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If the Reader is defirous of having this almost incredible in. stance of popish priestçrast, and lay bigottry, further authen: ticated, we refer him to D. Middleton's Letter from Rome...
For our Author's account of his travels to Naples, Venice, &c. we refer to his book; concerning which we have only to mention this further particular, yiz, that if the Writer's English is fometimes a little deficient, as well as his French, Italian, &c.) it is by no means improved under the hands of the printer: who appears to have inade confiderable additions to the defects of his Author.
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Observations on a Series of EleEtrical Experiments. By Dr.
Hoadley, and Mr. Willon. 460.) I s. 6d. Payne. A F subtile disputations, founded on
en arbitrary hypotheses, could have given satisfactory reasons for the phænomena of Nature, the doctrine of the schoolmen, or the principles of Des Cartes, would have rendered all sedulous enquiries, and accurate experiments, needless. But as all hypotheses, howa ever plausible, are banished from the present method of phiJofophizing, and nothing admitted as a principle that will not bear the rigid test of experiment, every attempt to account for natural phænomena, on other principles, is justly looked upon as supposititious only, and denied a place among the difcoveries of genuine philosophy:
From a great variety of optical experiments, Newton was led to conclude, that there is a very fine Fluid, of the same nature with air, but extremely more fubtle and elastic, every where dispersed throughout all space; 'which Fluid he called Æther : That this æther is much rarer within the dense bodies of the fun, stars, planets, and comets, than in the empty celestial spaces between them; and, in pafling from them to great distances, it perpetually grows denser and denser, and thereby causes the gravity of those bodies towards one another; and of their parts towards the bodies; every body endeavouring to go from the denser parts of the æther, towards the rarer : That, therefore, the earth is surrounded
is surrounded every where by this æther, to a very great distance, in confequence of which the air, and all bodies in it, gravitate towards the earth, and towards cach other, agreeably
to the appearances at the surface of it: That this æther likewise pervades the pores of all bodies, and lies hid in them, and whilft the bodies, with this Auid in them, are undisturbed by any external violence, this fluid, from its clastic nature, conforms itself, as to its degree of denfity, to
enumerated in the pamphlet before us, it appears, that there ourleves with the following extract; in which the Authors
lightning Boin the biti thefe two fluids are one and the same Aurd ; as it is much
the particular make of that body it is in. é. grIt is not so denje in denfe bodies as in rare ones. Such are the properties of the æther, according to Sir Isaac ; but as he was not able to prove fatisfactorily the exiftence of this fine fluid, most of his followers have denied it a place among the principles of the Newtonian Philofophy. sd But from the experiments of Dr. Hoadley and Mr. Wilson, is really, in nature, such a fluid, which is the cause of all electrical phænomena, that the electrical Auid is not elementary fire, as many have supposed; but that the æther of Sir Ifaac, and that of electricity, is one and the same fluid.
Asit is impoflible to give the substance of their experiments, without transcribing too much from the pamphlet, we must refer our philosophical Readers to the whole, and content have delivered the result of their several experiments. bi& Thus have we say they, gone through the most interesting of the electrical experiments; and from the various
appearances they afford, it appears, that the electrical Auid bis as 'universal and powerful an agent, at or near the surface of the earth, as that fluid which Sir Isaac Newton, in his
Optics, calls Æther; that it is as subtle and elastic in its na*ture, as æther is; and, as æther does, that it pervades the
pores of all bodies whatever, that we are conversant with; 5 is dispersed thro' whatever vacuum it is in our power to prosiduce by art, and from the natural phenomena of thunder,
, 2916 We fhall make no scruple, therefore, now to affirm, that
more philosophical to do so, than to suppose two such Auids, of each of them equally capable of producing these effects, and • equally present every where; which would be multiplying
caufes, where there is no manner of occasion, ock The word electrical, is of too confined a meaning to be a proper epithet for å fluid of fo universal an activity, as this
is found at last to be, from the experiments we have been * confidering, because it expresses its power but partially, 10. Electricity means no more than the power we give
bodies by rubbing them, to attract and repel light bodies that are @linear them, in the fame manner' as amber does when it is elrubbed. But this fluid not only makes light bodies, that are
near an electrified body, fly to and from that body, and so & appear to be attracted and repelled : but it heats therri, by Hh 2
tu sungile 2009
eles, which, with the rays of lights: 91 mixing with the
milts express themselves; nay, more, in passing through
animals, it occalions convullions, tremors, pain, and death • sometimes': and in palling violently
, throogh leaf-gold, held tight between two pieces of glass, makes a fusion both of 3 (the gold, and of the surface of the glassy to instantaneously, • that no sensible heat remains in them, and they immediately after become incorporated, and form an enamel.
It is likewise improper to call this fluid, Fire. Air may X just as properly be called found, as this fuid can be called « fire. When found is produced, the particles of the air are siput into fo regular a motion, as to convey fuch sensations, by means of the ear, as raile the
e idea of sound. But air is s not therefore found. In the same manner, when a body has
all its component particles thrown into such agitations in the air by the force and action of this Auid, within it, and
without it, that it grows hot, and thines, and glows, and
fire, or burns ; but this Auid is not therefore fire : nor can
9410) Ks E46 • Sir Isaac Newton, at the end of the Principia, in the fe* Sitoond edition, anno 1713, describes this Huid, and its effects, s in the following words; and says, expressly, that
that it is -> scaufe of the Electricity.
* , . “ fimo corpora crafla pervadente et in iidem latente: cujus *** vi, et actionibus particulæ corporum ad minimas difianties 0966. fe mutuo attrahunt, et contiguæ facta coherent: et corpo-39.6 attrahendo corpufcula vicina: ct lux emittitur, reflectitur,
refringitur, inflectitur, et corpora calefacit: et fensatio **
omnis excitatur, et membra animalium ad voluntatem mo6 ventur vibrationibus fcilicet hujus fpiritus per folida nervo* rum capillamenta ab externis fenfuum organis ad cerebrum, “ et a cerebro ad musculos propagatis. Sed hæc paucis expo“ ni non poflunt, neque adeft fufficiens copia experimentorum,
quibus leges actionum hujus fpiritus accurate determinare « et monftrari debent.
Ons eestoinsg 1990offroy dadi gnista No one, we flink, can read this paragraph, after having confidered the appearances in the experiments described
above, without recollecting instances, in fome one or other of them, of almolt all the effects of this fluid, enumerated :
, and attracting light bodies that are near them, may all of
on component particles of the bodies ; on the rays of light within them; and on the air they are in; and the reaction of the e on the æther.
rodi ni eutta1 1.9d slitest dit sdt • When a Aint and steel are struck together with fufficient force and velocity, 4 fpark of fire, as we call it, is produced, which readily fires gunpowder, or lights tinder but
foon cools if left to itrelf. Souborq zi basol non > catro 091
Now, if such a fpark be caught on a sheet of papers and examined in a microscope, it will be found to be a piece either of the Aint, or of the steel struck off, fo exactly afpherical, and polished, that the windows of the room may be
feen in it, in the fame manner as they are in a large polished sphere of metal or głals: and they could not be so spherical,
and well polished, as they are found to be, if they had not GIS 2011 been melted, and kept in this form by the cohesion of their
pesobi tyo gubruotoon itodsiw eti this component particles.
• In either of these cafes, a piece of Aint or steel, is evi• dently separated from the body, and its companent particles
put into such agitations among each other, as to throw off afaths, light which were among them,
and melt, and afterwards cool in a spherical formo by the action care of the æther on light and air, and these component partii by of
cles; and the reaction of these upon the æther, on their 2பயன் Itroke.
Ja mabili ni 39 9319bav199 shen szoq103 omni There would have been no such spark produced, if any of these had been wanting ; and, consequently, they are
all necessary, tho', perhaps, not equally fos to the proi ducing this effect; the æther seeming to be as powerful an
agent as any amongst them; without which the intestine
motion among the component partieles of the piece ftruck op off, could not bave been kept regularly up, even for the
: og OS 096 2116769019 coluoluñ bs orda195 S 19 1
very small time in which these changes are made in that estas
temas que rigoa zosionel Hh 32991 suttog non in a la disp
6 In the same manner are the appearances of light in these electrical experiments, whether in faint Atreams of different 6 colours, or in bright and active sparks, to be considered ja • as arising from smaller parts of grofs bodies separated from " them, and carried off by the activity of the excited æther,
paffing from one body into another; which parts, tho' im• perceptible to us, muft have their component particles put • into agitations amongst themselves; and, in being decom
posed, part with the light that before lay hid within thems) ..and their most volatile particles; and so shine, and smell, < and explode, in paffing through the air.
“And not only these appearances of light, sparks, and ex, plosion, but the effects of them on bodies, exposed to theni C: in electrical experiments, seem all to be explicable by the « mutual action and reaction of the æther, of the component "particles of the small parts of bodies thrown off in these exsperiments, of the particles of light within these, and of the
air, one upon another, when they are once made active by < friction.'
We shall conclude this article with the following curious discovery made by these Gentlemen, namely, that the weight of a chain is not sufficientito bring the links of it into contact with each other, but requires a very considerable additional force to perform it. We mention this as it has a strong tendency to confirm what the late ingenious Mr. Melvill observed, to wit, that the drops of water on the leaves of colewort, do not in reality touch the plant. See our laft Review, page 382, feq.
To the AUTHORS of the REVIEW.
Writer is never so effectually confuted, as when he is
made to confute himself.-The learned Dr. Patten, in his Reply to Mr. Heathcote, (page 3.) after having given it as his opinion, that the science of theology was at its utmost perfe&tion about the beginning of the last century, goes on thus, +“ The volumes, I mean, of Jewel, and Jackson, and An“ drews, and Reynolds, and Hall, and Taylor. These glo« rivús defenders of Chriftianity would have pitied, instead < of abetting, the attempts of those writers, who undertake, $6 with the Mallow line of human conjecture, (the true name " of Reason partially informed) to fathom the deep things of ". God, and who concede to infidels, that nothing is to be