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The mountains of Abuffode are high and steep rocks, that stretch along the Nile. No ober mountains give fo evident a proof, according to our Author, of the general deluge; fors from the top, downwards, may be seen the impressions made by the falling of the waters : which at moft can prove no other, than that there has been rain in this country. The echoes formed by some of these rocks are very distinct. Near the river are seen a great many grottos, or caverns, where holy Anchorites formerly dwelt, but wbich are now the habitations of some Arabian pirates.
The city of Monfalunt, is a kind of capital, and the resim dence of a Bishop of the Copts. On the other fide the Nile, and opposite to this city, is a convent of Copts, absolutely inacceffible; so that when any one goes in, or gut, he is drawn up, or let down, in a basket, by means of a pulley; n, from which circumstance it is called the Couvent de la Poulie.,
Siuut is another city, that has the appearance of a capital, and is likewise the feat of a Coptic Bishop: the caravan for Sennar sets out from hence, The caverns called Sababinath, hewn in the mountain * Thebet el Kofferi, are worthy notice. The traveller, pursuing the way of the mountain, must ascend for two hours, before he arrives at the first entrance; which conducts him into a spacious room, supported by four hexagonal pillars, cut out of the rock. The roof is adorned with painting, which is still very distinct.; and the gold made use of, still glitters all around. The floor is at present covered with fand and stones; and the passages into the other apartments are choaked with ruins. On the outside may be seen an apartment over the firit large chamber, already described i its dimensions are lefs; it is without pillars, and painted like the other. On each side of this second chamber is a tomb, hewn in the rock; the one open, the other fut; and both almost buried in the sand. This upper chamber communicateswith other apartments; but the paffages are filled with rubbish.
There had formerly been a Calish at Siuut, called. El Maafrata: it reached to Senabo, but is now destroyed. At Gau-fherkie, which fucceeds Diofpolis the Less, is an an. tient temple, about sixty feet in length, and forty deep. It feems as if covered with one entire stone, supported by columns; and the roof is so well preserved, that the hieroglyphics, with which it is charged, continue very distinct. There is nothing else remarkable about this temple ; for which the
* This word should be Gebel, or Jebel, which fignifies a mountain..
Arabs have so little reverence, as to make a stable of it for their cattle ; fo that it is entirely covered with duft and dung. This our Author reports upon the authority of another person, he not having seen it himself. Near this place is another Ca. lifh, which has also been neglected. Shech-Haridi is a place rendered famous by the tomb of a Turkish Saint, which is placed on the top of the mountain, in form like a cupola. The Arabs report, that he died in the same place where he was buried ; if he may be said to have died, who, according to them, is, by the mercy of God, changed into a ferpent never to die, but to confer health, and favour, to such as implore his aid, and facrifice to him. If a man of quality is fick, the serpent is polite enough to suffer himself to be carried to hiin; whilst the poor man is obliged to folicit the favour of a visit; under a vow to recompenee him for bis trouble. And after all, he will not ftir, unless a spotless virgin be sent for him; for if she is not pure, the serpent is inexorable. When the young ambasladress arrives, the intreats this snake to visit the fick perfon : he, who cannot refuse the fair fex any favours they may ask, begins to move himself, and at ialt jumps upon her neck, and is carried, with loud huzzas, to the person who defires his assistance; with whom his stay is for some hours, that his priests may be well entertained : and then he retires, followed by the priests and people, to the tomb, which is his usual residence,
Our Author accounts for the whole affair from the artifice of the priests, who may teach a tame * snake to do ali that is reported of this serpent. They pretend, indeed, that if he was to be cut into pieces, the parts would unite again ;, but the experiment is too impious, ever to have been made; and was actually refused, when the Emir Achmiin ordered it. his returning home again, even when he has been carried across the Nile, our Author very reasonably supposes, that the priest pouches bim.
Mr. Norden greatly regrets the not being permitted to land at Dendera, which he takes to be the remains of the antient Tentyra, mentioned by Strabo, Pliny, and others. It is said there is a temple still remaining in that place. The situation is exceedingly pleasant ; and for two leagues along the Nile, are
* Herodotus mentions harmless snakes, that were honoured with sepulchres by the anţient Egyptians. Formerly the fick went to the Temple of Ælculapii!s, whole entrance inio his Temple was announced by the hilling of a great serping. See the Plutus of Arii, tophanes; but now the god vifts his patients,
abundance of fruit-trees,which, about the middle of December, had leaves and flowers, as in Spring. ii At Giene, or Kiene, as it is written by our Author, who too often makes strange work of Arabic words, he enquired after the old canal, that conveyed merchandise too and from the Red Sea zor but could
in formation about it, nor discover any remains of -it, in or out of the city...?
Giesiret-Metera, he tells us, is a village of about three quarters of a league in length; it is the antient island of Ta. benna, where St. Pachôme built his first monastery ; the ruins of which are still to be seen, over against the village of Me: neshia.
$19slim In pursuing his voyage in these parts, our Author gives us to understand, that he met with many crocodiles, of differ ent fizes, from fifteen, to fifty feet long.net * ៩ ០
Arriving at Lukoreen, Mr. Norden meets with fo many remains of columns, and portico's, and edifices, that he had no doubt they were the ruins of antient Thebes. Of these there are several views, very curious and entertaining It is to be lamented, that our Author did not copy more of the hieroglyphics, with which almost every stone is covered is) but it feems he had neither time nor convenience for it, this at least is his excuse. He landed opposite to Carnac, on the weftern fide of the Nile, about 135 French leagues higher up than Cairo. The first objects he noticed, were two Coloffal figures; facing the Nile, and about a league from it; the onerre presenting a man, the other a woman. They are fifty Danish feet high, (measured by their fhadow) and from the foot to the knee, fifteen feet, which is the due proportion. They sfit upon two cubic stones, measuring fifteen feet by fifteen; the back part higher than the front, by one and an half. The pedestals are each five feet high, thirty, fix and an half long, and nineteen and an half broad. The distance between the two Itatues is twenty-one paces. They are constructed of several blocks of fandy itonę, of a greyith hue, probably taken from where the caverns are to be seen, in the neighbouring mauntains. Their breasts and legs are covered with Greek and Roman inscriptions; wrote in the time of the Romans, and long after these ftatues were érected. The backs and sides of the chairs in which they fit, are also covered with hieroglyphics, nearly the fame on one as an the other, with fome linall difference in the particular form of the characters'; dans la forme parti. culiere des charactéres. The stone of which the feats are made, differs in nothing from that of the ftatues, only it seems more dark and durable. There are two Isiac figures
in the fore-corners of each chair, which ferve as ornaments, and are of a fairer and finer ftone than the rest; and may therefore be fuppofed to have been added after the statues and their chairs were i finished All the injury they have fufo feredz is from the hand of time only. About two hundred paces from these Coloffal figures are feen the ruins of several ftatues, thrown down, and to the east, ftill more ruins, ano tient and modern lives
Marija) While Mr. Norden was taking draughts of these figures) fifty Arabs, under the command of a Shech, came up to him and his companions ; who being furnished with fire-arms, foon made them retreat.
The Greek and Latin infcriptions exhibit the names and quality of those who heard the voice of Memnon. Mr. Norm den has one which is not in Pocock; it begins with Tetrow nius, which is manifestly an error, either of the inscription, or Mr. Norden's copy it fhould be Petronias. There were many illustrious Persons of that name, and one of them was Præfect of Egypt. In the third line of the Greek infcription is P instead of K, the word is KAI'; and the last letter of the fame infcription must be N: But Mr. Norden did not understand Greek. There is some mistake in the laft word but one, there being no such name as Aian. iit Our Author now advances towards the ruins on the north, not far from the Coloffal figures; and observes, that it is not to be doubted, that they are the remains of the palace of Memnon. From the portico of a temple, of which he has given the design, we cannot but form a very great idea of the Egyp: tian architecture. We muft refer our Readers to Mr. Nor den's engravings, for a view of these ruins, of which we should give but a very imperfect idea by words. There is a break in che building, which, iour Author fays, 'is too large to have been covered, and here he places the famous statue of Memnon, where it might receive the rays of the fun. Here may be feen the fragment of a Coloflal itatue, thrown down, and half buried. It was originally feated, in a manner not unlike the Colossal ftatues described above. The upper part is wanting, and the marks of violence appear on what remains :st the whole had been of one entire piece of black granite. The pe destal is in a great measure entire; and the hieroglyphics on it arė, knives, semi-circles, &c Knives should, we think, indicate facrifices. Our Author leaves it to others to determine, whether these are not remains of the vocal statue of Memnon.
He struck it with a key, but it gave no found; tho' the fe. 333! '; * 1631371 ..901.61w bna.**.39 pulchral
pulchral urn, in the first pyramid, when ftruck in that male
power of this statue, that we may not also be as silent as the Itatue now is, and, doubtless, ever was, we must observe, that Hare pocrates himself could not be more a friend to taciturnity thanı. was this vocal statue. The inscriptions declare, that fome waited days, and months, without hearing any things and what they at last perceived, was a voice, but no words. Eu cian laughs when he says, it once uttered seven words. Strabo, indeed, heard a found; but at the same time he declares, that he could not discern whether it came from the base, op the Colossus, or from one of the company, .. The last may have been the case; and, consequently, this voice of the statue, as
foolish and ridiculous a superstition, as ever prevailed in the world.
There is another Coloffal statue, of one entire piece of black granite ; but of a less size than the former. Also the. head of a Colossus, coiffed in the Egyptian manner; it is of black granite, is two feet high, and is finished with great art and, industry. There is a simplicity in it, says our Author, (who certainly had some knowlege of drawing, or design) that charms and Thews it to have been the work of a great master. Bases wi!
In passing from this place, along the mountains, our Author entered several grottos, or cayerns, till he arrived at MedinetHabu, which had been erected on part of the ruins of Thebes, now in ruins itself, on the west of the Nile, and about three quarters of a league from it. Mr. Norden presents his readers with the view of an antient grand portal, of extraordinary beauty, which the Arabs had made the gate of the city, facing the Nile: all here is covered with hieroglyphics; but amongst other ruins which lay in the passage through the portal, Roy man ornaments, the heads of Bacchus and Diana, with leaves of the vine, and the oak, are discovered. After a survey of these ruins, and the passing through several large villages, without meeting any person, they return to their boat, which carries them to Efnay, the residence of an Arab Shech, and taken for the Old Latopolis. In the middle of this city, is an antient temple, having three sides fhut, and in the front, twenty-four pillars well preserved. It is covered with hieron glyphics; those on the outside feem to be very antient, executed in haste, and by men of great practice in the art; those on the inside are done with more care, and, by another band: on the pillars are hieroglyphics of a less lize, and very close. The capitals of the pillars are all of a different form, tho' of