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foray. The din is redoubled as they ap- to congratulate the successful warriors. proach their own house. The shouts are Siri and pinang, the never-failing accomtaken up and repeated on shore. The paniments of a Dyak meeting, are proexcitement spreads : the shrill yells of duced in great quantities ; the gongs and the women mingle with the hoarser cries drums are beaten throughout the whole of the men, the gongs in the house respond night; and the victors, amid scenes of to those in the boat, and all hurry to the gayety and sport, rejoice in the admiring wharf to greet the victors. Then there envy of the youths, and bask in the siniles is the buzz of meeting, the eager question, of the fair. During the few succeeding the boastful answer, the shout, the laugh, days, feasting proceeds to a certain extent, the pride of triumph ; and the gallant and a basket of offerings to the spirits is warriors become the cynosure of every suspended on the top of the house ; but eye; the envy of their equals, the admira- the grand entertainment is delayed till an tion of the fair. When the excitement abundant harvest should enable them to has in some degree subsided, the crew, celebrate the head-feast in a manner suited leaving some of their number in the boat, to the dignity of the occasion. go up to the house, where a plentiful sup- For this important event, which freply of siri, pinang, and tobacco are pro- quently does not take place for two or duced, and over these Dyak cheerers of three years after the head has been taken, the social hour, the event is related and preparations are made some weeks prediscussed in all its breadth and bearings. viously. Large stores of cakes and sweetAt length they prepare to bring the trophy meats are provided, and many jars of tuak, to the house. A long bamboo is procured, or native beer, are prepared ; much siri, and its lower joint split into several pieces, pinang, and tobacco collected, and every which are then opened out and wrought preparation made for an extensive display by means of ratans into a sort of basket. of hospitality. On the morning of the Into this basket the head is put, and is appointed day, the guests, dressed in their carried to the chief man in the boat from best, and ornamented with all their barthe wharf to the house, in the doorway of baric finery, begin to assemble, and rarely, which, at the head of the ladder, the except on such occasions as these, are principal woman of the house stands to their savage ornaments seen. Such, at receive it. The bearer, standing below, least, is the case among the Balos, a tribe presents it to her, and as she endeavors to who are in a sort of transition state betake it, withdraws it; he again presents, tween ancient barbarism and modern civand again withdraws it, till, at the seventh ilization, and whose young men would now time, he allows her to obtain it. Thence on ordinary occasions be ashamed to appear she carries it to the bundle of skulls which in those fantastic ornaments, which a few hang in the open gallery, and it is there years ago were the delight of their hearts. deposited along with the rest. As night I cannot say they have gained much in approaches, preparations are made for appearance by the change. A handsome drying, or rather roasting it. A fire is savage, in his embroidered chawat, and lighted in a little shed outside the house; pure white armlets shining on his dusky the head is suspended close above the arms, with his brass-wire bracelets, his flames; and when it has been dried to variegated head-dress of blue, white, and satisfaction—that is, well smoked and par- red, hung with shells, or adorned with the tially scorched—it is taken back and re- crimsoned hair of his enemies, and surdeposited in the bundle, to remain there mounted by the feathers of the argus till it is feasted. “ And what becomes of pheasant, or by some artificial plume of the flesh ?" I asked of an old warrior, who his own invention, girt with his ornamentwas displaying to me a recently captured ed sword, and bearing in his hand a tall head, to which the scorched and shriveled spear, as with free step he treads his nair.teguments still adhered, while from the tive wilds, is a sight worthy of a painter. earlier skulls all trace of flesh had long The same individual, clothed in a pair of since disappeared. With the utmost non- dirty ragged trowsers, with perhaps a ven. chalance the savage replied, “ The rats erable and well-worn shooting-jacket, the eat it."
gift of some liberal European, suggests In the meantime, friends, chiefly the ideas of anything but the picturesque or young of both sexes, resort to the house the beautiful. Many of them, however, have adopted the Malay costume, which is when first offered, the young ladies have both civilized and becoming.
much in their own power as to But whatever custom they adopt, wheth- whom shall be helped, and to what exer Dyak, Malay, or pseudo-European, all tent; a privilege which, I have been told, are clothed in the best garments they can they are inclined to exercise with great procure; and they come in troops from partiality. the neighboring houses to that in which The mannangs, male and female, next the feast is to be held. As they arrive, take part in the ceremony. They congreeight or ten young men, each with a cup gate in the gallery, and seating themselves and a vessel of tuak, place themselves in in a circle, one of them begins his dreary a line inward from the doorway, and as and monotonous chant, while the rest at the company enter, they are presented by stated intervals join in the chorus. They each of the luak-bearers with a cup of the occasionally intermit their rhyme, in order liquid. To drink is compulsory, and thus to take a little refreshment; after which, they all run the gauntlet of all the cups. another of the brotherhood takes the lead, As tuak is not a pleasant liquor to take in and they continue their dismal monotone excess—the headache from it is tremen- as before. After some time, each of them dous—it is to the majority of them a is furnished with a small plate of raw rice, penance rather than a pleasure, and many dyed a bright saffron color, holding which attempt, but in vain, to escape the inflic in their hands, they perambulate the crowdtion. In this manner the male guests as- ed gallery, and, still continuing their chant, semble and seat themselves in the gallery, scatter the yellow grains over the seated the chiefs being conducted to the place of multitude “ for luck.” honor in the middle of the building, and In the meantime, the object of all this beneath the bundle of skulls. All the rejoicing, the captured head, hangs along rooms are at the same time thrown open, with its fellows in the bundle almost unand each family keeps free house for the noticed. In the morning, before any of entertainment of the female guests. These, the guests have assembled, some one has as they arrive, enter and partake of the stuffed a half-rotten plantain into one eye, dainties that are provided for them; and and fastened a piece of cake and a little many of the men being likewise invited to siri and pinang near (not into) its mouth. join them, the feast of reason and the flow It is then replaced in the bundle, and no of soul proceed as triumphantly as in sim- more notice taken of it throughout the ilar cases in Europe. Cakes, sweetmeats, whole feast, unless a few boys, warriors eggs, and fruit are produced, discussed, in embryo, occasionally advance to inspect and washed down with tuak, and occa- it. It has been said by former writers sionally with a little arrack ; while siri, that it is stuck upon a pole, and its mouth pinang, gambier, and tobacco serve the filled with choice morsels of food, but I purpose of deviled biscuits, to give zest never saw this done, nor did any Dyak and pungency to the substantial dessert. whom I have questioned know anything Conversation never for an instant flags ; of such a custom. As to the opinion that the laugh, the joke, the endless chatter, they endeavor to propitiate the souls of the broad banter, and the quick reply, the slain, and get them to persuade their pass unceasingly round the circle, and a relatives to be killed also, or that the glorious Babel of tongues astounds the courage of the slain is transferred to the visitor.
slayer, I am inclined to think that these Outside, in the gallery, the same scene is are ideas devised by Malays, for the satisenacted, but with less animation than in faction of inquiring whites, who, as they the rooms, for, as there the ladies form would not be satisfied till they had reasons no part of the company, the assembly for everything they saw, got them spewants all its soul, and much of its life. cially invented for their own use. The girls of the house, however, dressed Offerings, however, are made to the in their gayest, and looking their best- superior powers. A pig has been killed “ beautiful as stars," a Dyak once told early in the morning, and its entrails inme—have formed themselves into a corps spected to furnish omens, while its carcass of waitresses, and hand round the viands afterward serves as materials for a feast. to the assembled guests. As it is not ac- Baskets of food and siri are hung up as cording to Dyak etiquette to take a thing offerings to the spirits and to the birds of
omen ; among which latter, the burong Penyala, or rhinoceros hornbill, is reckoned especially the bird of the spirits. The grand event of the day, however, is the erection of lofty poles, each surmounted by a wooden figure of burong Penyala, which is placed there “to peck at their foes.” These figures are rather conventional representations than imitations of nature, and do not convey a very exact idea of the bird they are intended to represent. Eight or ten such posts are erected, a fowl being sacrificed upon each; and about half-way up the largest, which is erected first, a basket of fruit, cakes, and siri is suspended, as an offering to the spirits.
Meanwhile, those who remain in the house still continue the feast, and those who have been engaged in erecting the posts, return to it as soon as their labor is finished. The festivities are prolonged far on into the night, and they are resumed and continued, though with abated vigor, during the two following days.
The Dyaks are a comparatively sober people; they spend neither money nor goods upon the indulgence of drinking ; and now, that their constant fighting is put a stop to, and the destruction of each other’s property thus prevented, I think it very likely that many of them may rise to considerable wealth ; and that they may ultimately become a more important social body even than the Malays. The life of a Malay is a succession of expedients. If he can meet a temporary want by a temporary contrivance, he is satisfied, and contentedly allows each day to bring its own supplies. But it is not so with the Dyaks ; they are much more provident, and seldom hesitate to undertake a little present trouble for the sake of a future reward.
Aye, nestling warm and tenderly,
Our leaves of love were curl'd So close and close about our wee
White rose of all the world.
Grew with our Rose of light;
Her whiteness saintly white,
And redden'd as they whirl'd;
White Rose of all the world.
Our house of life she fill'dReveal'd each hour some fairy tow'r
Where winged hopes might build. We saw-though none like us might see
Such precious promise pearl'd Upon the petals of our wee
White Rose of all the world. But evermore the halo
Of angel light increased,
That folds some fairy feast.
Our darling bud uncurl'd,
White Rose of all the world.
Our Rose was but in blossom:
Our life was but in spring; When down the solemn midnight
We heard the spirits sing : “Another bud of infancy,
With holy dews impearl'd;" And with their hands they bore our wee
White Rose of all the world, You scarce could think so small a thing
Could leave a loss so large; Her little light such shadow tling
From dawn to sunset's marge. In other springs our life may be
In banner'd bloom unfurl'd; But never, never match our wee
White Rose of all the world.
THE WEE WHITE ROSE. All in our marriage garden
Grew, smiling up to God, A bonnier flower than ever
Suck'd the green warmth of the sod. 0, beautiful unfathomably
Its little life unfurl'd; Life's crown of sweetness was our wee
White Rose of all the world,
SUMMEB joys are o'er ;
Flow'rets bloom no more : Wintry winds are sweeping; Through the snowdrifts peeping,
Charms the wood with song; Ice-bound trees are glittering ; Merry snow-birds, twittering,
Fondly strive to cheer
From out a gracious bosom
Our bud of beauty grew; It fed on smiles for sunshine,
And tears for daintier dew.
Winter, still I see
Many charms in thee; Love thy chilly greeting, Snow-storms fiercely beating,
And the dear delights
INSANITY, AND TREATMENT OF THE cisms and incantations upon them, but with
little effect. When at last the gross liINSANE.
centiousness which followed in the train
ancient and modern treatment of in- longer endurance, the civil authorities took sanity, we will refer briefly to a form of the matter into their own hands, and monomania, which, for the last five hund- banished, without pity or exception, all red years, has, at occasional intervals, pro- who were attacked. This salutary harshduced extraordinary excitement, and often ness, accompanied by the natural reaction led to the most serious consequences. and prostration which followed such a We refer to that singular class of phenom- period of excitement, soon put an end to ena in which the subject involuntarily the disease for a time. dances, runs, performs the most violent It continued to recur, however, at interfeats of physical activity, in leaping, jump- vals, but in a milder form, for the next ing, rolling like a hoop; accompanied fre- three or four hundred years. In 1418 it quently by shouting, barking, imitating the appeared in Strasburg, and the Romish noises of animals, and sometimes by de- church of that day, ever watchful of opclaiming, preaching, or singing.
portunities to increase her hoards, canonThe first epidemic of this kind of which ized a young martyr of the 4th century, we have any account, commenced at Aix- named Veit or Vitus, who, it was fabled, la-Chapelle, on Midsummer's day, A.D. had, at the instant of martyrdom, prayed 1374, the year after that terrible plague, that all those who should fast and properly the Black Death, had ravaged all Europe. observe his name's-day, should be free from
The festival of St. John's, or Midsum- the dancing disease; and that a voice from mer's day, had, in Germany, and, indeed, heaven had replied, saying, “ Vitus, thy over most of central and southern Europe, prayer is heard.” St. Veit or Vitus was been celebrated by rites half heathen, half established at once as the patron of all Christian, among which were orgies simi- those affected by the dancing disease, and lar to those of the Bacchantic festivals of it mattered little to his fanatical followers, Greece and Rome ; intemperance and as they visited his chapel for cure, that licentiousness often prevailed at these fes- the saint had died a thousand years before tivals ; and on this occasion large troops the dancing disease made its appearance. of men and women came to Aix-la-Chapelle The St. Vitus dance, or dance of St. from Germany, and in the churches and John, as it is still often called in Europe, public squares, apparently unconscious of the chorea of the medical books, seems to spectators, danced hand in hand in a ring, be a faint lingering of this epidemic of the with the utmost violence, for hours to- middle ages, but unaccompanied by its ingether, till they sank down from utter ex sane delusions. This, at times, has ashaustion, groaning fearfully, and complain- sumed an epidemic form. ing of great oppression in the region of the In Italy, during the middle ages, another stomach. The abdomen was found greatly form of the dancing disease occurred, also distended in all these cases, and upon accompanied with delusions, and furnished bandaging this tightly, they presently re much matter of gossip for the old chronicovered their senses, and so remained until clers. It was called tarantismus, and the next attack. This epidemic spread was for a long time believed to be the rapidly through the Rhenish provinces and effect of the bite of one of the spider tribe, the Netherlands, and was soon accompa- the Aranea tarantula. That some of the nied by professed revelations from the symptoms were analogous to those induced spirit world, relative to events about to by the bite of the spider, is undoubtedly take place. Many of those affected by the true ; but that very many thousands of disease, professed during the paroxysm to those affected by tarantismus were entire be in a state of trance, and to have special ly unconscious of having been bitten, and communication with God and angelic that the greater part of the phenomena beings. The physicians found themselves were attributable solely to nervous derangebaffled by the novelty and the professed ment, is equally true. The persons affectreligious character of the disease, and sur- ed, we are told by Baglivi, sought out solirendered their patients into the hands of tary places, grave-yards and the like, and the priests, who tried the power of exor there laid themselves out as if they were
dead, howled like dogs, groaned and sighed, companied these spasmodic symptoms. leaped and ran wildly about, stripped them. The scene, as described by eye-witnesses, selves wholly, expressed a like or dislike must have been a painful one. Some · for particular colors, and seemed to delight dancing, and others whirling with the utin being soundly beaten. The cure was most violence, some barking, howling, music, under the influence of which the mewing, or roaring, others declaiming at patient would dance violently for many | the top of their voices, proclaiming themhours, during four or six days, and the selves inspired, or denouncing the terrible violent perspiration induced by this exer- judgments of God on all who did not becise relieved the disease.
lieve these wondrous scenes to be direct The Salem Witchcraft seems to have displays of his power, and ever and anon been another form of the same disease, and one or another of those who had been sitthe delusion that the parties were bewitched ting quietly, smitten with the contagion, by others, was fully in accordance with rising and joining in the uproar; while the the prevalent religious views of the period. poor ministers stood aghast at the fearful The contortions of body, and the violent whirlwind of passion and insanity, which spasmodic action, all point to a similar was apparently the result of their labors, cause, and indicate the kindred nature of but which their skill was insufficient to the epidemic. It is matter of regret that, allay. as in the tarantismus, the soothing influ- The epidemic lasted, though with di. ence of music had not been tried, and the minished intensity toward the close, for demon exorcised by dancing and bodily nearly a twelve-month. In some instances exercise, rather than that so many innocent there were undoubtedly great excesses victims should have perished on the gal- which followed these excitements, but with lows.
these exceptions, they seem to have termIn Scotland, and especially in the Ork- inated in a deeper impression of the powerneys and Shetland Isles, and the portions ful and pervading influence of religion upof the main adjacent, a dancing mania, on the minds of these frontiersmen ; and known as the leaping ague, prevailed dur- though few of those who participated in ing the latter part of the last century. these scenes are now on the stage, yet the This was accompanied with less aberration influence of the excitement is still felt, and of mind than the cases previously narrated; has left its permanent impress on the probut the bodily activity was wonderful. fessing Christians of that region. Those affected by it would leap from the Within a few years a somewhat similar floor in their cottages to the rafters, or epidemic has made its appearance in even the ridge pole, and spring from one Sweden. We are indebted for the facts rafter to another, holding by their hands concerning it to Dr. Sonden's Essay on like a monkey, or whirling round almost the religious monomania in Sweden, with the rapidity of lightning.
translated and condensed by the Ohio MedOne of the most remarkable epidemics ical and Surgical Journal. of this disorder in modern times, was one A young girl, sixteen years of age, was which occurred in Kentucky and Tennes- attacked in May, 1841, with nervous headsee, about the beginning of the present ache and pain in the stomach, followed century. It commenced with a powerful by hiccough, difficulty of breathing, and religious revival, during which meetings spasms of the arms and shoulders, which were held for a long time in the open increased in violence for several months. air, and the frontier population, whose During the intervals of these paroxysms, constant exposure to Indian forays, and she read her Bible, Hymn Book, and other the hardships of pioneer life, had rendered religious books, constantly. About four them peculiarly liable to excitement, had, and a half months after her first attack she by the most thrilling appeals to their im- began to sing psalms, at first without any agination, been lashed to frenzy. With set tunes, but subsequently to real meloeach day the excitement reached a higher dies, and, as she alleged, involuntarily pitch of intensity. At last they began to For two weeks she sang constantly, hardly bark like dogs and howl like wolves, and intermitting long enough to take food. At neither their own wills, nor the efforts of the end of this time she began to preach, others, served to arrest this extraordinary at first at long intervals, then more freaction. In many instances, delusion ac- quently, till finally she would preach sev