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all his connexion with Russia and Persia, and refused to receive the ambassador from the Shah now at Candahar.”
31.—The Irish National Association meet in Dublin for the last time, O'Connell carrying a motion expressing confidence that the present Administration would give full effect to the wishes of the people of Ireland.
Numerous political meetings held during this month in favour of the ballot and triennial Parliaments
November 1.-Decree of the King of Ilanover annulling the Constitution of 1833.
2.-The Fitzwilliam Museum buildings, Cambridge, commenced.
3.-Another irruption of water into the Thames Tunnel : one man drowned.
4.--The Queen returns from Brighton to Buckingham Palace.
8.-in the Consistory Court Dr. Lushington gives a decree in favour of the right of the church wardens of Braintree to levy a church rate on the parishioners, and in opposition to the decision of a majority of the latter assembled in vestry.
9.-This being the first Lord Mayor's Day since her accession, the Queen proceeded through the City in state to dine with his lordship (Sir John Cowan, Bt.) at Guildhall. The Queen leit Buckingham Palace at 2, accompanied in the state carriage by the Duchess of Sutherland, Mistress of the Robes, and the Earl of Albemarle, Master of the Horse. The Royal family, ambassadors, Cabinet Ministers, and nobility followed in a train of two hundred carriages, extending nearly a mile and a half. The day was kept as a holiday throughout London, and, though the weather was bad, nothing could exceed the enthusiasm with which her Majesty was greeted by the dense crowds she passed through. At Temple Bar the Lord Mayor delivered the keys of the City to the Queen, which she restored in the most gracious manner to his lordship, who then took his place immediately in front of the royal carriage. On passing St. Paul's, the senior scholar of Christ's Hospital delivered an address of congratulation, and the National Anthem was sung by the pupils. Guildhall was reached about half-past 3 o'clock. A throne and chair of state were placed upon a raised platform at the east end of the banqueting-hall. The Queen wore the order of the Garter, and a magnificent diamond circlet on her head. After the banquet, the Lord Mayor proposed “The health of her most gracious Majesty," which her Majesty acknowledged, and gave in return “ The Lord Mayor, and prosperity to the City of London." The only other toast, “The Royal Family," was given by the Lord Mayor. Her Majesty left for Buckingham Palace at hall-past 8.' The City was illuminated in the evening.
9.-Moses Montefiore knighted by the Queen, being the first Jew who had received this honour.
13.-Serious disturbances throughout Ca. nada, arising from the opposition offered in the Legislature to resolutions carried in the House of Commons in March 1836, declining to make the Council of Lower Canada elective, continuing the Charter of the Land Company, and authorizing the Provincial Government, independent of the Legislature, to appropriate the money in the treasury for the administration of justice and the support of the civil government. Lord Gosford had some months since written to the Colonial Secretary : “In consequence of meetings held and about to be held in different parts of the Province, I cannot conceal from you my impression that a system of organization, under the influence and guidance of M. Papineau and a few designing individuals ready to execute his purposes, is at this moment going on. The primary and ostensible object of M. Papineau's plan seems to be, to procure a public expression of indignation against the Ministerial measures, and eventually to excite a hostile feeling against the Government, and to establish a convention, which he expects will overawe the constituted authorities, and thus carry all his destructive views into execution. Under this conviction, I am prepared to adopt prompt measures, should they be necessary, to check the evil in its infancy. I contemplate therefore issuing a proclamation, warning the people against the misrepresentations and machinations of the designing, and exercising the discretion you confided to me, for increasing the military force here, by despatching your letter to Sir Colin Campbell, with a request for one of the regiments now stationed at Halifax. I must repeat, that these steps would not be dictated by the apprehension of any serious commotion, for I have every reason to believe that the mass of the Canadians-are loyal and contented ; but from the persuasion that the presence of a larger military force in this province might of itself prevent the occurrence of any disturbance, by deterring the ill-disposed, securing the wavering, and giving confidence to the timid.” Today warrants were issued at Quebec for the arrest of five ringleaders, on a charge of treason. A party of eighteen of the Montreal Volunteer Cavalry were despatched to St. John's to seize two other suspected persons. When returning with their prisoners they were attacked. near Chambly by about 300 men armed with rifles, who fired upon them from behind a breastwork of felled trees. After a short resistance the cavalry fled, leaving their prisoners in the hands of the assailants. Colonel Wetherall thereupon marched against St. Charles, where the Papineau party or “Liberty boys” had taken refuge, and with the assistance of a large body of Canadians drove them into the woods. Colonel Gore
made an attack on St. Denis, but the rebels | resisted successfully till they heard of Wether.
all's success at St. Charles, when they retreated from their stronghold.
15.--The new Parliament opened by commissioni, for preliminary business. The Right Hon. James Abercromby re-elected Speaker. Next day he reported himself to the House of Lords, and claimed the free exercise of all the ancient and undoubted rights possessed by the Commons.
20.–Parliament opened by her Majes'y. An important paragraph in the Royal Speech related to the Civil List. “I place unreservedly at your disposal those hereditary revenues which were transferred to the public by my immediate predecessor; and I have commanded that such papers as may be necessary for the full examination of this subject shall be prepared and laid before you. Desirous that the expenditure in this, as in every other depart. ment of the Government, should be kept within due limits, I feel confident that you will gladly make adequate provision for the support of the honour and dignity of the Crown." The speech concluded :-"In meeting this Parliament, the first that has been clected under my authority, I am anxious to declare my confidence in your loyalty and wisdom. The early age at which I am called to the sovereignty of this kingdom renders it a more imperative duty that, under Divine Providence, I should place my reliance upon your cordial co-operation, and upon the love and affection of all my people." The Address, moved by the Duke of Sussex and seconded by Lord Portman, was carried in the Lords without a division. In the Commons, an amendment moved by Mr. Wakley and seconded by Sir W. Molesworth, relating to the representation of the people, was defeated by a majority of 509 to 20. Speaking on the subject of Reform, Lord John Russell said : "I think that the entering into this question of the construction of the representation so snon again, would destroy the stability of our institutions. It is quite impossible for me, having been one who brought forward the measure of Reform--who felt bound by the declarations then made to take any part in these large measures of reconstruction, or to consent to the repeal of the Reform Act, without being guilty of what I think would be a breach of faith towards those with whom ] was then acting. If the people of England are not of that mind, they may reject me. They can prevent me from taking part either in the Legislature or in the Councils of the Sovereign; they can place others there who may have wider and more extended, enlarged, and enlightened views; but they must not expect me to entertain those views.”
23.-The Persians, urged on, as was believed At the time, by Russia, renew the siege of the Affghan city of Herat.
- The Chancellor of the Exchequer, after a debate of some length, obtains the consent
of the House to the appointment of a Com. mittee to settle a new Civil List.
27.-Mr. Charles Buller's motion for amending the law relating to the trial of election petitions read a second time, by a majority of 214 to 160. He proposed to reduce the number of members composing the committee from eleven to five, and that an assessor named by the Speaker, but subject to the approval of the House, should preside as chairman and explain the law.
December 2.-In consequence of disputes with the local governor concerning the opium trade, Capt. Elliot, the British Superintendent at Canton, removes his flag to Macao.
5.- The Lord Chancellor's bill abolishing imprisonment for debt read a second time in the House of Lords.
- The Canadian disturbances extend to the Upper Provinces, and Sir Francis Head issues warrants for the arrest of several prominent citizens of Toronto. An vzsuccessful attempt was made to-day to seize the city.
- The usual session of the United States Congress opened at Washington.
6.-The House of Commons, when discussing certain points of order connected with Irish election petitions, forgets its decorum so far as to compel the Speaker, on the following evening, to intimate his intention of resigning should such a scene be repeated. The subject was introduced by Mr. Smith O'Brien, who presented a petition from himself, complaining of the public subscription set on foot to defray the cost of petitions against the Irish members; and especially of the conduct of Sir Francis Burdeti, who, by contributing to the subscription, had made himself a party in a cause which he might be called upon to judge.
7.-In the course of another irregular and noisy debate on the legality of the Irish election petition fund, Mr. B. Disraeli (following Mr. O'Connell) made his first speech in Parliament. He contended that the subscribers to the Spottiswoode fund were men anxious to work out the Reform Act, by putting an end to the system of boroughmongering, which in a different shape prevailed more extensively than ever. The mortified feelings of these individuals should be taken into consideration, before the inquiry was instituted. (Here Mr. Disraeli experienced much interruption, and repeatedly implored the House to grant him a hearing.) He had something to say in vindication of her Majesty's Government, and wished the House would give him five minutes : “I stand here to-night, Sir, not formally, but in some degree virtually, the representative of a considerable number of Members of Parliament. (Bursts of laughter.) Now, why smile? (Continued laughter.) Why envy me? (Here the laughter became long and general.) Why should not I have a tale to unfold to-night ? (Roars of laughter.) Do you forget that band of 158
members—those ingenuous and inexperienced | now, but the time would come when they wouli youths, to whose unsophisticated minds the hear him. Mr. Disraeli hereupon sat down Chancellor of the Exchequer, in those tones of | amid marks of great impatience, and was folwinning pathos-- (Excessive laughter, and lowed by Lord Stanley. loud cries of Question !') Now, a consider
7.–The Birmingham Political Union issue able misconception exists in the minds of many
a manifesto calling upon Reformers throughout members on this side of the House as to the
the kingdom to combine and agitate for uniconduct of her Majesty's Government with re
versal suffrage, vote by ballot, and triennial spect to these elections, and I wish to remove
parliaments. Meetings in favour of these it. I will not twit the noble lord opposite with
changes were afterwards held in inost of the opinions which are not ascribable to him, or to
large cities of the kingdom. his more immediate supporters, but which were expressed by the more popular section of his
8.–The Chancellor of the Exchequer obparty some few months back. About that time,
tains the appointment of a select committee to Sir, when the bell of our cathedral announced inquire "how far pensions granted in virtue of the death of the monarch--(laughter)—we all
Ist William IV. c. 24, and charged on the read then, Sir-(groans, and cries of 'Oh!')
Civil List, and in virtue of 2d & 3d William IV. we all then read- (Laughter, and great inter C. 24, and charged on the Consolidated Fund, ruption.) I know nothing which to me is more ought to be continued ; having due regard to delightful than to show courtesy to a new mem
the just claims of the parties, and to economy ber, particularly if he happens to appeal to me
in the public expenditure.” The motion was from the party opposed to myself (hear, hear). opposed by Sir Robert Peel and his party. At that time, we read that it was the death 9.-Died, aged 23, Robert Nicoll, poet knell of Toryism ; that the doom of that party and journalist. was sealed; that their funeral obsequies were 11.-Message from her Majesty, recomabout to be consummated. We were told that, mending to the consideration of Parliament with the dissolution of that much-vilified Par an increase of the grant formerly made to the liament which the right honourable baronet had Duchess of Kent. 30,000l. voted. In the called together, the hopes and prospects of the Lords, the proposal gave rise to sharp discusTories would be thrown for ever to the winds ; | sion between the Premier and Lord Brougham. and that affairs were again to be brought exactly The latter said, “Her Royal Highness the to what they were at the period when the hurried Duchess of Kent was Queen Mother.”—Lord Mr. Hudson rushed into the chambers of the Melbourne: “No, not Queen Mother, but Vatican." (Great laughter.) If hon. gentlemen Mother of the Queen.”-Lord Brougham herethought this fair, he would submit. He would upon confessed that he was but rude in speech, not do so to others, that was all (laughter). but ill versed in terms of courtly etiquette. Nothing was so easy as to laugh. He wished His noble friend had so much more rebefore he sat down to show the House clearly cently been accustomed to the language of their position. When they remembered that, courts than he had—was so much more of the in spite of the honourable and learned member courtier-his tongue was so well hung, and for Dublin (O'Connell) and his well-disciplined framed and attuned to courtly airs—he was so band of patriots, there was a little shyness ex much better acquainted with the motions of hibited by former supporters of her Majesty's those who glozed and fawned and bent the knee Government : when they recollected the new in courts—that he could not pretend for a loves" and the “old loves” in which so much of moment to compete with the noble viscount in passion and recrimination was mixed up, be such matters, or to pretend to anything like the tween the noble Tityrus of the Treasury Bench same accurate knowledge of courtly phraseand the learned Daphne of Liskeard (Charles ology. He, however, knew the difference Buller)–(loud laughter)-notwithstanding the between a Queen-mother and the mother of a amantium ira had resulted, as he had always Queen, perhaps as well as the noble viscount. expected, in the amoris redintegratio (renewed Lord Melbourne replied that he did not underlaughter)-notwithstanding that political duels stand anything about hanging a tongue with had been fought, in which more than one shot reference to this matter ; but this he would say, was interchanged, but in which recourse was and he begged his noble and learned friend to had to the secure arbitrament of blank car understand, that when he spoke of gloze and tridges (laughter) — notwithstanding emanci flattery and bending the knee, he knew no man pated Ireland and enslaved England, the noble in this country, be he who he might, who could ford might wave in one hand the keys of St. more gloze and flatter and bend the knee than Peter and in the other (The shouts that fol his noble and learned friend; and he felt totally lowed drowned the conclusion of the sentence). unable to compete with him, when he had an Let them see the philosophical prejudice of men. opportunity, or when he found any occasion to He would certainly gladly hear a cheer, even exercise it. -Lord Brougham retorted that he though it came from the lips of a political op had said nothing about hanging a tongue. He ponent. He was not at all surprised at the did not say—but he might have said that the reception which he had experienced. He had noble viscount's tongue was better attuned to tegun several times many things, and he had | court airs, ay, and to new court airs-airs often succeeded at last. He would sit down with variations--than his was. The noble
viscount had been pleased to make certain charges against him, when his noble friend must know, when he reflected on the matteror whether he reflected on it or not, he must know-that such observations were altogether inapplicable to him. He owned that he was much surprised. Indeed, much as he was of late accustomed to be astonished, he was astounded at the language of his noble friend. “I repeat what I have already said-first, that the imputation or insinuation that I ever, in the discharge of my duty, stooped to gloze, or to bow before, or to flatter, any human being, much more any inmate of a court, is utterly, absolutely, and, I will say, notoriously, without foundation. The next part of the insinuation is, if possible, equally groundless-that, if I had an opportunity of having recourse to these arts, peradventure I should excel in them. I want no such opportunity. If I did, I have the opportunity. I disdain it. No access which I have had has ever, to the injury of others, to the betrayal of duty, to my own shame, been so abusecs not even for one instant; and opportunity to abuse it I have, if I were base enough so to avail myself of it.”
12.- Seven professors of Göttingen, including Ewald, the brothers Grimm, and Gervinus, having protested against the recent decree of the King of Hanover, are deprived of their offices and means of livelihood.
13.—Sir John Colborne marches from Montreal for St. Eustace in the district of the Grand Brulé, which he reached next day. Here he found the insurgents mustered 1,200 strong. The greater part fled on the appearance of the Queen's troops, but others occupied the church and neighbouring houses, and fired upon their assailants. They were soon compelled to cease resistance. All who surrendered themselves prisoners were spared ; those who attempted to escape were shot.
14.-Intimation made that St. Paul's Cathedral is in future to be open to the public free of charge.
15.—The Royal Civil List Bill settled in committee. Mr. Hume's proposal to reduce the sum total of 385,000l. by 50,000l, was rejected by 199 to 19, and another by Mr. Hawes to strike off 10,000l. by 173 to 41.
- Reduction of postage rates discussed in both Houses of Parliament.
18.-Debate in the House of Commons on the exclusion of Mr. D. W. Harvey from the Pension List Committee, the plea set up by the Chancellor of the Exchequer being that the Member for Southwark had published the proceedings of the Poor-Law Committee from day to day before they were submitted to the House, and would not give any pledge that he would refrain from doing so in the present instance.
19.--The Russian agent Vickovich enters Cabul with credentials from Count Simonich at Teheran, and a letter (though its authenticity
was disputed) purporting to be from the Emperor himself. He was at first coldly received by Dost Mahomed, but as the prospect of aid from the British Government gradually grew fainter the Russian rose in favour, and was latterly paraded in public through the streets of Cabul.
20.-By a majority of 135 to 60 votes the American House of Representatives decree “ that all petitions and resolutions praying for the abolition of slavery in the district of CoJumbia, and all memorials or resolutions in relation to slavery in the different States, should be laid upon the table, without reading, without reference, without printing, and without discussion."
31.—In the course of a debate on the Civil List, Lord Brougham surprised the House by an impassioned appeal in favour of economy. “I trust,” he said, “I shall never live to see that House less zealous hereafter than heretofore ; but, for the present, a cloud has come over their vision-for a moment a cloud has passed over them, which has blinded their senses, which has charmed their accustomed activity, which has put to sleep their watchfulness, their wakeful care, over the purse of the Commons, entrusted to them, the people's faithful representatives. And when we are charged with too much attention to the purse of the people, it is said : “Why should you take so much care? why should you, the Lords, be more watchful than the people themselves, speaking through their representatives in the Commons House?' To that appeal I have no answer to give, save this : I believe that before long the people may awake, and that they will ring a peal in the ears of the present guardians of the public purse which will be remembered, not to the last hour of the official existence of the Government, but to a much later periodto the last hour of the public life of the youngest public functionary in the country.”
22.-Involvement of the British Govern, ment with the Candahar chiefs. Writing to a friend, Burnes recorded that they had gone over to Persia. “I have detached them and offered them British protection and cash if they would recede, and Persia attacked them. I have no authority to do so; but am I to stand by and see us ruined at Candahar when the Government tell me an attack on Herat would be most unpalatable? Herat has been besieged fifty days, and if the Persians move on Candahar, I am off there with the Ameer and his forces, and mean to pay the piper myself.” The Governor-General was at this time on his way to Simla, and caused Secretary Macnaghten to write to Burnes: “It is with great pain that his lordship must next proceed to advert to the subject of the promises which you have held out to the chiefs of Candahar. Those promises were entirely unauthorized by any part
of your instructions. They are most unneces| sarily made in unqualified terms, and they would, if supported, commit the Government 29.-Colonel M'Nab, in the course of ope. rations against the rebels on Navy Island, Niagara River, seizes the steamer Caroline, engaged in carrying supplies, sets her on fire, and permits her to drift over the Falls.
30.-From Cabul Burnes writes :-“The present position of the British Government at this capital appears to me a most gratifying proof of the estimation in which it is held by the Affghan nation. Russia has come forward with offers which are certainly substantial. Persia has been lavish in her promises, and Bokhara and other states have not been backward. Yet in all that has passed or is daily transpiring, the chief of Cabul declares that he prefers the sympathy and friendly offices of the British to all these offers, however alluring they may seem, from Persia or from the Emperor; which certainly places his good sense in a light more than prominent, and, in my humble judgment, proves that by an earlier attention to these countries we might have escaped the whole of these intrigues and held long since a stable influence in Cabul.”
upon the gravest questions of general policy. His lordship is compelled, therefore, decidedly to disapprove of them. He is only withheld from a direct disavowal of these engagements to the chiefs of Candahar, because such disavowal would carry with it the declaration of a difference between you and your Government, and might weaken your personal influence, and because events might in this instance have occurred which would render such a course unnecessary.”
22.-Debate in the Commons on the affairs of Lower Canada, the Assembly having refused to entertain the supplies, or proceed otherwise to the despatch of business. The complaints were : Arbitrary conduct on the part of Governors; insufficiency of the Legislative Council ; illegal appropriation of public money ; violent prorogation of the Provincial Parliament; Government connivance at the insolvency of the Receiver-General ; and, to the British portion of the community, the additional grievance of being subject to French law and procedure.
- Commenced in the Court of Queen's Bench the action for libel raised by T. S. Duncombe, M.P., against Mr. Daniel, barrister. In the course of the recent contest in Finsbury the defendant, in a communication to the Tory newspapers, charged Mr. Duncombe with hav. ing fraudulently obtained an injunction from the Vice-Chancellor by false affidavits to prevent a creditor from proceeding against him; and with defrauding another person by a cheque which he knew would be dishonoured, having himself withdrawn the funds which he stated would be at the bankers to meet it. The defendant pleaded the general issue, also a justification that the libel was true. The trial lasted over two days, and resulted in a verdict for the plaintiff, with damages of 100l. Sum divided among Finsbury charities.
23.-Parliament prorogued by the Queen to the 16th January.
26.-Riot at Sheepshead Work house, Leicestershire. The mob smashed the windows and destroyed the furniture, but dispersed on the military being brought from Nottingham.
- Information received at the Colonial Office of the outbreak in Canada. Sir Jolin Colborne, in forwarding the reports of Colonel Wetherall and Colonel Gore, writes :-“The troops which have been called to act in the disturbed districts, and to put down this sudden and extensively combined revolt, have had to contend with great difficulties; their communications with head-quarters having been completely interrupted by the armed peasantry assembled on the line of march. Many of the deluded inhabitants are returning to their homes; and I trust that the events which have taken place may be the means of quickly restoring tranquillity to the country.”
28.-Fire at Davis' wharf, on the Thames. Damage estimated at 150,oool.
January 3.-Commenced before the High Court of Justiciary the trial of the five Glasgow cotton-spinners charged-(1) With framing an association with other parties, cotton-spinners of Glasgow, for the purpose of intimidating and molesting spinners who did not conform to the rules of the Association, but worked for lower wages than the Association fixed. (2) With mobbing and molesting spinners at work at the Oakbank factory, on the 8th and 9th of May 1837. (3) With the like offences at the Mile End cotton-factory. (4) With conspiring to set fire, on the 23d of May, to the factory of Messrs. Hussey and Son, Dale Street, Bridgeton, and offering 201. to any person who would attempt that crime. (5) With appointing a secret committee, by ballot, on the 14th June, for the purpose of setting fire to cotton-mills, sending threatening letters to proprietors of cotton-mills, invading the dwellings of, committing assaults upon, and shooting at or murdering cotton-spinners. (6) With especially offering a reward of 1ol. for an assault on workmen at the Adelphi cotton. mills. (7) With sending a threatening letter, dated 20th June, to Alexander Arthur. (8) With sending another letter of like import, on the 3d of July (9) With sending a similar letter to John Bryson. (10) With breaking open the dwelling of Thomas Donaghey, and forcing him to promise not to work at the mills. (11) With setting fire to the house of James Wood and Francis Wood, cottonspinners of Bridgeton. (12) With hiring the prisoner M‘Lean to murder John Smith, an operative cotton-spinner, for a reward of 201. The trial was protracted till the rith, when the jury, after deliberating five hours, returned a