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Detroit with two thousand men to the by citizens of both political parties." He British General Brock, August 15, 1812. also received letters from various quarters, He was tried by a court martial on sev- particularly from his old companions of eral charges, and was sentenced to be the Revolutionary army, expressing their shot, but recommended to mercy on ac- gratification at his having vindicated so count of his distinguished revolutionary completely his conduct and character. services and his age. The president ap General Hull did not live long after proved the sentence, and remitted the exe these events. He had, however, the pleascution.
ure of meeting General Lafayette in 1825, In 1824 General Hull published a series who paid him a visit while in Boston durof letters in defense of his conduct during ing that year. He was present at the the campaign of 1812. These letters first celebration of the battle of Bunker Hill, appeared in the "American Statesman,” and afterward visited his mother in his a Boston newspaper, and were copied into native town of Derby, the citizens of numerous journals of both political parties, which gave him a public dinner. Returnand are said to have exercised a great in- ing home, he was attacked by disease, fluence on the public mind.
and died at his residence in Newton, near “ The North American Review,” in a Boston, November 29, 1825, in the sevennotice of these letters, understood to have ty-third year of his age. On his death-bed been written by Jared Sparks, says, “ that he declared in the most solemn manner, from the public documents collected and " that he had done right in surrendering published in them, the conclusion must Detroit," and expressed his happiness that unequivocally be drawn, that General Hull he had saved the lives of the peaceful was required by the government to do citizens of Michigan from being needlessly what it was morally and physically im- sacrificed. possible that he should do."
The village of Humphreysville (SeyAfter their publication, a public din- mour) is situated about five miles above the ner was given in Boston to General Hull junction of the Naugatuck with the Hou
satonic. It is a part of the orignal town | Indian chief who lived here, of whom I of Derby. The sketch which I present have given some account in the November was taken at the distance of about one NATIONAL. It afterward received the mile and a half south of the village. It name of Humphreysville, in honor of Genexhibits but a small portion of the build- eral David Humphreys, who, at an early ings; the point of view was selected for period, established extensive manufactories the reason that it developed to the best here, and whose name is intimately assoadvantage the singularly romantic and ciated with the history and growth of the picturesque scenery by which the village place. It continued under the name of is surrounded. On the left appears Castle Humphreysville as a society of Derby, up Rock, and in the back ground" the High- to 1850, when it was incorporated under lands” of the Naugatuck are seen at a the name of Seymour. There are, at the distance, with the bold outline of Rock present time, several extensive manufacRimmon. A small settlement was made turing establishments here. Nature seems here at an early period. The village has to have designed Seymour as a manufacreceived, at different times, various names. turing place. A ridge of rocks, some “ The place,” says Barber, “ was originally twenty feet in height, here crosses the called Nau-ko-tunk, which signifies, in the river, forming a perfect dam two thirds of Indian language, one large tree, so named the distance. The remaining third is from a large tree which formerly stood closed by an artificial dam. near Rock Rimmon, about three fourths of General Humphreys established at this a mile north of the village.”
place the earliest and the most extensive For a considerable period after its settle- wool, cotton, and paper manufactories in ment, it was known as Chusetown, from an | this country. President Dwight, of Yale
College, in his “ Travels in New England tions. This law required the proprietors to and New-York," who visited Humphreys- control, in a manner specified, the morals of all ville in 1811, gives an account of the place, other children in plain families throughout the
the workmen, and to educate the children, as which is not without a certain degree of
state were educated. ... The manufactures of interest at this time, as a picture of an Humphreysville are esteemed excellent. The important manufacturing village in the in- best broad cloth made here is considered infancy of American manufactures. It also ferior to none which is imported. ... None but shows the prejudice which the first pi- Americans make all the machinery..... The
Americans are employed in this institution. oneers in manufactures were obliged to people of this country are, at least in my opincontend with. From this work I make ion, indebted not a little to General Humphthe following extracts :
reys, both for erecting this manufacturing es
tablishment, and for introducing into the "A strong current of water, in a channel cut United States the invaluable breed of Spanish through the rock on the eastern side, sets in sheep, known by the name of Merinos. .. motion all the machinery employed in these “In this manufactory he has, I think, fairly establishments. By this current are moved the established three points of great importance. grist-mill; two newly-invented shearing ma- One is, that these manufactures can be carried chines; a breaker and finisher for carding on with success; another, that the workmen sheep's wool; a machine for making ravelings; can be preserved in as good health as that entwo jennies for spinning sheep's wool, under the joyed by any other class of men in the country; roof of the grist-mill; the works in the paper- and the third, that the deterioration of morals mill; a picker; two more carding machines for in such institutions, which is often complained sheep's wool ; and a billy with forty spindles of, is not necesary, but incidental; not inin a third building; a fulling-mill, and a saw- herent in the institution itself, but the fault of mill; two more fulling-mills on improved prin- the proprietor." ciples, immediately connected with the clothier's shop; and the various machinery in a cotton
David Humphreys was born at Derby manufactory, a building about one hundred feet in the year 1753. He was the son of the long, thirty-six wide, and of four stories, capa- Rev. Daniel Humphreys, a Congregable of containing two thousand spindles, with tional clergyman at this place. He enall their necessary apparatus. The houses can accommodate
tered Yale College in 1767, and graduwith a comfortable residence about one hundred and fifty persons. Ten ated in 1771. This was during the brief others in the neighborhood will furnish com- period of Dr. Daggett's presidency, an fortable residences for upward of one hundred epoch which is acknowledged to present and fifty more. Gardens, on a beautiful plat the most brilliant display of eminent in the rear of the manufactories, furnish all the vegetables necessary for the establishment. names furnished by the catalogue of Yale
“ The principal part of the labor in attending College. the machinery in the cotton and woolen manu- Trumbull, Dwight, and Humphreys factories is done by women and children: the former hired at from fifty cents to one dollar
were cotemporaries as academicians, and, per week; the latter, apprentices, who are regu
soon after, Barlow. A recent writer says : larly instructed in reading, writing, and arith- “ While these young men maintained honor. metic.
able rank as scholars, they brought the charms " The wages of the men are from five to
of poetry from their studies to grace the progtwenty-one dollars per month.
ress of freedom and strew flowers in the path"In Europe great complaints have been
way of liberty. Excitements that influence made of manufacturing establishments, as hav- teachers, who considered even clerical immuing been very commonly seats of vice and dis
nities and obligations as forming no just er. General Humphreys began this with a
emption from active personal service in oppodetermination either to prevent these evils, or, sition to tyranny and oppression, operated with if this could not be done, to give up the design. wonderful effect on the minds of pupils. A With regard to the health of his people, it is love of letters became united with a love of sufficient to observe that, from the year 1804 country; scholarship and patriotism formed an to the year 1810, not an individual belonging alliance, and literature in all its branches lent to the institution died. . . . With respect to vice, its aid to the cause of freedom." it may be remarked, that every person who is “ The young bards of the college raised their discovered to be openly immoral, is discharged. animating strains, and with the caustic satire “At the commencement of the institution,
of Trumbull, the noble songs of Dwight, and discreet parents were reluctant to place their the elaborate efforts of Barlow, were mingled children in it, from unfavorable apprehensions the patriotic effusions of Humphreys.” concerning the tendency of such establishments. Since that time they have been offered in more
After his collegiate course was comthan sufficient numbers.
pleted Humphreys resided for a time in “ In 1813 the Legislature, at the instance of the family of Colonel Phillips, WestGeneral Humphreys, passed a law, constituting chester County, New York. He seems the select-men and magistracy of the several towns in which manufactories had been and to have returned to his alma mater before should be established, visitors of these institu- entering into the service of his country.
From a sonnet which he “ addressed to take order thereon." This resolution his friends in Yale College on leaving was carried into effect in 1786, and the them to join the army," I extract the sword presented by General Knox, Secfollowing:
retary of War, accompanied by a highly “Adieu, then, Yale! where youthful poets dwell; complimentary letter. No more I linger by thy classic stream.
The engraving which we present on Inglorious ease and sportive songs, farewell! the following page represents Colonel Thou startling clarion! break the sleeper's Humphreys delivering the standards surdream!”
rendered under the capitulation of YorkMr. Humphreys entered the army as town, at Congress Hall, in Philadelphia, captain in 1778; he held the additional November 3, 1781. It is from a painting appointment of aid to Major General Put- in the Trumbull Gallery at New Haven,
His patriotic sentiments as well as which was executed under Colonel Humhis literary talents commended him to the phreys' direction, in Spain by a Spanish early notice of many of the most efficient artist. and discerning officers of the Rev In November, 1782, Humphreys was, olution.
by resolution of Congress, commissioned At the time of the capture of Fort as lieutenant-colonel, with order that his Montgomery he was major of brig- commission should bear date from June ade to the Connecticut brigade,” which 23, 1780, when he received his appointwas at this time commanded by Brigadier ment as aid-de-camp to the commanderGeneral Parsons.
in-chief. Humphreys received his appointment Soon after the preliminaries of peace of aid and military secretary to Gen were agreed upon the operations of the eral Washington in 1780. In the early army were suspended. The commanderpart of this year he joined the family of in-chief, however, continued with the the commander-in-chief, with whom he northern division until December, 1783, constantly resided up to the close of the when he resigned his commission. On war, “ enjoying his full confidence and that interesting occasion he was attended friendship, and sharing in the toils of his at Annapolis by Colonel Humphreys, who arduous duties.”
afterward returned with him to Mount At Yorktown Colonel Humphreys par- Vernon. ticularly distinguished himself when Lord In May, 1784, Colonel Humphreys was Cornwallis with his army surrendered to elected by Congress to the commission the combined forces of America and for negotiating treaties of commerce with France. “As a mark of the approbation foreign powers. The commissioners were of General Washington, Colonel Hum- John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and phreys was dispatched to Congress with Thomas Jefferson, who received his apcopies of the returns of prisoners, artil- pointment as commissioner three days dlery, arms, ordnance, etc., which had previous to the election of Colonel Humbeen surrendered, and twenty-five stands phreys as secretary. of colors.” General Washington, in his Soon after this he accompanied Mr. letter to the President of Congress, says Jefferson to Europe. General Kosci. that “these returns and colors have been usko was a companion of this voyage. At committed to the care of Colonel Hum- the expiration of two years Colonel Humphreys, one of my aids-de-camp, whom, phreys returned to this country, and imme. for his attention, fidelity, and good ser- diately visited Mount Vernon. vices, I beg leave to recommend to Con During that period known as the time of gress and to your excellency."
“Shay's Rebellion,” Colonel Humphreys In November, 1781, Congress “Re was appointed by the Legislature of Consolved, That an elegant sword be presented, necticut to the command of a regiment.. in the name of the United States in Con- He fixed his head quarters at Hartford, gress assembled, to Colonel Humphreys, where he resumed his intimacy with some aid-de-camp of General Washington, to of his early literary associates. In conwhose care the standards taken under the nection with Trumbull, and Barlow, and capitulation of Yorktown were consigned, Dr. Samuel Hopkins, he occupied himself as a testimony of their opinion of his fidel- in writing the “ Anarchiad,” a brilliant ity and ability, and that the board of war series of witty poetical essays.
Soon after the suppression of the insur-sions) returned to Europe in 1795, accompanied rection he repaired by invitation to Mount by Joseph Donaldson, consul for Tunis and Vernon, where he occupied himself in Tripoli, who was to be employed to negotiate
the treaty, while Colonel Humphreys bimself preparing his Life of Putnam. “A smooth
went to France to obtain the aid of the French and complimentary piece of biography,” government.” says a recent critic," which certainly an
Joel Barlow, then residing in France, ticipates no modern doubts of the bravery
was appointed to act in the negotiation. of • Old Put.'” In 1789 he was appointed by Congress Mr. Donaldson, treaties were subsequently
Through the agency of Mr. Barlow and as one of a board of commissioners to
formed with Algiers and Tripoli, and aptreat with the Southern Indians, and in proved and concluded by Colonel Hum1790 he was appointed minister to the
phreys. The diplomatic communications court of Portugal, where he resided as diplomatic representative of this country praised, and they have been acknowledged
of Colonel Humphreys have been highly until 1797. He was at this time trans
as creditable to him "both as a national ferred to the court of Madrid, where he jurist and a correct and lucid negotiacontinued until 1802, when he returned to the United States. One of his biogra- Trumbull, the author of “M'Fingal,” has
Of his diplomatic affairs John phers says:
some pleasant railery in a letter to Oliver “During his residence in Portugal he was Wolcott, dated Hartford, December 9, authorized with special powers to open negoti- | 1789 : ations with several of the Barbary States, with a view as well to obtain the liberation of many “Pray congratulate Colonel Humphreys, in American citizens held in captivity, as to secure my name, on his late promotion in the diploour commerce by treaties from further spolia- matic line. If I understand the matter rightly, tions, the act authorizing him to appoint he holds the same post which Crispe promised agents. In furtherance of his duties, Colonel | George in the Vicar of Wakefield. You reHumphreys (who had made a short visit to the member Crispe told him there was an embassy United States in the early part of the year talked of from the Synod of Pennsylvania to 1795, in order to render full personal repre the Chicasaw Indians, and he would use his sentations on the subject of Barbary aggres- | interest to get him appointed secretary. Tell