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Rome ; Prof. Plumptre has in hand Antioch, of Comedy, using the word in its widest sense, and their Ephesus, and Tarsus; and the Rev. G. S. presentation of human life is as keen, as broad, and as
mellow as that of any of our dramatists." Davies, of the Charterhouse, is preparing a volume on Athens and Corinth in the time of And again : the Apostle.
“I have tried, as far as practicable, by preventing any
dialogue from being broken into mere fragments, to preWe are sorry to have to announce the death serve the current and continuity of the narrative. The
lacune, I suspect, are sometimes visible to the naked eye; at his residence, the Palazzo Orsini, Florence,
but on the whole I do not feel that they are likely to affect of Mr. Lorimer Graham, the United States
the reader's enjoyment, or that they mar the general efConsul-General for Italy, well known and fect-the tout-a n-sammal, as the Shepherd would say gratefully remembered by most literary and of an almost unique piece of dramatic humor.” artistic visitants to Italy. Mr. Graham was a The volume will be entitled “The Comedy man of great talent and taste ; and as a col. of the 'Noctes Ambrosianæ,' by Christopher lector of scarce editions of poetry and of MSS. North.” he had some celebrity. Perhaps no man of his time enjoyed a wider intercourse with the foremost men of England and America.
SCIENCE AND ART. Atheneum.
DISCOVERY OF HUMAN BONES.-While some Axother attempt is being made to trans
workmen were excavating, some time ago, in late the Talmud. Dr. Sammter, a well-known
a quarry of Jurassic limestone near Belfort, Rabbi and Talmudist, has in the press a Ger
in France, they discovered an opening in the man translation of 'Baba Mezia,' with a com
hill, which it was found led to a cave of larger mentary in the same language. It is to be
dimensions. On entering the cavern, its floor
was discovered covered with human bones, published by Benzian, of Berlin, in ten to twelve parts, large folio. The original text
and so disposed as to lead to the belief that accompanies the translation. The volume,
the cavern had once been used as a place of which has hitherto been published both in sepulture. Polished flint weapons, ornaments, France and Germany, is the first ('Berachoth'), and other articles were found, including seve and no more has been issued till now.
ral beautiful vases, and a mat of rushes. The
authorities of Belfort at once took possession COL, C. CHAILLE LONG, of the Egyptian of the cavern in the interest of science, and Staff, has in the press an account of expedi- delegated M. Felix Voulot, an archæologist of tions made by him into Central Africa when renown, to examine the cavern and its conunder the command of Col. C. E. Gordon. tents. There is no doubt that these are reThe chief expedition, already mentioned in mains of the polished stone age, and some are our “Geographical Notes," was to the Lake sanguine that further research will bring to Victo ria Nyanza, and a residence of some light relics of a much older period. One writime with King Mtesa a few months prior to ter in the Revue Scienti fique hopes to find reMr. H. M. Stanley's arrival there. He return- mains belonging not only to the Tertiary, but ed northward by the Victoria River to Mnooli, even to the Cretaceous period. This cavern thus connecting and identifying it with the is situated in a bed of one of the lower strata White Nile.
On this journey, which had of the Jurassic period, “on the exact limit of never before been performed by a white man,
the shore of the ancient Jurassic sea." he discovered Lake Ibrahim. Col. Long also
A MUSICAL INVENTION.-A rather numerous made some important expeditions west of the Bahrel Abiad (White Nile), in the countries of company met recently at the house of M. FredMakraka and Mam-Niam.
eric Kastner, in the Rue de Clichy (says the
Paris correspondent of the London Times) to The fame of the 'Noctes Ambrosianæ'has witness his experiments with a strange invendeclined greatly of late years. So much of
tion of his which he calls the “ Pyrophone.” the book is occupied with topics which had
The pyrophone, as its name indicates, is an inonly a personal or local and, therefore, tran
strument which produces sounds by means of sient interest, that Timothy Tickler and the gas-jets. It had long been known that flames Ettrick Shepherd, and even Christopher North
emit sounds, and M. Kastner himself had himself
, are mere names to this generation. tried experiments in London; but yesterday the Mr. Skelton is about to make an attempt to
special public found themselves in the presrescue the most valuable portions of the Am
ence of an almost complete instrument composed of a series of glass tubes similar to or
gan-pipes, of different lengths and dimensions, "My design,” he says, “has been to compress into a single manageable volume whatever is permanent and
in which gas-jets were burning, and which whatever is universal in the Comedy of the 'Noctes Am
played some very powerful and very moving brosianæ.' The Noctes' are conceived in the true spirit morceaux. The difficulty of the invention con
brosial Nights :
sisted, of course, in regularising the jets. The previously sent home and stored in the cellars theory is this: When an isolated gas-jet pro- of the University of Edinburgh, imply an duces a sound, you have only to bring an- amount of work yet to be done in description other similar jet near it to make the sound and classification which seems overwhelming.
M. Kastner, then, has invented a con- It may be that Professor Wyville Thomson trivance which opens and shuts like the fin- will find this harder work than the work of gers of a hand of which each one should allow collection was amid vicissitudes of wind and a jet to escape. When the fingers are extend- weather. But not until it has been done can ed the sound is produced ; when they are clos- the results of the voyage be satisfactorily ed or approached to each other the sound known. A popular account of the memorable
He next regulated the force of the cruise will in all probability be published besound by the dimensions of the tubes, and by fore the end of the present year; and some the height at which the jets were placed in years hence the scientific account of the the tubes. The contrivance corresponds to voyage, with its discoveries, its facts, and the keyboard of a piano, and you are deeply conclucions, will appear in a goodly series of moved at hearing those jets sing with extra- quarto volumes with appropriate illustrations. ordinary power, purity, and correctness. The
A CURIOUS PHENOMENON.-An account of audience was still more astounded at sudde ly hearing the gaseliers placed in the centre of another curious fact is published in a recent the room, and set in motion by invisible elec
number of the American Journal of Science. tric wires, execute “God save the Queen” in
Several years ago," remarks the writer, sonorous and penetrating tones. The inven
“after spending a portion of the day in extion is still in a rudimentary state.
perimenting with phosphuretted hydrogen,
prepared from phosphorus and solution of New Discovery IN AGRICULTURE.—The potash, on retiring to bed I found my body curious discovery is announced by Professor quite luminous, with a glow like that of P. B. Wilson, of Washington University, phosphorus when exposed to the air. Either Baltimore, that minutely pulverized silica is some of the gas having escaped combustion, taken up in a free state by plants from the or the product of its burning, must have been soil, and that such silica is assimilated with absorbed into the system, and the phosphorus out chemical or other change. The experi- afterwards separated at the surface have there ment consisted in fertilising a field of wheat undergone slow combustion. I was conscious witin the infusorial earth found near Rich- of no feeling that could be attributed to it, nor mond, Virginia. This earth, it is well was my health apparently in any way affected known, consists of the shells of microscopic by it. marine insects, known as diatoms, which
DISCOVERIES AT ROME. -Galignani states under strong magnifying powers reveal many
that the works undertaken for the prolongabeautiful forms that have been resolved,
tion of the Strada Nazionale at Rome have classified, and named. After the wheat was
brought to light some interesting discoveries. grown, Professor Wilson treated the straw
An edifice of the second century, partly dewith nitric acid, subjected the remains to
stroyed for the construction of the Baths of microscopic test, and found therein the same Constantine, has been brought to light. It kinds of shells, or diatoms, that are present in consists of the half of a habitation, containing the Richmond earth, except that the larger- bath-rooms and the viridarium, or grove. The sized shells were absent; showing that only ruins comprise two basins or baths, of elegant silica particles below a certain degree of fine- build, lined with marble and ornamented with ness can ascend the sap pores of the plant. niches, an ambularium, or avenue bordered This discovery opens up a new line of re
with trees, as well as a portico, the sides of search in agricultural investigation from
which are also disposed in nymphée. The which important results and much additional
upper part of the walls is adorned with pilasknowledge may accrue.
ters in colored mosaic, and carved stone RETURN OF
CHALLENGER” EXPEDI. foliage in the panels between them. In the TION.— The Challenger has returned from her
midst of the ruins was found a sort of spout, three years' voyage round the world, laden having on it the name of “Avidus Quietus,"
of whom some relics were found near the with specimens of plants and animals, with samples of the sea bottom from many lati
Church of San Antonio. The city has taken tudes, and with observations and theories, all
measures to preserve these precious remains
in situ. of which, when sisted and classified, will be taken into the service of physical science and ALCOHOLIC AND Non-AlcoHOLIC STIMUof natural history. Two hundred cases of LAYTS.-At the present time, scientific opinion specimens, in addition to the prodigious heap is divided as to whether stimulants are to be
properly classed as foods or not. In this re- at unequal distances are concentrated on the . gard the much larger series of stimulants de. vanes, and it is by the difference of distance ominated alcoholic is that alone which is that the effect is produced. From the general generally alluded to. As yet, the food value of result of his experiments, Professor Wartmann alcoholic fluids is by no means exhaustively is led to agree with Professor Osborne Reydetermined, and although we incline to the nolds of Owens College, Manchester, that the opinion that the important part played by movement of the whirligig is occasioned by alcoholic fluids in the process of nutrition the dilatation of gas (or air) under very low must be sooner or later generally admitted, pressure, and that radiation has nothing to do still the food value attributed to the so-called with it. It is impossible to produce a perfect non-alcoholic stimulants, tea, coffee, and
There is always a small quantity of cocoa, has been frequently overrated. With- air left in the glass apparatus in which the out attributing to each of these articles the whirligig spins; and the warmth from the power of injury which the ignorant and exces- light placed near the glass affects this residual sive use of the first two indubitably entails, if air, and occasions the rotation. Professor from no other point of view than that a larger Challis of Cambridge, in accounting for the attention has been devoted to the subject of phenomenon, says there is “a decrement of cocoa in these chapters, it must be recorded ethereal density from the dark towards the in favor of that article, that no evidence at bright surface (of the vane), and the atoms, present exists of its having caused nervous being immersed in this variation of density, irritability, and deterioration of tissue conse- will be urged as if the vane were pushed quent upon that state, which have followed as on the black surface.” With these explanacertainly upon the misuse of tea as upon that tions in mind, Mr. Crookes and other experiof opium or ardent spirits.- Votes on Food and mentalists will now be able to proceed on its Effects, by G. Overend Drewry, M.D.
new lines of discovery. FLOWER COLORS.-The London and Provin
CINCHONA CULTIVATION.—The progress of cial Illustrated Newspaper says: One would the cinchona plantations in India has been hardly think that the fragrant violet and the
such that, as we learn from a paper read to bright-colored iris would ever be utilised in
the Society of Arts by Mr. Markham, they commerce, but it seems that an Italian now yield one hundred and forty thousand chemist has just found out that they may be put pounds of bark a year, with a tendency to into some other purpose than that of gladdening
The advantage of cultivation over the eye and refreshing the nose. They yield, the crop of wild bark formerly collected on it appears, a very fine blue color, and this is
the slopes of the Andes, is therefore most so sensitive to exterior influences, as to ren
strikingly demonstrated ; and Mr. Markham der it of considerable value to the analytical
now advocates a similar experiment with the chemist. Most people know that one of the
caoutchouc or india-rubber tree. The demand best and most delicate tests employed by for india-rubber increases every year, and the chemists to ascertain whether a solution is supply-a wild one-diminishes. It is to be acid or not is to dip into it a piece of blue hoped, therefore, that the measures already litmus paper, which at once reddens if the
taken to establish plantations of caoutchouc least trace of acidity exists. In like manner
in the hot and moist hill-districts of India, will the reddened litmus paper may be employed
be persevered with until a sufficient quantity in searching for alkalies, for the paper returns
shall be grown, and the quality improved. to a blue tint on coming in contact with
The best kind of caoutchouc grows in Souththese. The coloring principle of the violet
America. and iris is found to be more delicate still than litmus, and for this reason we may expect
VARIETIES. soon to see phyllocyanin-for so the new color is called-introduced into all our labora
BLACKWOOD ON MACAULAY. — Blackwood, tories.
contrary to our expectation, reviews Macau
lay's life with a feeling thoroughly appreciative RADIOMETERS.-Mr. Crookes and his radi- and generous. The review concludes thus:ometers with their remarkable movements He liked the pretty house he was at last percontinue to engage the attention of scientific suaded to bestow upon himself, and he liked men throughout Europe. Professor Wartmann his title, and he was happy in the family love of Geneva, in a series of experiments, has which had been his highest object through all discovered that the motion of the vanes of the his life. His latter years, however, were full little mill can be made to spin direct or in- of suffering, and his last days were clouded verse at pleasure, or can be entirely neutral- by unnecessary alarms about losing his sister, ised. In the latter case, the rays of two lamps to whom it had become necessary to join her
husband in India. "The fear of ill exceeds being women, will trick themselves out in the ill we fear;" had Macaulay but known it, finery to attract as much admiration as their he might have been spared that last heaviness. mistresses; and men, being animals, will It was he who left her, not she who left him, gorge where their masters seast-whence do after all. He died in his library characteris- these come save from women, rulers of sotically, with a book before him, in the favorite ciety, regulators of modes and fashions as attitude most familiar to him all his life, hav- they are? Do the husbands order the dinners ing won almost everything a man could wish or decide on the length of the train, and the to win in this world. The end is sad, as fashion of the dress? If the ladies of Eng. almost all ends are. What it would be to land chose that the rule of life should be one have the power of cutting off that last chap- of noble simplicity, beautiful, artistic, full of ter, and setting somehow, as the sun does, in meaning and delight, the false ornament and full light, without the appendix of those wan
meretricious excess with which we are overing days and this period of death in life! Ma- weighted now would fall from us, and the caulay's life, however, had been mildly happy servant question among others would get during these almost sixty years of his—and itself put straight. It is a matter of fashion, wonderfully prosperous, as it was laborious, not necessity, and the mot d'ordre comes from and honest, and straightforward. We should above. But where is the spirit of organizanot feel ourselves justified in giving to his ex
tion, the resolution to meet difficulties, the traordinary talents the rare title of genius. courage of self-control, through which alone But few have equalled those brilliant and great movements are made and great reforms splendid gifts of nature; and none ever culti- led ? The women who want to influence the vated them more assiduously, or used them councils of the empire, to have a voice in the with more effect. He was not great as a man,
making of laws which are to touch and rethough his character has gained, by all the concile contending interests, to help in the revelations of family affection contained in
elucidation of difficult points, the administrathis book, a new and deeper interest for the
tion of doubtful cases, see the servants standmillion of his readers who knew nothing ing in a disorganized mob at the gates of the of this best part of him; but he was a great
social temple, and are unable to suggest anywriter, jusily deserving of the highest place in thing whereby they may be reduced to order that literature which comes next after the in
and content. But at the same time the wospired rank. At variance with almost all his
men who complain of their own stunted lives, opinions, disliking where he adored, cpposing and who demand leave to share the lives and where he supported, his political adversary, privileges of men, deny the right of their out of reach of all those special influences
maids to live up to a higher standard so far which form friendship, Maga is not beyond the
as they themselves are concerned, and hold reach of a generous pleasure in dropping the faith that service should mean practically such flowers as are to be gathered on her
servitude.—Mrs. Lynn Linton in the Belgravia northern heights, upon Macaulay's grave.
WE ARE A LADY ON LADIES.-Women have their SEVEN.-When Wordsworth and Coleridge own place both in nature and society; a place were at work on the “ Lyrical Ballads,” Wordsbeautiful, important, ennobling, and delight worth one day, being at Nether Stowey, proful, if they would but think so, if they would duced the poem known as “We are Seven," but care to make it so. But with the curse all but the first stanza, in a little wood near of discontent resting on them from the begin- by. It was based on actual talk with a child ning, they prefer to spoil the work of men met when he had visited Goodrich Castle rather than to try and perfect their own. Say, some years before, the dialogue yielding fit of their own special work, what is perfected matter for å poem, since it involved suggesto such a high degree of excellence as war- tion of the natural instinct of immortality, rants their leaving it to take care of itself When Wordsworth repeated what he had while they go to manipulate something else? murmured out to himself in the open air (the The servant question in all its branches an- manner of producing nine tenths of his poems), noys and harasses every one; but this, essen- and it was written down, he said that it wanted tially a woman's question, a circumstance of an opening verse, and he should sit down to that part of life which is organized, adminis- tea more comfortably if that were supplied. tered, and for the larger proportion fulfilled " I'll give it you,” said Coleridge, and gave at by women, is confessedly in a state of chaos once the first stanza, which-as addressed to and disorder, paralleled by none other of our a friend, James Tobin, with whom they were social arrangements. The extravagance of on terms of playful friendship-he began “A living, of dress, of appointments, which is one little child, dear brother Jim."-Cassell's Lipart of the servant disorder-because maids, brary of English Literature.