject of transportation before the Communs, in supporting two resolutions : (1) “That the punishment of transportation should be aboIished, and the penitentiary system of punishment adopted in its stead as soon as practicable ;” and, (2) “That the funds to be derived from the sales of waste lands in New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land ought to be anticipated by means of loans on that security, for the purpose of promoting extensive emigration
to those colonies.” No division took place, the | motion being simply recorded in the votes.
- Select Committee appointed by the House of Commons to inquire into the several duties levied on imports into the United King. dom, and how far these duties are for the protection of similar articles manufactured in this country, or for the purpose of revenue. Their report presented next session condemned the present tariff as incongruous and diffuse, and recommended an immediate change in the protective duties presently levied.
6.–The Gresham Committee meet to decide between the plans of Mr. Tite and Mr. Cockerell for the New Royal Exchange. The former chosen by a vote of 13 to 7
- Lord William Russell found murdered in his bedroom, No. 14, Norfolk-street, Parklane. “This morning," said the housemaid, “I rose about half-past six, and went down stairs about a quarter before seven o'clock. I went into the back drawing-room, and there I
saw his lordship's writing-desk broken open, | and his keys and papers lying on the carpet.
I opened the dining-room and found the drawers open, and the candlesticks and several other pieces of plate lying on the floor. I ra up stairs and told my neighbour servant the cook, with whom I slept, what liad happened.
I also told the valet, who slept in an adjoining room, and asked him what he had been doing with the silver, for it was lying all about. He said he had been doing nothing with it, but he got up and went down stairs, when he declared the place had been robbed. I then said, “For God's sake go and see where his lordship is.' He went into his lordship's room, and I fol. lowed him, when on opening the shutters we found his lordship in bed murdered. We then ran into the street, and alarmed some of the neighbours." Dr. Elsegood was amongst the first who went into the room afterwards. “I found his lordship in bed in the front room on the second floor, lying on his back, partially towards his right side. A towel was thrown over his face, which I removed. He appeared to have been dead about four hours. On re
from the left shoulder down to the trachea, four or five inches in depth, and seven inches long. The wound, which had been inflicted by some sharp instrument, must have caused almost immediate death. The deceased could not have inflicted such a wound on himself, and then placed the cloth over his face.” In a confession made in prison on the 22d June, the valet Courvoisier described the manner in which the murder was committed, thus : “As I was coming upstairs from the kitchen, I thought it was all up with me. (Lord William Russell had been complaining of his conduct.] My character was gone, and I thought murdering him was the only way to cover my faults. I went into the dining-room and took a knife from the sideboard. On going upstairs I opened his door and heard him snoring in his sleep. There was a rushlight burning in his room at this time. I went near the bed by the side of the window, and then I murdered him. He just moved his arm a little, and never spoke a word. I took a towel which was on the back of the chair and wiped my hand and the knife. After that I took his key and opened the Russian leather box, and put it in the state in which it was found in the morning. The towel I put over his face, and undressed and went to bed.”
6.-Lord Stanley postpones his motion on the Irish Registration Bill, in consequence of the absence of Lord John Russell, caused by the death of Lord William.
8.-Police-officers searching the house of Lord William Russell find two bank-notes for 1ol. and 51. hidden behind the skirting board adjoining the sink in the butler's pantry, and to which Courvoisier only had access. In that portion of the house they also ultimately find the missing rings, locket, and gold coins secreted in obscure corners. “The watch and seal were in my jacket pocket which I had on until the Friday morning, and then I undid the ribbon and took the seal off. · Having the watch in my pocket, the glass came out ; but I did not know what to do with it, as the police
were watching me. I dropt some of the pieces of glass about the dining-room, and at different times put the large pieces in my mouth, and afterwards having broken them with my teeth spat them in the fire-place. I afterwards burned the ribbon, and put the watch under the lead in the sink."--Confession. In Courvoisier's box were also discovered a screwdriver and chisel with which certain marks in the pantry corresponded. On the evening of the roth Courvoisier was taken into custody, and conveyed to Bow-strect.
9.-Lord Palmerston writes to Earl Gran. ville at Paris : “Her Majesty's Government having taken into consideration the request made by the Government of France for permission to remove from St. Helena to France the remains of Napoleon Buonaparte, your Excellency is instructed to assure M. Thiers that her Majesty's Government will, with great pleasure, accede to this request."
11.-Feargus O'Connor sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment in York Castle, for libel.
12.-The Rev. G. Grantham, of Magdalen College, Oxford, killed by faliing from the window of his room on the second storey of the new buildings.
- Earl Stanhope's motion praying her Majesty to take immediate steps for the suppression of the opium trade, as dishonourable to the character and detrimental to the interests of her subjects, negatived in the House of Lords without a division.
14.--Motion in the House of Commons, by Mr. T. Duncombe, agreed to, that Stockdale and his attorney be discharged from Newgate.
15.—The Chancellor of the Exchequer (Baring) introduces the Annual Budget. He estimated the gross income for the year at 46,700,0001., and the expenditure at 49,432,000l. To meet the deficiency it was proposed to increase the Assessed Taxes 10 per cent. ; the Customs and Excise (with certain specified exceptions) 5 per cent., and to lay an additional duty of 4d. per gallon on all spirits—British, colonial, and foreign.
19.-The question of transportation discussed in the House of Lords in connexion with a resolution submitted by the Archbishop of Dublin, that such punishment be abolished immediately, completely, and finally.
20.-Lord Stanley's Registration of Voters Bill (Ireland) carried into Committee by the narrow majority of 3 in a House of 599.
-- A Government measure introduced into the House of Commons for dealing with the Canada Clergy Revenues. It provided for the distribution of the proceeds of the sale of clergy lands on an equitable principle; the Church of England and the Church of Scotland to have each one-fourth, the remaining half to be distributed among the other religious denomi. nations, including Roman Catholics, at the
discretion of the Governor and Executive Council.
20.-Feargus O'Connor, writing from York Castle, complains of the severe treatment to which he, a political prisoner, is subjected, in being compelled to associate with criminals, and perform all the menial labour usually laid on that class.
- York Minster narrowly escapes a second destruction by fire. As it was, the belfry, where the flames were first seen, was totally destroyed, and the oaken roof of the nave seriously injured.
21.-Opening of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. The first division was on the choice of a moderator, when Dr. Makeller, supported by the non-intrusion party, was carried (in opposition to Dr. Hill, of Dailly, nominated by the retiring moderator), by a majority of 195 to 147.
- The Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand proclaims the sovereignty of these islands to be vested in the Queen of Great Britain. Auckland made the capital of the colony, Sept. Igth.
22.-Public meeting held at Edinburgh in support of the Earl of Aberdeen's billi for removing doubts respecting the allocation and admission of ministers to benefices in Scotland. Resolutions approving of the bill were submitted and carried. Next day a meeting was held in the same city to express disapproval of the bill.
25.-At a meeting of the Roman Catholic Institute, in Freemasons' Hall, an encyclical letter from Pope Gregory was read, approving of the design of the Institute, “for protecting the followers of our divine faith in freedom and security, and for the publication of works vindicating the Spouse of the Immaculate Lamb from the calumnies of the heterodox.”
26.-The General Assembly discuss the ap. peal of the Strathbogie ministers against the legality of the sentence of suspension. Patrick Robertson, advocate, was heard for the ministers, and Dr. Cook submitted a motion, declaring that the decision of the Commission exceeded its powers, and ought to be rescinded. A counter-motion, moved by the Procurator, was carried by a majority of 227 to 143. A few days afterwards this case came again before the Assembly, when it was carried by a majority, that the sentence of suspension be continued till the meeting of Commission in August next, wben, if the seven ministers still continued contumacious, they should be served with a "libel."
- Died, aged 76, Admiral Sir William Sydney Smith
27.-Marshal Vallée reports serious disasters to the French army in Algeria.
- Died at Nice, aged 56, Nicholas Paginını, violinist.
28.-Captain Otway, of the Life Guards, killed in Hyde Park, by his horse falling back and crushing him.
29.-Confusion and many narrow escapes in Kensington Gardens, caused by the sudden appearance of a half-clad lunatic, on horseback, while the crowd of nobility in their carriages were listening to the band of the ist Life Guards.
30.-Intelligence reaches England of the suffocation of 600 slaves in the “middle passage," and the death of 100 in the same vessel during her return to Mozambique for a new cargo.
June 1.—The first public meeting of the Society for the Extinction of the Slave Trade, and for the civilization of Africa, held in Exeter Hall, presided over by Prince Albert. "I sincerely trust,” he said, “ that this great country will not relax in its efforts until it has finally and for ever put an end to a state of things so repugnant to the principles of Christianity and to the best feelings of our nature.” This was the first public address delivered by Prince Albert in England, and was so well received as to reward his Royal Highness for the great anxiety he felt as to its delivery. “He was nervous," the Queen writes, “before he went, and had repeated his speech to me in the morning by heart." Mr. Fowell Buxton, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Ashley, and others, also addressed the meeting.
- The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, by a majority of 64, approve of the sentence of the Commission suspending the seven ministers of the Strathbogie Presbytery. (See Dec. 11, 1839.)
2.-Serieant Talfoard calls the attention of the House of Commons to the unnecessarily harsh treatment of Vincent and O'Connor in prison. Lord John Russell stated in reply, that certain prison regulations at present in force would be relaxed; but that the facts had been greatly exaggerated.
3.-The fancy “properties” of the Eglinton tournament sold by auction, and purchased, in most instances, by the Metropolitan theatres.
5.-Count Bertrand, in presence of a brilliant court, delivers up to Louis Philippe the arms of Napoleon, which he had been long forced to conceal, but which he now hoped to see placed on the coffin of the great Captain, under a tomb “destined to attract the observation of the universe." In reply, the King said : “I esteem myself happy that it should have been reserved to me to restore to the soil of France the mortal remains of one who has added so many glories to our triumphs, and to discharge the debt due by our common country in surrounding his bier by all the honours which are so justly due to him."
7,-Fire in Ivy-lane, Newgate-street, and loss of five lives-Mrs. Price and four children.
- Died at Berlin, in his 70th year, Frede rick William III., King of Prussia.