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primitive epic, its charms in the shape of of bread, and resembles cubes of chalk or hasty pudding. A shop in the London plaster; it is exposed, in this form, to a Strand dispenses it as the Yankee condi- graduated heat, and when the moisture is ment; and, as the crisp hoe-cake, it is the entirely evaporated, the brown surface is relish of a Virginia breakfast. The In- carefully scraped off, and the snowy block dians have a favorite legend explaining its papered; it dries thoroughly after coming origin as one of the chief gifts of the Great from the kiln, and the moment the paper Spirit to man. The green banners and is opened crumbles into beautiful white white tassels of the maize, quivering in the flakes, like the process of crystallization, breeze and sunshine of June, or the golden and is thus transferred to boxes of the caears at harvest, are among the most au- pacity of twenty pounds each. The meal spicious of nature's annual spectacles. It is soaked thirty days; in the original facused to be sold by cord in the ear; in the tory, where a hundred men are usually West it is stored in open houses ; here employed, it is estimated that fourteen we see it in barge-loads of kernels, com hundred dollars' worth of this article is ing and going on the canals, rising and de- daily prepared for market; the addition scending in spouts from the elevators; it of eggs, a flavoring extract and cooking, heats intensely from moisture.

results in a nutritious pudding. The swill There is one form of maize which is al is conveyed to a neighboring distillery, and most peculiar as an original commodity is turned into whisky, the surplus feeding here. At every corner grocery in our sea a multitude of swine. board cities are to be seen little square Here, as elsewhere in this State, the boxes, with the Oswego brand thereon, water power and facilities, by their grand • containing what is called “Corn Starch ;" scale and communication, impress the it has become a domestic staple for pud- visitor with the wonderful union in nadings, and its manufacture is a special | ture of beauty and use. Oswego is sitindustry of this place. For some years uated at the junction of the magnificent the secret whereby maize was converted Lake Ontario and the river which gives into this nutritious edible, resembling in its name to the city, formerly, and now consistency and appearance, when fresh sometimes, called the Onondaga. The wafrom the housewife's mold, blanc mange ters of no less than eight lakes from the

-except that its color is a pale straw or interior flow through this river ; Canandeep yellow - was in the exclusive pos- daigua, Crooked, Seneca, Cayuga, Owassession of an Englishman, who has made co, Skaneateles, Onondaga, and Oneida, more than one fortune out of his monop- with their numerous little tributaries, and oly; of late, the method has been re they drain a surface of four thousand five vealed by one of his workmen, and an hundred square miles. Oswego and Ontaother establishment thrives beside its rio are the aboriginal appellations for rapid rival. The advantage of Oswego for such water and pretty lake. The great advanta manufacture is obvious ; it is a great ages of the locality from hydraulic power, mart for Indian corn; its central position, and commercial position with reference to and the facilities for transportation, are Canada and the great West, were recogadditional benefits. To make starch cheap nized at an early date; and the French, was long a desideratum; the ingredient who always selected frontier posts with a which wrought the miracle in meal is view to military occupation, made a renbelieved to be ash-soda. Experiments of dezvous of Oswego when, in July, 1696, the kind have been partially successful Frontenac prepared his famous expedition elsewhere ; but the Oswego corn-starch, against the Five Nations. This, like the in quality and quantity, has thus far car other enterprises of those colonists, was ried the palm. The yellow kernels hav- intended to confine the English to the ing been ground in mills, the meal is Atlantic seaboard. The historical process thoroughly soaked in vats; fermentation began with trading depôts, which were ensues, and causes an odor far from agree- protected by friendly natives; then, as able to unaccustomed nostrils ; it leaves hostilities between the rival Europeans a deposit, and is conveyed into other vats, and the Indians, and themselves, respectwhere the chemical agents are mingled, and ively, occurred, these posts became more passing thence in a milky stream, the thick and more fortifications, and from serving residuum is molded, like bricks or loaves as landmarks and refuges to fur peddlers,

1

missionaries, and travelers, they subse- resort of the friendly and goal of the vinquently formed the nucleus of populous dictive savage, the resting-place of the and prosperous American towns; thus Jesuit missionary, and the weary pilgrim Pittsburgh marks the site of Fort Du- of the wild, the little village of the Rev. quesne, and Utica of Fort Schuyler. The olution, is a prosperous city ; massive stone son of the famous English bishop, Bur- piers, erected by the United States govnet, who wrote the notable “ History of ernment, stretch into the lake; long and his own Times," while provincial gov- solid bridges span the river ; and where ernor of New York, built and manned a Montcalm landed amid a dense forest and trading-house and small fort at Oswego, on a lonely shore, is the populous center in 1727, in order to gain and keep control of commerce, where canal, railway, and of the lakes. Beauharnais ordered Bur- steamers unite and distribute the products net to relinquish the project, which he of the vast inland region, and stimulate declined to do; and in order to keep the productive industry in the varied forms balance of power, and retaliate, took pos- of commerce, manufactures, agriculture, session of Crown Point, and erected Fort and transportation. In the midst of the Frederic there. While Braddock was on late financial pressure, twenty-two grainhis way to a memorable defeat, Shirley, laden vessels arrived at Oswego in one governor of Massachusetts, at the head day, mostly from Chicago, and about the of fifteen hundred provincials and In- same time, says a local journal, dians, traversed the wilderness between

“An extraordinary story reaches us, which Albany and Oswego, (then a perilous and

we give as we received it. When it was first fatiguing journey,) and reached the latter told us we were fully convinced that it was a place with his weary followers, to learn hoax, but subsequent investigation compels us the bloody and fatal tidings of Braddock's to say that the statements come well authentioverthrow, whose successor he became, report is, that two men, named respectively

cated, and with every appearance of truth. The and instantly strengthened Oswego with Ward and Hall, were at work down the lake two other forts, and began his prepara- shore, some miles from this city, getting out tions to make an attack upon Fort Ni- hoop stuff

, when they discovered a small keg

buried in the sand. This they dug out, and agara ; his own defeat by Montcalm, and

opening it, found it contained sixteen hundred the latter's fall, succeeded ; and the ru

silver pieces. The coins were of an ancient ined forts were long a melancholy sight French cast, and of the denomination of sevento the Six Nations. In 1757 the English franc pieces, valued at one dollar and nine cents again took possession of Fort Ontario, left for Philadelphia, where they intend to ex

each. The two men with their treasure have and two years after it was rebuilt on a

change their coin at the Mint." larger scale. No action occurred there during the Revolution ; but “ a detach- A dwelling now occupies the site of ment of rangers and a few Indians, under the mound once captured by Montcalm ; Col. St. Leges, were ordered to pene- the old fort stood on a tongue of land at trate by Oswego to the Mohawk, and cap- the mouth of the river. A year or two ture and hold Fort Schuyler, at the head of ago some workmen, while grading what is boat navigation, and thence, re-enforced by called Botta Island, found a human skull, Sir John Johnson, with his numerous ad- the back of which was pierced with a herents, to join Burgoyne with the main musket ball ; it was found inside slightly body at Albany."

flattened. This was doubtless the relic At the close of the war Washington of one of the victims of the fight which sent an expedition thither, more for vigil- occurred here, in 1756, between Colonel ance than conquest; Willett, the leader, Broadstreet and his three hundred batattempted to scale the fort, but was oblig- teaux men and seven hundred French and ed to retreat. In 1796 it was given up Indians. The previous year Shirley had by the English, according to the treaty left the same number of men to garrison of peace. During the last war the Brit- the fortifications he began here, and Desish made an unsuccessful attempt to seize kau's great object, we are told, in reducnational property at Oswego, and vented ing Albany, was to "cut off all communitheir disappointment, as usual, by wanton cation with Oswego.” A thrill of trepimischief. And now the trading log cabin dation ran through the sparse settlements of the pioneers, the frontier post of the in what is now Western New York when hunter, the fort of the rival emigrants, the the news sped that Forts Ontario and 08

VOL. XI.-41

wego were threatened by the French; and the lake with success ; all was going on the banners captured at the latter by well, and he signalized others of his squadMontcalm long hung as trophies in the ron to join; but, like Elliott's ship at Canada churches; the aboriginal country Lake Erie, they hung back; at this crisis of the Five Nations was long abandoned the commodore's gun burst and killed to the French. In 1759 it was at Os- twelve of his own men. Finding himself wego that General Prideaux embarked wholly unsupported, he withdrew indigwith the large body of regulars and pro- nant and discomfited. He would not alvincials and Sir W. Johnson and his Mo- low the circumstances, which so wholly hawk braves to invade Niagara. But exculpated him from blame, to be reported this was also the scene of more recent at Washington, and so died without the warlike events. The English fleet on credit for gallantry he deserved. On the Lake Ontario in 1814 landed a thousand other hand, Brown, a militia officer, when men and attacked the four hundred who attacked at Sackett's Harbor, ignominicomprised the feeble garrison of Fort ously decamped from the fort. The Ontario; under their leader, Mitchell, British, under Prevost, soon after taking they made a gallant resistance, quitting possession, believing the abandonment a the intrenchments to fight on the shore; trick, and that the Americans were lying they killed the favorite officer of the in- in ambush among the adjacent thickets vaders, and did them great mischief; but, behind and around the fort, soon took overpowered by numbers, were obliged at their departure ; then Brown returned and last to surrender: The public store- took possession. He was applauded as a keeper at that time is still an honored and victor; whereas both parties ran away! prosperous citizen of Oswego. When An incident, which occurred during this asked by the British admiral where the gentleman's brief captivity on board the stores were to be found, ke declined in- royal frigate, illustrates the vicissitudes forming him; whereupon the incensed of war. A boat with American stores, in Sir George seized him by the collar, and, a dense fog, got into the midst of the after heaping curses on his head, declared English fleet; the men reported a squadhim a prisoner. He asked leave to exam- ron of boats manned by the enemy, and ine his trunk, but found it had been rifled. two hundred men with the commodore's He was taken on board the “Prince Re- gig were dispatched in pursuit. Through gent," a fine frigate, and messed with the the influence of Appleton they were alofficers; and he found, to his surprise, that lowed to go up to the head of a creek, and the highest grade were not gentlemen, as there surrounded, and the whole detachin the American service, but the roughest ment taken prisoners by the Americans. sea-dogs. Toward evening Sir George They learned by the firing on board the came off, and swore vociferously that his frigate that a conflict was going on, and prisoner ought to be hung at the yard-arm, the next morning a flag of truce, sent to for not betraying the whereabouts of the obtain the clothes of the prisoners, chapublic stores.

grined them with the news that they had Colonel Harvey, afterward governor caught a Tartar. of Canada, and one of Wellington's aids at Waterloo, apologized for this conduct, and said his commander was irritated by Test FOR THE FUTURE HUSBAND.the loss of his biave friend and so many The Moscow ladies still observe an ancient men in the late action. The captive re- and curious custom on New Year's Eve, mained a fortnight on board the frigate. to ascertain who is to be their future husWhen she lay off Kingston he sent to an band.' Precisely at twelve o'clock, a servold customer there for payment of a bill ant or friend is stationed at the front door dne him, and with the proceeds bought a of the house, and the first gentleman who piece of linen, which the officers' wives passes is stopped and requested to give his made into shirts for him. Besides thus christian name. This is immediately told replenishing his scanty wardrobe he dis- to the young lady, and is believed by her covered, during the cruise, many facts of to be the name of her intended. If no the war which history has since ignored figure passes, it is considered that the lady or distorted. Commodore Chauncey had will not be married that year. The custom attacked the British fleet at the head of I gives rise to many amusing scenes.

THE BIOGRAPHY OF THE BIBLE.

Then, as it was in the days of the apostles,

as it always will be, he who loveth God JOB; HIS TRIALS AND HIS PATIENT EN. will love his brother also. Job sympaDURANCE.

thized in the afflictions of his fellow-men. E have discussed the questions rela- He wept for those that were in trouble.

,

the style of the book in which his history was his sympathy evinced merely by tears, is written, and the peculiar characteris- or his grief the expression of his lips only. tics of the friends who came to condole Driven to a justification of himself by the with him. The former part of his per- harshness of his accusers, he adverts in sonal history is now to be considered-his conscious integrity to his deeds of benevafflictions and his patience. His queru- olence. The stranger did not lodge in lous complainings and bitter lamentations the street: I opened my doors to the travare reserved for a future essay.

eler. I have not seen any perish for want As to Job's moral character, the sacred of clothing, or any poor without covering ; writer says he was perfect and upright; for he was warmed with the fleece of my one that feared God and eschewed evil. sheep. I delivered the poor that cried He was, moreover, a man of large worldly and the fatherless, and him that had none possessions; the greatest of all the men of to help him, and I caused the widow's the East. Then, as now, riches conferred heart to sing for joy. I was eyes to the distinction, and men did reverence to the blind, and feet was I to the lame; I was a possessor of large estates. Then, as father to the poor, and the cause which I now, wealth was a spare to the soul, and knew not I searched out. a righteous rich man was a rarity. But As the natural result of this uniform Jub was eminent alike for wealth and vir- benevolence, Job had the esteem of his tue: the richest man in all the East and equals and the blessings of his inferiors. the most holy.

The young men saw me and hid themHe is first introduced to us as offering selves, and the aged arose and stood up. sacrifices to God in behalf of his children. The princes refrained talking, and the It may be, he said, that my sons have nobles held their peace. When the ear sinned and cursed God in their hearts. heard me, then it blessed me, and when He rose up early in the morning and of the eye saw me it gave witness to me, and fered burnt-offerings, according to the the blessing of him that was ready to pernumber of them all. This was his con- ish came upon me. stant practice. In that early twilight of At the time when the sacred writer bethe world's history it was thus, by sacri- gins his history his seven sons appear to fices and burnt-offerings, that men evinced have been settled in life. Whether this their faith in the promises of God, and was the case with his three daughters, or through them found access to the High whether they yet lived under the paternal and Holy One. Here, too, is additional roof, is not so clear. They resided near evidence that Job lived at a very early each other, and were united by the ties of period in the world's history. Noah aeted affection and love. The brothers and sisas the high priest of his family. So did ters frequently met at each other's dwellJob. But, in the time of Abraham, an ings. And his sons went and feasted established priesthood seems to have ex- in their houses, every one his day, and isted. Melchizedec, styled the priest of sent and called for their three sisters to the most high God, blessed the father eat and drink with them. Truly the san of the faithful, and Abraham paid him of prosperity shone brightly upon his path. tithes.

Not one element of happiness seems to Job lived also in the personal enjoy- have been lacking. Wealth was his, and ment of the favor of God. His candle, health ; the endearments of the family says he, shined upon my head, and by his circle ; sons and daughters loving and belight I walked through darkness. The loved ; esteemed by the good, feared by secret of God was upon my tabernacle; the wicked, respected by all, with the the Almighty was with me. Of course blessings of the poor, the fatherless, and he who thus loved God loved his neigh- the widow upon his head. Nor was this bor also. I say, of course, for the two all. He had in addition the calm conhave been inseparable from the beginning. sciousness of his own integrity, and en

my nest.

ours.

joyed sweet communion with his Maker. we are in the habit of regarding as eviThe lines had fallen to him in pleasant dences of wealth, we read his history with places; he had a goodly heritage. I less interest, and feel for him less sympamarvel not that he said in his prosperity, thy, than would otherwise be the case. I shall never be moved; I shall die in Oxen, and camels, and sheep were the

Did I say in the cup of Job's same in that day as real estate, and bank happiness nothing was lacking? I was stock, and specie, or its equivalent, are in wrong. There was wanting, what man We shall see the severity of the cannot have in this life ; there was want blow if we fancy to ourselves our wealthing the assurance of perpetuity, a guar- iest neighbor receiving in one hour the anty against accidents and losses, a some news that, without fault of his own, he has thing, like the rod of Franklin, which been stripped of all his possessions. By wards off the threatening thunderbolt, to the knavery of men, and by judgments protect him when the dark cloud rises, and from Heaven, by fraud, by tempest, by fire, leave him unscathed and safe when Eze- by lightning, the rich man of yesterday is kiel's roll of lamentations, and mourning, now a hopeless, homeless bankrupt. An and woe should spread itself over his hour since at the pinnacle, now at the dwelling place. But there is no such base. Just in proportion to the height he thing. Neither has man's ingenuity in- had attained is the depth of his fall, and vented, nor God's goodness promised an the severity of the blow. Nor need we exemption from adversity and affliction in draw on the imagination to illustrate the this life. No, not to his own beloved subject. From Job's day to ours, in the ones. It pleased him to make even the reality of every-day life, among farmers, Captain of our salvation perfect through and manufacturers, and merchants, even suffering, and it still pleases him thus to among those who were born in the ranks teach his creatures that this world is not of the aristocracy, who never knew toil, their continuing place. Else might they nor what it is to have a wish ungratified, never be ready to exclaim, as did Job there have been, and are, and always will when trouble came, I would not live be, living illustrations of God's own truth: always.

Riches make to themselves wings and fly But to pursue the narrative. On one away. Not in vain, though, alas ! too genof those occasions to which I have ad- erally unheeded, is the exhortation of the verted, a feast at the house of his eldest apostle, Trust not in uncertain riches. son, at which were present all his children, This sudden plunge from wealth to porthe father himself remaining at home, a erty, from the height of prosperity to the messenger comes to him with evil tidings. depth of adversity, was, however, a small Abrupt was his entrance, and without item in the afflictions of the man of Uz. preface the announcement. The Sabeans On the same day that he received intellihave fallen upon the oxen, and having gence of his loss of worldly goods another murdered thy servants, have carried them messenger appears with still heavier tidall off, and I only am escaped alone to tell | ings. Thy children, Job, thy sons and thee. While he was yet speaking an- daughters, are all dead. Dead, too, by a other enters : The fire of God is fallen sudden and terrible visitation. In the from heaven, says he, meaning probably midst of their revelry and merry-making, the lightning, and had burned up the sheep without warning, or a moment's space for and servants, and consumed them, and I preparation, they have passed into the only am escaped alone to tell thee. eternal world, and thou art childless. Scarcely had this bearer of evil tidings Thy sons and thy daughters were eating delivered his message when a third enters. and drinking wine in their elder brother's The Chaldeans, says he, made out three house, and behold there came a great bands, and fell upon the camels, and have wind from the wilderness, and smote the carried them away, yea, and slain the four corners of the house, and it fell upon servants with the edge of the sword; and them, and they are dead. Like Aaron's I only am escaped alone to tell thee. rod which swallowed up the rest, so these

Thus was he stripped at once of all his tidings completely bury and overwhelm wealth, reduced suddenly to poverty. the news brought by the preceding mesPossibly, from the fact that his posses-sengers.

What was wealth, his sheep, sions were so different from those which and camels, and oxen, to his sons and

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