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was no more, and in the flush of the but the prints were bought then, there can Italian Renaissance the world of heaven be small doubt, with little general apprehad yielded precedence to the world of ciation of their artistic value as singularly earth. Why, it is the human relationship perfect reproductions of the mind and in its most ideal form. Representations of grace of the master. Reproduction by that relationship in Modern Art we are means of mezzotint engraving was indeed inclined to scoff at. Twaddling literature the fashionable process for reproducand trivial painting have played with it tion and multiplication at the moment. at will, so that we see it awry.
But the great engravers of that day hardly consciously our mind throws on the sub- knew themselves that they were great. ject something of the reproach of the The generation that lost them had to find habitual weakness of the treatment in that oụt. The generation that kept them modern times. But the theme remains a paid them for their work; and work paid great theme, have we but the master to for at the moment-work with a moderate treat it; a relationship giving worth and market value-is not generally held to be poetry and the interest of high moments immortal at the time that it is done. Sir and great possibilities to the dullest lives, Joshua himself was, however, one of the the humblest and the commonest. Nor first to recognise the surpassing merit of are we to get good art by passing it by these mezzotint engravings—the perfection merely because it is familiar, for, treat, which the method had then attained. what we will life will be the same in its Looking at a print by McArdell
, after one elemental forces, its springs of pathos and of his works, he said, “By this man I joy. Well, it is his recognition of some shall be iminortalised !"
shall be iminortalised !” When he said such common truth as this, that the root that, was he thinking only of the excelof art is in the feeling of men, that has lence of the print and of its wide publigiven something of an imperishable charm cation, or was he foreseeing the day when to the canvas of Sir Joshua. And so, in owing to his never-tiring experiments with his portrait groups-color and composi- the palette so much of the charm of the tion apart—there is something of an in- color of his own work should be gone? heritance from the elder masters of Italy; when time should have ruined, or at the not in religious significance, but in that least damaged too much. He was happy in message of human relationship and the living in an age when there were men to nobility of affection. The time was past translate or to transcribe his work; for for Immaculate Virgin and Immaculate transcripts even more than translations Child : past, first, as a spiritual need in these prints may indeed be called, for Perugino and Bellini; next, as a formal many of them reproduce the touch with a presence in the later work of Raphael. fidelity second only to that with which That was long gone, and gone never they reproduce the subject. more wholly than from the eighteenth To us, too, these things have all the incentury, whose intellect was serious only terest of an art that is peculiarly English. in its scepticism. But in the homely life If we are first in water colors, we are alof the eighteenth century, in its art and most alone in mezzotint. The art, if not literature and common ways, there was of English invention, is essentially of much to encourage a sense of the sweet- English practice. And mezzotint engravness of children and women and of all ing reached its highest point when the the tender relationship between the two. best of these works after Sir Joshua were And that—with infinite variations of executed. That was chiefly during the dignity and grace—Sir Joshua painted. last thirty years of the eighteenth century,
when the work of Morland was popularIII.
ised in the same way, and when fine A notice of Sir Joshua Reynolds can things were done—but more rarely done hardly close with no word given to the —from the work of Gainsborough. prints after his works. They were bought the engravers, some lived on a good during the painter's life much as common many years into the nineteenth century. photographs or flashy popular engravings One or two of them. took part in that are bolight by the many in our own day; combined work of etching and of mezzonot of course so extensively, since there tint by which, between 1807 and 1819, existed neither the supply nor the demand; the great. Liber Studiorum 'was produced.
But the work in pure mezzotint, executed and probably the greatest among these during the last part of the last century, are McArdell—an Irishman-James Watwas the finest any such work could be, son, J. Raphael Smith, and Valentine and was the best of all possible means for Green. Raphael Smith-first, and I supconveying the impression of Sir Joshua's pose most industrious of them all-himpaintings—subject, spirit, and touch. self executed more than forty plates after Unlike the prints of · Liber Studiorum Sir Joshua: men, women, children; an these prints are wanting in the severe archbishop, a dancer, a woman of the beauty and value of line, which of course
He began his work young, mezzotint, pure and simple, can and before he was thirty years old he had have. The whole process forbids it. done much of that which is now most Turner got that by his etched work in famous. Engraving altogether one hun
Liber Studiorum,' and of many etch- dred and fifty plates, he died, hardly an ings proper, this beauty of line is a very old man, at Doncaster, in 1812. His high and peculiar property. But ‘Liber print of “Mrs. Carnac' alone would be Studiorum' is well nigh the only work enough to mark his distinction. But the hiswhich combines the extreme softness and tory of these men, the achievements of these richness of mezzotint with this beauty of men, we cannot here follow out in detail. line—now fine, now strong—which is at They were for generations neglected. Now the command of a great etcher.
a caprice of fashion, of which we take no Of the men who practised mezzotint count, has restored them to fame. Some engraving, many were themselves painters. slight general view did nevertheless reHodges, the engraver of the Contem- quire to be had of them ere we turned the plative Youth' and of Lady Dashwood,' page on which they had helped us to estiwas a portraitist of some distinction. Dr. mate Sir Joshua's art. . For to know them Hamilton tells us that he spent many is to live with the artist and his times. years in Holland, and that he is there "Mrs. Carnac,' • Emma Hart as a Bacconsidered as a Dutch artist. Richard chante,' Miss Bingham,' “Miss Jacobs,' Houston was a miniature painter. S. W. “Nelly O'Brian'-to see them is to drink Reynolds, who produced some of the smaller plates, began as
“At such a magic cup as English Reynolds a landscape
once compounded." painter. But generally the greater masters were engravers only. The entire
- Temple Bar. company numbers one hundred and three,
Grief has measures
Soft as pleasure's,
Songs to sing him,
Dreams to bring him,
Head or lent not
Song had never
Looks and tearless
Fear had sweeter
Speech and meeter
All the golden
Names of olden
All our dearest
Thoughts hold nearest,
Fills his playtime
Night and morrow
Weave round sorrow Thoughts as soft as sleep to hide in.
Sands that run down
Ere the sundown,
Lips that give not
Love shall live not,
Bound in duty
Love shall cherish
Lest it perish,
Charms are bootless
THE DUKE OF ARGYLE.
The following sketch of the Duke of administration, he retired into opposition ; Argyle, a portrait of whom embellishes this and in 1859, on that nobleman's return, number of the ECLECTIC, is reproduced in he again accepted the office of Lord Privy substance from Chambers's Encyclopedia : Seal. On the formation of Mr. Gladstone's
“George John Douglas Campbell, cabinet, in 1868, he was appointed Secreeighth Duke of Argyle, was born in 1823, tary of State for India. În 1854 he was and succeeded his father in 1847. At the chosen Lord Rector of the University of age of 19, his Grace, then Marquis of Glasgow; in 1855 presided at a meeting of Lorne, wrote a pamphlet entitled, “A the British Association in that city; and Letter to the Peers from a Peer's Son,” on in 1861 was elected president of the Royal the subject of the struggle which ended in Society of Edinburgh. His Grace is hethe disruption of the Scottish Church, reditary master of the Queen's Household Seven years later he published an essay on in Scotland, Chancellor of the University Presbytery, which contains a historical of St. Andrews, a trustee of the British vindication of the Presbyterian system. Museum, also hereditary sheriff and Lord On taking his seat in the House of Peers Lieutenant of Argyleshire. Other literary he soon commanded the respect of that works by this Scottish nobleman are “ The dignified assembly. On the formation of Reign of Law," 1866; “ Primeval Man,” the coalition ministry by Lord Aberdeen, 1869; and a small work in 1870, on the his Grace was invested with the office of history and antiquities of Iona. In 1844 he Lord Privy Seal, which he continued to married Lady Elizabeth Georgiana Gower, hold in Lord Palmerston's administration. eldest daughter of the Duke of Sutherland; In November, 1855, he relinquished his and in 1871 his eldest son, the Marquis of office, and accepted that of Postmaster- Lorne, married the Princess Louisa, fourth General. On the fall of Lord Palmerston's daughter of Queen Victoria."
A STUDY OF HAWTHORNE. By George Par- is a book which ought not to have been sons Lathrop. Boston: J. R. Osgood & Co. written. Everybody is aware that Hawthorne
had very strong and often-avowed objections Since Mr. Lathrop's book has been made to a biography of himself, and that he took the subject of a family quarrel, it has become
great pains to prevent it; but we are sure a somewhat delicate topic for a critic to deal that he would cheerfully have furnished mawith ;? but as it is liable to take a somewhat terial for a dozen of the ordinary biographical important position in our literature, it is our narratives and collections of letters rathor duty, perhaps, to record our opinion of it. than submit to the sort of prying, psychologiWe may say, therefore, that, aside from the cal post-mortem to which Mr. Lathrop has question as to Mr. Lathrop's right to use the subjected him. It is true that, in his opening material to which his close connection with chapter, Mr. Lathrop disavows the intention the Hawthorne family secured him access, it of writing a biography, and declares himself Boston: Roberts Bros. be trying to maintain the appearance of respecting the letter of Hawthorne's injunction MEN AND MANNERS IN AMERICA ONE HUNwhile palpably violating its spirit, and to be DRED YEARS AGO. Edited by Horace E. making an indirect use of materials which he
to be engaged only in a critical and inter- and clearly-defined end, and there are very pretive literary study ; but this has not pre- few authors whose works stand in so little vented him from using all the details con- need of being interpreted by his private life. cerning Hawthorne that the most diligent “ A Study of Hawthorne" unquestionably search could gather from published, unpub. has a certain value as the nearest approach lished, and personal sources. In fact, the to a biography of Hawthorne that we have, or reader speedily discovers that, however wide- are likely to have for the present ; but it is a ly the book may diverge from formal biogra- book which no intelligent admirer of Hawphy, it takes its whole value from the fact thorne can read without pain, and it would that it is essentially a narrative of Haw- probably have been subjected to severer critithorne's life and an analysis of his works in cism were it not that its publication has intheir relations to that life. It is impossible, volved Mr. Lathrop in one of those unfor: too, to avoid being repelled by what appears
controversies which conscientious to be a bit of deliberate disingenuousness on critics are reluctant even to have the appearMr. Lathrop's part; especially when we find ance of participating in. that it permeates and characterizes the entire work. From beginning to end he seems to
REVOLUTIONARY TIMES. By Edward Abbott.
Scudder. (Sans-Souci Series.) New York : did not feel justified in using directly and
Scribner, Armstrong & Co. avowedly. Only thus can we explain the Both these books have the same general frequent substitution of inferences from im- object—that of bringing before our minds the plied facts for a categoric statement of facts, contrasts and differences between the habits, and of paraphrases of letters and notabilia customs, manners, and modes of life of our which, if introduced at all, should be presented day and of our Revolutionary forefathers. in their original form, so that we may see for While thus agreeing in purposes, however, ourselves precisely what they mean.
'the one may be said rather to supplement Nor are its violation of taste and lack of than to supersede the other; Mr. Abbott's straightforwardness the only grounds of ob- primary intention being to instruct, while Mr. jection to the “Study.” It contains many Scudder aims more particularly at being suggestive observations, and its expository amusing. Mr. Abbott's little book presents analyses of Hawthorne's romances and lite- a compact, concise, and readable summary of rary method are remarkably good ; but it is the geography and politics of the thirteen deformed by much hazy thought and wordy original colonies ; of the distribution of popphrasing; and with all his admiration for ulation in cities, towns, and country ; of the Hawthorne, Mr. Lathrop seems to us to fail social characteristics of the Revolutionary signally in discriminating his peculiar quali- period; of its domestic life : of its modes of ties as an author. For one thing, we regard conveyance and intercommunication; and of his elaborate attempt to establish some kind its education and literature; ending with brief of undefined literary relationship between sketches of the most prominent men and Hawthorne and Milton and Bunyan as en- women of the time. In preparing his digest, tirely fallacious; and the same may be said
the author has made liberal use of the meof his still more labored effort to construct, moirs, local histories, and newspapers of the after the manner of Taine, the external ante- period ; and though the book is written for cedents and circumstances--the “atmos- the most part in his own words, it contains phere," as he calls it-which moulded or in many curious and suggestive extracts, among fluenced Hawthorne's genius. Perhaps it is the most noteworthy of which are those from satisfaction with his own ingenuity that leads the narrative of Elkanah Watson, who, in him to exaggerate the force of these in- 1777, made a horseback journey from Provifluences, and thus to do less than justice to dence, R. I., to Savannah, Ga. Not the least Hawthorne as an artist. We take Hawthorne valuable feature of the volume is a biblioto have been one of the sanest, most delibe- graphical appendix, in which Mr. Abbott rate, and most self-contained of literary work- gives a classified list of the 'books which he men, and his productions were neither the himself consulted, or which would prove useresult of unconscious cerebration nor ap- ful to the reader desirous of attaining a more preciably colored by his surroundings or cir- detailed acquaintance with Revolutionary cumstances. Subject, method of treatment, times. and style were all the result of a careful, con- Mr. Scudder's book, following the plan of scious adaptation of means to a preconceived the Sans-Souci Series, of which it forms a