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23.-The Irish Tithe Bill read a third time in freedom. The governor and the bishop of the House of Commons by a majority of 148 to 30. the island both describe the conduct of the 26.–The first stone of two new wings to
people as in the highest degree praiseworthy. Bethlehem Hospital laid by Sir P. Laurie.
The event was celebrated in a festive manner
in various towns throughout England. - The Internal Discipline of the Church Bill read a third time in the House of Lords,
. 1.-Great eruption of Vesuvius commenced. the object of the measure being to abolish the
| 4.-John Drew Woods, pedlar, murdered jurisdiction of diocesan courts in certain cases, at Dundee, whilst in a state of intoxication. and to bring clergymen charged with offences His father and mother were afterwards tried at once before the Arches Court.
for the crime, and the former condemned to 29.-Departure of Marshal Soult for France.
6.-A Radical meeting held at Birmingham, 30.-Lord Brougham draws the attention of
and addressed by Attwood, Scholefield, and the House of Lords to the highly illegal charac
Feargus O'Connor. Resolution adopted, prayter of the Ordinances issued by Lord Durham for
ing the House of Commons to use their utmost securing the peace of Lower Canada. “Even
endeavours to get a law passed granting to with persons,” he said, “who had committed
every male of lawful age, sound mind, and the crime of rebellion, they ought to have been
unconvicted of crime, the right of voting for tried; they could not be put to death without
members of Parliament, and enacting voting trial, and without sentence of death in due
by ballot, annual parliaments, the abolition of course of law. Even if the Queen--if the
all property qualifications by members of the Crown-had in a certain case commuted the
House, and the payment of those attending to sentence of death to that of banishment, the
its duties. This manifesto came to be known man returning from banishment could not be
as the National or Chartist petition. put to death. It was only after trial that a
9.-A number of the followers of Thom, or inan could be ordered to be put to death. The
Courtenay, tried before Lord Denman, at Maid. returning from transportation was made a capi
stone Assizes, for the murder of Constable tal felony by Act of Parliament in certain cases ;
Mears and Lieut. Bennett. They were all but here death was ordered without a trial, and without the regular sentence of the law to sanc
sentenced to death, but their punishment was tion it. This, however, was going upon the
commuted to various terms of imprisonment. vulgar error, that a man who returned before
10. -- Lord Melbourne announces that the period of his banishment had expired could Ministers had resolved upon disallowing Lord be put to death by any one. There was, then,
Durham's Ordinances, and would accept Lord the case of M. Papineau and one or two others,
Brougham's Indemnity Bill with certain altera. who had not confessed themselves guilty of any tions. On the third reading of the measure crime.”—Lord Lyndhurst : “ Their confessions
the Lord Chief Justice (Denman) said the prowould only be evidence.”—Lord Brougham : ceedings of Lord Durham were perfectly inde“But they had not confessed ; and men had fensible, and a violation of the first principles been acquitted notwithstanding their confession. of the Constitution. Yet Papineau and the others were to be put to 11.-Colonel Stoddart arrives in the Perdeath, not confessing anything, and not having sian camp with an ultimatum that the Shah been tried. Nothing was more monstrous than must quit Herat or fight Great Britain. The this The Act authorized Lord Durham to Shah undertook to raise the siege, and called make a general law, but not to hang meni off his troops in the direction of Teheran early without the form of law.” The subject was in the following month. Towards the close resumed in the Lords on the 5th August, when of the year Stoddart was despatched by Sir J. Lord Brougham introduced a bill declaring the M'Neill on a mission to the Ameer of Bokhara, true intent and meaning of the Act passed by from which he never returned. He was at first the British Parliament, making temporary pro | received favourably; but the tyrant Ameer, vision for the government of Lower Canada. taking offence at his letter to the Queen being Lord Glenelg admitted the illegality of that answered by the Governor-General of India, part of the Ordinances which related to Ber afterwards treated the mission with disrespect muda ; but the best course would be to write
and cruelty. simply to the Governor, informing him that the
13.-Report presented by the Select Coniprisoners were free. The second reading of the bill was carried against Ministers by a
mittee appointed to inquire into the present majority of 18 in a House of go.
rates and mode of charging postage, with a
view to such a reduction thereof as may be 31.-The Marquis of Waterford, and others,
made without injury to the revenue ; and for tried at the Derby Assizes, on the charge of
this purpose to examine especially into the riotous and disorderly conduct near Melton mode recommended for charging and collecting Mowbray, on 5th April last. Fined 100l. each. postage in a pamphlet published by Mr. Row- International Copyright Act passed.
land Hill. The Committee sat sixty-three days,
and, exclusive of Post-office officials, cxamined August 1.-The negro popuiation of 83 witnesses of various occupations, professions, Jamaica enter on the full enjoyment of their and trades. The petitions presented during the session amounted to 320 in number, bearing I trust, likewise, that the Act which you have 38,709 signatures. So far as Mr. Rowland passed relating to the Compositions for Tithe in Hill's plan was concerned, the Committee re Ireland will increase the security of that proported "That considerable time would be saved perty, and promote internal peace.” During in the delivery of letters; the expenses in almost ihis session the House sat 173 days, and spent every branch of the department, but principally 1,134 hours in public business. in the Inland and Letter-carrier offices, much
22.-Duel on Wimbledon Common, between reduced ; the complex accounts of the Bye and and Dead-letter offices greatly simplified, and
John Flower Mirfin and Francis L. Eliot, the
former of whom died from his wounds. The the expenses greatly diminished. That the
parties had previously quarrelled at Epsom system of accounts between the deputy post
races, and again in town, at a disreputable masters, which presents so many opportunities
haunt known as the Saloon. and facilities for combination and fraud, would disappear; the labour and responsibility of sur 24.–The Duchess of Orleans delivered of a veyors be curtailed ; a system of complex and son, the Count de Paris. intricate duty, inseparable from the existing
27.-At a dinner at Cork O'Connell tells nature of the country part of the Post-office,
his hearers that matters are continually growgive way to one of simplicity and uniformity;
ing worse for Ireland in the British Parliaand the entire principle and machinery of the
ment. “They fancy we will be put down. I Post-office be changed in its character, greatly
tell you we will not. I'll raise my voice, and it contributing to the security, comfort, and ad
shall sweep from the Giant's Causeway to Cape vantage of the community, in its connexion
Clear, and Connemara to the Hill of Howth. with the public correspondence. That in the
I'll raise all Ireland to determination. We opinion of all the witnesses, excepting most of
will complain of the Tithe system. Without the officers of the Post-office, the adoption of
its extinction there can be no religious liberty. Mr. Hill's plan would occasion a very great
No man should contribute to that from which increase in the number of letters posted ; and
he derives no benefit or instruction. It was said in the opinion of most of them, a far greater
I approved of it. I never did. I said directly increase than would be required to maintain
the reverse. I said it shifted Whiteboyism the revenue at its present amount.”
from rags and friezes to Whiteboyism in broad 14.-Inquiry regarding an explosion on cloth. I promise you that from Moore Park board the Victoria steamship, results in a to Bantry you will no longer see Peep-o'-dayverdict condemning the construction of the
boys, but in the full noontide of the sun will boiler. A deodand of 1,500l. levied on the be coming forward meetings--influential meetboiler and steam-engine.
ings—to prove that rent-charge means tithes,
and that abolition is the remedy for both one 16.-Parliament prorogued by the Queen in
and the other." person. In the Royal speech reference was made, as usual, to the principal measures of
30.—Died at Oodypore, the Maharajah Jui. the session. “The disturbances,” it was said,
wan Singh. Two queens and six concubines “and insurrections which had unfortunately
were burnt on his funeral pyre. broken out in Upper and Lower Canada have 31.--A report being busily circulated that been promptly suppressed; and I entertain a Dr. Hook, Vicar of Leeds, had been dismissed confident hope that firm and judicious measures from his post of Chaplain at the Chapel Royal, will empower you to restore a constitutional on account of certain passages in a sermon, form of government, which unhappy events afterwards published with the title of “Hear have compelled you for a time to suspend. I the Church,” the Doctor writes to-day: “I rejoice at the progress which has been made in have received no notice whatever to that effect; my colonial possessions towards the entire nor have I any reason to suppose that her abolition of Negro Apprenticeship. I have Majesty is otherwise than pleased with what I observed with much satisfaction the attention stated in my sermon when I was last in waiting which you have bestowed upon the amendment I thought it necessary to publish that sermon, of the domestic institutions of the country. I because many false reports of what had been trust that the mitigation of the law of Impri advanced in it were spread abroad ; and it is to sonment for Debt will prove at once favourable these that allusion is made in the note which is to the liberty of my subject, and safe for com prefixed to it." mercial credit; and that the Established Church will derive increased strength and September 1.-.The aggregate average of efficiency from the restriction of granting bene the price of wheat for the six weeks ending on fices in plurality. I have felt great pleasure in Saturday last was 725. vid. per quarter, being giving my assent to the Bill for the Relief of within a penny of the mark at which the duty the Destitute Poor in Ireland. I cherish the would have been lowered from 25. 8d. to Is. expectation that its provisions have been so A week later 735. was reached, and foreign cautiously framed, and will be so prudently corn was offered in market as “duty free." executed, that, whilst they contribute to relieve There was said to be a good demand for all distress, they will tend to preserve order and descriptions, and a slight advance on previous to encourage habits of industry and exertion. | rates was obtained.
1.-The Emperor of Austria crowned King of Lombardy at Milan. The ceremonies and rejoicings extended over four days.
4.-The King and Queen of the Belgians visit England as the guests of her Majesty. - 6. Wreck of the steamer Forfarshire, trad. ing from Hull to Dundee, on the Fern Islands. Her machinery becoming disabled, the vessel drifted southward for about five hours, when she struck at 3 o'clock A.M. on the outer rock. The hull almost instantly parted, and, with one exception, the whole of the cabin passengers, twenty-five in number, were drowned. The captain was washed overboard with his wife in his arms. Of a crew of twenty-two, ten were drowned; eight were preserved in an open boat, and taken to Shields. Four of the crew and five steerage passengers were taken off the wreck by the dauntless intrepidity of Grace Darling and her father, the keeper of Longstone lighthouse. She induced her father to enter the lifeboat, and with great difficulty they reached the wreck, when Darling himself picked the survivors off, while his heroic daughter managed to keep the boat from being dashed to pieces.
17.-A London demonstration in favour of Parliamentary Reform, held in New Palace Yard. A petition was adopted in favour of the People's Charter, now being circulated in the form of an “Act to provide for the just representation of the People.” — The Bath meeting was attended by Colonel Napier, who supported one of the resolutions. Mr. Vincent, in the course of his speech, remarked that they had been kept down by those who were knaves. Lord John Russell was a knave; Harry Brougham was a knave ; Peel was a knave; the Duke of Wellington was a knave"-(Col. Sir W. Napier rushed to the front of the hustings, and with much earnestness exclaimed, “I contradict that ; the Duke of Wellington is no knave. He fought for the country nobly, bravely, and successfully; and he is no knave.") Mr. Vincent resumed : “I say that any man, be he a Wellington, a Russell, or a Napier, who denies to me the right to vote, is a knave. The present representation is a combination to deprive the people of just and equal laws; and I call on the people to arouse, and put an end is such a state of things, and it can be done by moral force, if the people will only firmly exert themselves.” Colonel Napier said that Mr. Vincent had degraded himself by applying the term "knave” to the Duke of Wellington : “Calling names did no good to any cause. They ought to remember the force of carly prejudices and impressions; and that a very honest man might be mistaken in politics. That he believed to be the Duke of Wellington's case ; but he was one of the greatest soldiers Europe had ever produced, and ought not to have had the term .knave' applied to him." .
- London and Birmingham Railway opened throughout
21.-Young and Webber, two of the seconds in the Mirfin and Eliot duel, convicted of murder, and sentenced to death, afterwards commuted to one year's imprisonment.
22.-Lord Durham announces his resignation of the office of Governor-General of Canada. In answer to an address from the Delegates presented to-day, his Lordship said: “I had, as you know, devoted the most careful attention to all subjects which could affect the general interests of all the colonies ; and had brought nearly to maturity the plan which I intended to submit in the first instance to the consideration of the Provinces, and eventually of the Cabinet and the Imperial Parliament. In this, I trust, useful course, I have been suddenly arrested by the interference of a branch of the British Legislature, in which the responsible advisers of the Crown have deemed it their duty to acquiesce. Under these circumstances, I have but one step to take-to resign that authority, the exercise of which has thus been so weakened as to render it totally inadequate to the grave emergency which alone called for its existence.”
24.-John Larner, under pretence of being the proper heir, makes a forcible entry into Stanfield Hall, Norfolk, then in the possession of Mr. Isaac Jermy, The house was afterwards surrounded by military, who conveyed Larner and all his disorderly followers to prison.
- The Duke of Sussex announces his intention of resigning the presidency of the Royal Society, owing to circumstances connected with his private affairs over which he had no control making it incumbent on him to leave London.
Numerous meetings held throughout Ireland this month, in support of O'Connell's “Precursor" Society,
The French Government pressing the Swiss to expel Prince Louis Bonaparte from their territory, the Prince writes to the Executive of the Canton of Thurgovia abandoning his claim to citizenship, on the ground that he cannot under any circumstances give up his title to be considered a Frenchman. It was rumoured that he had applied to the British Envoy for passports to England.
October 1.-Lord Auckland issues a “manifesto" from Simla, stating the reasons which had induced him to direct the assemblage of a British force for service across the Indus. “ After much time,” it was said, “spent by Captain Burnes in fruitless negotiation at Cabul, it appeared that Dost Mahomed Khan, chiefly in consequence of his reliance upon Persian encouragement and assistance, persisted, as respects his misunderstanding with the Sikhs, in urging the most unreasonable pretensions, such as the Governor-General could not, consistently with justice and his regard for the friendship of Maharajah Runjeet Singh, be the channel of submitting to the consideration of his Highness; that he avowed schemes
of aggrandisement and ambition injurious to festo against Dost Mahumed. It was the the security and peace of the frontiers of policy of the Government; and he might menIndia ; and that he openly threatened, in tion that the despatch which he wrote, stating furtherance of these schemes, to call in every his opinion of the course that ought to be taken foreign aid which he could command.” Re in order to meet expected emergencies, and ference was then made in the manifesto to that written by Lord Auckland inforining him the unjustifiable aggression of Persia upon that the expedition had already been underHerat, and the countenance which had been taken, crossed each other on the way.” given to the expedition by Dost Mahomed, 2. — The Perth and Edinburgh coach, and his brother Sirdar of Candahar. “After “Coburg,” upset into the sea over the pier various and mature deliberation the Governor
at South Queensferry. Two passengers and General was satisfied that a pressing necessity,
two horses drowned. as well as every consideration of policy and justice, warranted us in espousing the cause
3.-A parachute descent successfully per
formed at Cheltenham, by an aëronaut named of Shah Soojah-ool-Moolk, whose popularity
Hampden. At an altitude of 9,000 fect he throughout Affghanistan has been proved to
freed his parachute from the balloon, and dehis Lordship by the strong and unanimous
scended gently to the earth in the space of testimony of the best authorities. A guaranteed independence will upon favourable conditions
thirteen minutes. be tendered to the Ameer of Sindh, and the
5.--Fire in warehouses, Robert-street, Liverintegrity of Herat in the possession of its pre pool, destroying cotton, indigo, oil, turpentine, sent ruler will be fully respected ; while, by and spices to the value of 200,000). the measures completed or in progress, it may 7.-Meeting held in the saloon of the Hayreasonably be hoped that the general freedom
market Theatre to establish an association for and security of commerce will be promoted ;
the relief of aged and infirm actors. that the known and just influence of the British Government will gain its proper foot
8.-At a banquet in Liverpool, Lord John ing among the nations of Central Asia ; that
Russell took occasion to allude to the public tranquillity will be established upon the most
meetings now in the course of being teld in important frontier of India ; and that a lasting
various parts of the country. There were some, barrier will be raised against hostile intrigue
perhaps, who would put down such meetings. and encroachment. His Majesty Shah Soojah
But such was not his opinion, nor that of the ool-Moolk will enter Affghanistan surrounded
Government with which he acted. He thought by his own troops, and will be supported
the people had a right to free discussion. It against foreign interference and factious oppo
was free discussion which elicited truth. They sition by a British army. The Governor
had a right to meet. If they had grievances General confidently hopes that the Shah will
they had a right to declare them, that they be speedily replaced on his throne by his own
might be known and redressed. If they had subjects and adherents; and when once he
no grievances, common sense would speedily shall be secured in power, and the independ
come to the rescue, and put an end to these ence and iniegrity of Affghanistan established,
meetings. It was not from free discussion, it the British army will be withdrawn. The
was not from the unchecked declaration of Governor-General has been led to these mea
public opinion, that Governments had anything sures by the duty which is imposed upon him
to fear. There was fear when men were of providing for the security of the possessions
driven by force to secret combinations. There of the British Crown ; but he rejoices that in
was the fear, there was the danger, and not in the discharge of his duty he will be enabled
free discussion.” to assist in restoring the union and prosperity 9.-In a proclamation, dated from “the of the Affghan people. Throughout the ap Castle of St. Lewis in the city of Quebec,” proaching operations British influence will be Lord Durham announces her Majesty's dissedulously employed to further every measure allowance of the Ordinances formerly issued. of general benefit, to reconcile differences, to “I had reason,” he writes, “to believe that I secure oblivion of injuries, and to put an end was armed with all the power which I thought to the distractions by which for so many years requisite, by the commissions and instructions the welfare and happiness of the Affghans have under the royal sign manual with which I was been impaired.” A notification was at the charged as Governor-General and High Comsame time made that Mr. W. H. Macnaghten, | missioner, by the authority vested in me and Secretary to the Government, would assume my Council, by the Act of the Imperial Legisthe function of Envoy and Minister at the lature, and by the general approbation of my Court of Shah Soojah, and that Captain appointment which all parties were pleased to Burnes would be employed under his direction express. I also trusted that I should enjoy as Envoy to the Chief of Khelat or other throughout the course of my administration all States. A number of political assistants were the strength which the cordial and stedfast supalso appointed. It was of this proclamation port of the authorities at home can alone give Sir J. C. Hobhouse said afterwards, speaking to their distant officers, and that even party officially: “Lord Auckland must not be per- feeling would refrain from molesting me whilst mitted to bear the blamc of the Simla mani- occupied in maintaining the integrity of the
British Empire. In these just expectations I have been painfully disappointed." From the very commencement of my task, the minutest details of my administration have been exposed to incessant criticism, in a spirit which has evinced an entire ignorance of the state of this country, and of the only mode in which the supremacy of the British Crown can here be upheld and exercised. Those who have, in the British Legislature, systematically depreciated my powers, and the Ministers of the Crown, by their tacit acquiescence therein, have produced the effect of making it too clear that my authority is inadequate for the emergency which called it into existence. At length an act of my government, the first and most important which was brought under the notice of the authorities at home, has been annulled ; and the entire policy, of which that act was a small though essential part, has thus becn defeated." On the question of the disposal of the prisoners, Lord Durham said that he was perfectly aware his powers extended only to the landing of them on the shores of Bermuda, but he presumed that Parliament would sanction their forcible detention if necessary.
12.-Upsetting of the Oxford coach at Teddington, causing the death of Mr. G. Broderick, of Brasenose College.
- Meeting at the Jerusalem Coffee-house, presided over by Sir R. W. Horton, “to consider the practicability and expediency of forming a private company" to carry on steam communication with India. The scheme, as submitted by Captain Barber, was that a vessel should sail ‘monthly to the three Presidencies and the Straits of Batavia ; the passage-money not to exceed that now charged by vessels passing the Cape of Good Hope. “Five steamships, of 600 horse-power each, and 1,500 tons' burden, with two smaller vessels for the Bombay branch, are to be built. It is expected that the voyage to Ceylon will be performed in thirty-six days, to Madras in forty, Bombay forty-two, and Calcutta forty-three. The transit through Egypt to be performed by means of iron steamboats to Cairo, and omnibuses and vans across to Suez; skeleton carriages to be used for the land transit of goods and luggage, made to fit the same places in Loth vessels, so that there will be no disturbance of packages and no uncovering till they reach the final port. In Bengal alone, 800 shares, amounting to 140,000l., had been conditionally subscribed for; which showed how much interest the subject excited in India. The amount of capital required was only 400,00ol.; and, on the calculation that there would be 2,300 passengers (only half the number that went to India in 1836) and a proportionate carriage of goods, the company might expect a dividend of 70,000l. ' on their 400,000!."
- So engrossed were the inhabitants of Montreal with their constitutional struggle, that when the Theatre was opened to-night not one
person was found in attendance. The doors were quietly closed again.
15.—Died at Cape Coast Castle, South Africa, from an overdose of prussic acid, Letitia Elizabeth, wife of Governor Maclean, famous in the literature of her time as L. E. L.
18.-The Protector, East Indiaman, lost in a storm in the Hooghly river, with nearly all on board-116 recruits for the Company's service, a crew of 36, 9 male passengers, and 26 women and children.
22.–Fire at Harrow, destroying the residences of Rev. Mr. Wordsworth and Rev. Mr. Colonso, mathematical master.
23.-A piece of ground nearly a mile square, covering a salt mine at Northwich, Chester, suddenly sinks to a depth of between fifteen and twenty yards, and carries with it the engine-house, stables, and cottages erected thereon. Four dead bodies were dug out of the ruins.
24.-Explosion in the “John Pit" colliery at Lowca, near Whitehaven, causing the death of 35 labourers, the whole employed in the ninety-five-fathom workings. Two men and one boy, in the act of descending the shaft, were blown to pieces; another boy lighted on a bank overlooking the blazing fissure, and was rescued little injured.
- Died at New York, aged 68, from injuries received in the street, Joseph Lancaster, originator of the Lancastrian system of education.
25.--The Bishop of Durham (Dr. Maltby), in a letter to Archdeacon Thorp, defends himself from the imputation of countenancing Unitarianism, in so far as he had subscribed for a volume of sermons about to be published by a heterodox Dissenting minister named Turner. “I never have intentionally," he writes, "countenanced any doctrine which is at variance with those of our Church, still less could I have thought of countenancing errors so grievous as I hold those of the Unitarians to be. Yet this feeling, as to the extent of their error, ought not to prevent us from showing all possible charity to their persons; and that, I assure you, was all that I contemplated by this act of courtesy, which has drawn upon me, I cannot help thinking, much unmerited censure. I need scarcely remind you that Dr. Lardner's Works, edited by Dr. Kippis, also a Unitarian, were published by subscription ; and that almost all the bishops of that day, with the leading men of the Church, were subscribers. Yet Dr. Lardner's Works contained not merely his masterly labours on the ‘Credi. bility,' but various sermons and tracts, including his celebrated but heterodox 'Letter on the Logos.' Now I am not aware, and certainly I do not expect, that either you or I shall find any offensive matter in the forthcoming volume of Mr. Turner. Surely, then, I am at least as much justified in subscribing to it as the bishops