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every hill, preserved the verdure of the temples, altar statues, and monuments, earth and the temperature of the air ; the where some of their departed heroes re
were gratified with harmonious posed, it would appear that these gardens sounds and aromatic odors, and the peace had some resemblance to our modern cemful grove was consecrated to health and eteries. The points to which particular joy." Water is introduced into all the attention was paid, in the Grecian garEastern gardens, and the basins and cas-dens, were shade, coolness, fragrance, and cades give a delicious coolness to the air. repose. The singing of birds, too, was considered To such a degree of refinement had the essential to the perfection of a garden ; discrimination of perfumes arrived, that it the time of the singing of birds is men- had actually become a matter of attention tioned in Solomon's Song as a peculiarly to place those plants in proximity whose delightful season. Russel mentions that perfumes blend most delicately together. in Syria there are abundance of nightin- Flowers were not merely a luxury to the gales, which not only afford much pleasure Grecians, but they were considered absoby their songs in the garden, but are also lutely necessary. Flowers, that lovely kept tame in the houses, and let out at part of the creation—that seem the very a small rate, to such as choose it, in the pledges of a Father's love-have, indeed, spring ; so that no entertainment is made been ever associated with the most striking in this season without a concert of singing- events of life : they are woven into garbirds in wicker cages; from these cages lands for the happy and the prosperous ; a hint may have been taken for the erec- they are strewn upon the grave of the betion of aviaries. In China, aviaries are loved, the offerings alike of joy and sorin such common use, that no person of any row. They were used alike on every consequence would be without one attached occasion by the Grecians: their tables to his house. The gardens of Lucullus, were covered with them at their banquets; near Baie, in the Bay of Naples, were of a they were worn, too, on these occasions, most magnificent description, not surpass- as a preservative against the effects of the ed by those of the Eastern monarch : they fumes of wine, and to enliven the spirits, were situated in a mountainous district, invigorate the thinking faculties, and purify considerably elevated ; a vast sheet of the mind; such virtues were they supposed water had been diverted into them. It to possess! Baskets of flowers were al. was Lucullus who introduced the peach, ways ready for sale at the markets; gar. apricot, and cherry, from the East. Pliny lands were hung on the gates during public describes his gardens at his villa Lauren- rejoicings; and flowers were laid upon the tinum, in his letters ; he appears to have | altars, as the most fitting offerings. Va. delighted in them, for he speaks with en- rious authors have noticed their general thusiasm of the beauty of his woods, his usė. Priests decked themselves with flowrich pasture lands, covered with cattle ; ers, youths wore them at their fêtes, phithe view of the distant mountains, the Bay losophers were crowned with flowers, and of Ostia, and the villas which lay scattered they were woven round the warrior's head, along its margin. So fond was he of this as a badge of victory : these customs prescene, that it is said he managed that there vailed all over the East. There were should be a view of it from every room in florists at Athens, and subsequently at his house, and that even in his bath and Rome, whose sole occupation it was to on his couch he could command it. It wreathe the crowns of flowers. To such has been told that some of the Grecian a height did the passion at length arrive philosophers used to give their lectures in Rome, that laws were passed prohibitunder the shade of trees, while they in- ing the use of crowns of flowers to such haled the perfume of odoriferous plants. as were not privileged by their high staIt was in a pleasant garden, which he had tion, or by the permission of the magispurchased for the sake of its seclusion trate, to wear them. and beauty, that Epicurus taught his sys Cicero, in one of his speeches against tem of philosophy ; from this circumstance Verres, the proconsul, upbraids him with the Epicureans went by the name of the having traveled through Sicily in a litter, “ Philosophers of the Garden."
reclining on roses, with a crown of flowers The gardens of Athens were remarkable on his head and a garland at his back. for their classic elegance. Adorned with | Heliogabalus had his palace, and even the
bed on which he lay, strewn with flowers. is turned, to dash precipitately over a sucCleopatra's passion for roses was so great cession of terraces, and is tormented bethat she paid a talent for those to orna low into a variety of tricks : at the turning ment one supper. The floor of the apart of a cock, you are assailed by water on ment in which the banquet was served every side. We are told by Loudon, to was covered with roses to the depth of a whom we are indebted for much informacubit. Suetonius tells us that Nero lav- tion, that " water is squirted in your face ished four millions of cesterces, about from invisible holes; it darts up in a con£30,000, on the roses for one entertain- stellation of jets d'eau, and, descending in ment. We have all heard of the tulip misty showers, presents against the sun a mania which raged throughout Europe for beautiful iris ! Water is made to blow the a time, so that these extravagances need trumpets of Centaurs and the pipes of a not surprise us.
Cyclops ; water plays the organ, makes Flowers have been made the vehicles the birds warble and the Muses tune their for sentiment all over the world. The reeds, sets Pegasus neighing, and all ParPersians communicate with their mis nassus on music." tresses by means of bouquets. The poet The taste for introducing statues and has made the fond girl depend on the urns into gardens was revived by Cardinal decision of a flower to ascertain whether d’Este, about the same time. Anxious to her affection was returned.
design a residence and gardens for himself, It is the custom in Switzerland, on the he took the ground where the Emperor birth of a child, to dispatch a maid to all Adrian's villa had stood; here he happened the friends and relatives in the family with to find a number of antiquities, which he the good news, dressed in her very best, distributed through his gardens, and thus and carrying a large nosegay of the the plan that he had accidentally adopted choicest flowers. That custom, once so became the fashion throughout Europe. prevalent in merry England, of ushering The approved style of gardening in Italy in the month of May with garlands and may be gathered from a poem published in crowns of flowers, appeared to us most the beginning of the seventeenth century, natural.
under the title of “ L'Adama." Its auDuring the dark ages the art of garden- thor was a Florentine. It is illustrated ing would have been utterly lost but for by “prints representing Paradise, with the monks, who still practiced it, and even clipped hedges, square parterres, trees introduced it into tracts in Italy and Spain formally lopped, straight walks, marble hitherto utterly neglected. The art of fountains, and water-works." gardening was revived and encouraged by Wilson speaks in great rapture of the the Medici family, in Italy, in the begin- gardens belonging to many of the villas on ning of the sixteenth century. The most the Lake of Como ; it, however, appears, famous gardens were those of Lorenzo de from what he says, that they did not altoMedici and the opulent Bernard Rucellai; gether escape the prevailing fashion ; he they were laid out according to the geo- tells us that “it is delightful to behold the metrical plan of Pliny's Tusculum villa, a lofty crags, frowning from the highly culfashion adopted throughout Europe soon tivated gardens, with hot-houses of exotic after. Forsyth tells us that in the villas plants and ornamented summer-houses subabout Rome, they persisted in " the formal | duing the natural wildness of the scene." symmetrical plan, architectural groves, The fantastic devices that so long predevices cut in box, and tunes performed vailed in the art of gardening could not by the hydraulic organ.” In the descrip- have been executed without considerable tion of the gardens of the Villa Panfilé, we labor and expense, and the obstacles and are told of laurel and ilex porticoes, of difficulties which have been overcome in “parterres, green scutcheons, and clipped the pursuit of the art is sufficient proof of coronets, vegetating over half an acre. the zeal with which it was followed. The Though Belvidere, the villa of Prince hanging gardens of Babylon, ranked as one Borghese, at Frascati, is mentioned as of the wonders of the world, were a strikbeing a most noble object, and commanding example of laborious effort and skill; ing magnificent views; yet here, too, the flights of steps led to terrace above terlove of forcing nature out of her own sweet race,
till the height was equal to the walls course is seen. Behind the villa a stream of the city. The mold which had been
conveyed to these terraces rested on a to afford shelter to the cultivator has been foundation of lead, supported on vast observed. Should he wish, for any reason, arches raised above other arches. The to change his situation, he gets into his earth was so deep that the largest trees little vessel, and tows on his garden, if grew there, and every variety of plant that small, by himself; if large, with the help could beautify a garden embellished the of others, and places it in the direction terraces; water was ingeniously drawn up which is preferred. by an engine, so as to water the whole Cashmere, too, has its floating gardens. garden. How grateful must she have Inundations take place at the city, from been, for whose sake the fairy-scene had the accumulation of weeds and mud, by been contrived, when she found herself in which the depth of the lakes is diminished the midst of the trees and flowers of her and their surface enlarged. Water-lilies, native home! what fond recollections must reeds, and a variety of aquatic plants, have been wakened! but still dearer to spring from the bottom of the lakes; and her must have been the proof of that affec- as the boats take the most direct lines tion which had such tender regard for her through the waters to their place of desearly associations.
tination, the waters are divided in some The artificial gardens of Isola Bella, in places by beds of sedges and reeds. The the Lago Maggiore, had a foundation like farmers, to turn these beds to profitable that of the hanging gardens of Babylon. account, cut off the roots of the plant, The barren rock, which in 1640 had not about two feet under water; so that they an inch of earth on its surface, and pro- are separated from the bottom, though reduced no vegetation but lichens and moss, taining their situation. They are then became, under the direction of Vitaliano pressed together and formed into long borBoremeo, an object of surpassing beauty. ders about two yards wide; the heads of Earth was brought from the banks of the the plants are then cut off, and laid upon lake, in such quantity as to cover ten ter- the surface ; it is then covered with a races, raised on arches one above the thin layer of mud, which sinks by degrees other to the top of the island where the into the mass of tangled stalks. The palace stands; the rarest and most beau- floating bed is kept in its place by a wiltiful plants thus form a pyramid that ex- low stake, which is driven through it at cites admiration and surprise. Orange and each end, which admits of its accommolemon trees are in great luxuriance ; the dating itself to the rise and fall of the grove of laurels is scarcely equaled in water. A quantity of plants are disturbed Europe, and two of them are said to be from the bottom by means of a long pole “ the largest in existence.” A romantic thrust in among them, and turned round interest, too, like that connected with the and round repeatedly ; these are conveyed gardens of Babylon, is said to attach to in the boat, and laid on the surface of the those of Isola Bella, for they also owed bed, when they are twisted into cones their existence to affection.
about two feet in diameter at their base, and Perhaps the most curious specimens of about the same height. The top termincultivation to be met with, are the floating ates in a hollow, which is filled with fresh gardens of Mexico. When the Mexicans mud, and at times with wood ashes, into were subdued by the Calhuan and Tepan- which a number of cucumber and melon ican nations, and confined to the wretched plants are transplanted from under the little islands on the lake, they were with mats where they were reared. out land to cultivate ; but necessity (so No gardens could have cost such an aptly called the mother of invention) sug- amount of labor as the elaborate pleasure gested the idea for the formation of floating grounds of the Chinese. The great object fields and gardens. They laid the founda- in their arrangement is to represent nature tion with wicker-work, water plants, and in a variety of aspects. Some travelers mud. The boat containing one of these describe these gardens as exhibiting a gardens is usually eight poles long by three general confusion of the productions of broad. They first grew maize, and other verdant nature ;” they are of vast extent, useful plants; but afterward there were and represent a succession of scenes; the gardens among them where all kinds of pleasing, the horrible, the enchanted. In flowers and herbs were successfully raised the Scene of Horror, impending rocks, A tree may sometimes be seen, and a hut | dark caverns, and impetuous cataracts are
introduced, and the appearance of some in England, by the name of “ the Dutch great convulsion of nature is imitated. style ;" square flower-beds; raised terTrees are bent from their natural form, races, in straight lines ; arbors of trellisand made to look as if scathed by light- work at regular distances, covered with ning, or blasted by the tempest. Some vine and other creeping plants ; ponds for are seen torn and shivered ; others are ly- water-fowl and for fish, form the repreing across the torrents, as if rent from their sentations of this ancient people. The places by the rush of the waters ; the value set upon the lotus-plant is perruins of castles and villages, as if destroy- ceived at once; it is seen everywhere. ed by lightning and the storm, are in- The Egyptian ladies almost invariably terspersed throughout the scene; while held the blossom of the lotus in their hand, wretched homes here and there intimate and it was the decoration for their hair ; the misery to which the inhabitants of this the necklaces, too, which they wore at region of desolation are reduced. You their banquets, were formed of its petals. emerge suddenly from this gloom and de- The plants in which the gardens of Egypt vastation into the Scene of Delight, which abounded, are particularly alluded to in the is diversified by wood and water, and em Song of Solomon.” bellished with a profusion of flowering The gardens of Switzerland appear to shrubs and flowers of every hue. Vistas have been laid out without any attempt at of cascades are seen through the openings imitation ; they exhibited none of the fanin the woods, with sheets of water, where tastic ornaments which were so profusely vessels are gliding along; bridges and introduced into the gardens of other counbuildings lie scattered in the distance. To tries. Hirschfield tells that "they are surprise seems the great aim of this style theaters of true beauty, without vain ornaof gardening. Sometimes, gradually led ments or artificial decoration.” There is on from this delightful landscape to a wild, an unspeakable charm in simplicity, which rugged path, the explorer is involved in makes it a component part in all that is dark caverns; and again he finds himself sublime and lovely. The natural advanin the midst of luxuriance and beauty. tages of these gardens would, indeed, renAll appears like enchantment. The scene der embellishment, beyond the culture of derives its great interest from an air of plants, quite out of place. Their romantic supernatural mystery ; strange sounds are and picturesque situations, the undulations heard to issue from the ground, (contrived of the ground, the rocks, the verdure for by making streams pass beneath it ;) open- which some are remarkable, the noble ings are left in the rocks and buildings, views which they command, render them through which the wind rushes like an most delightful pleasure-gardens; and they awful dirge; grotesque-looking trees and are, besides, cultivated with the greatest plants are introduced into this scene, where care and most scrupulous neatness. The a number of strange animals are let loose. first botanic garden was founded at Zurich, The imperial gardens, which are of vast by Gesner, before the middle of the sixextent, are laid out after this fashion, em teenth century. Though his means obliged bellished with artificial hills, valleys, lakes, him to limit its extent and the number of and canals ; palaces, towns, and villages hands he employed, yet his energy was of wood, painted and varnished, (for such such that he had a vast collection of plants are always introduced into pleasure which he had preserved in his extensive grounds,) bridges, colonnades, resting travels and procured from his friends.' places ; a farm and fields fill up the Most of the cantons can now boast of a design, where the emperor presides once botanic garden. Pisa is distinguished for a year for the encouragement of industry. having opened the first in Europe. The
The fantastic style of gardening which botanic garden of Ghent, established by at one time prevailed throughout Europe, Napoleon in 1797, is the richest and best did not originate there, but has been traced in the Netherlands. Here, too, the festiby those who have carefully examined the vals of Flora are held twice a year by the paintings and the bas-reliefs which repre- agricultural society ; they last for three sent the Egyptian gardens, where the days at midsummer, and again at midflowers and fruits so essential for the winter. An honorary medal is the prize Egyptian banquets were cultivated. They awarded to the finest plants exhibited. were laid out in the manner which went,
[The subject will be continued in a future article.] VOL. XI.-40
THE FAITHFUL PASTOR AND THE
The plague was introduced into this reDEVOTED WIFE.
mote district through the medium of a box
of clothes sent to a tailor who resided THE little village of Eyam, in Derby- there. The person who opened the box,
ravages of the great plague in 1665-6, and forth, was its first victim ; and the whole as the scene, says Mrs. Hall, to whom we of the family, with the solitary exception are mainly indebted for this sketch, of the of one, shared the same fate. The disease more than Roman fortitude, the Christian spread rapidly, and almost every house devotion and self-sacrifice, of its pastor, was thinned by the contagion. The same the Rev. William Mompesson, who by his roof, in many instances, sheltered at the influence and example confined the plague same time both the dying and the dead. to this one spot, and tended, encouraged, Short indeed was the space between health and lived among his people, until God was and sickness, and immediate the transition pleased to “stay" it.
from the death-bed to the tomb. Wher
ever symptoms of the plague appeared, so here with his wife and two children. The hopeless was recovery, that the dissolution alarmed villagers communicated the fearof the afflicted patient was watched with ful fact at once to their minister and friend. anxious solicitude, that so much of the After the first shock, he speedily made up disease might be buried, and its fatal in his mind as to the proper course to pursue ; fluence destroyed. In the churchyard, on he determined to confine the plague, if the neighboring hills, and in the fields possible, to the bounds of his own parish, bordering the village, graves were dug and to remain there with his flock, as a ready to receive the expiring sufferers, true pastor should, and thus literally beand the earth with an unhallowed haste come “ the priest, the physician, and the was closed upon them, even while the legislator of a community of sufferers." limbs were yet warm. A clear idea of the He was at this time a young man, his wife ravages made here by this awful scourge was in her twenty-seventh year, and for inay be gathered from the fact, that out of her safety and for that of his two children a population of three hundred and thirty he was deeply anxious; he therefore at persons who then inhabited Eyam, two once imparted the melancholy news to her, hundred and fifty-nine fell victims to death. explained the determined nature of his own
When the pestilence first appeared, the self-sacrifice, and urged her immediate clergyman, Mr. Mompesson, was residing fight with the children while life and