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The Garden.—Everything about the garden should now be put in order for the winter. Cut off the tops of herbaceous plants; tie up such as are liable to be broken by the lodgment of snow; clean off the walks ; if the soil is stiff and heavy, spade it up rough, to be mellowed by the winter frosts; if you have plenty of manure, give the flower borders a coating of it; top dress the lawn, if necessary; protect with straw or manure all half-hardy plants; and otherwise see that everything is in condition to be safe from accident during the winter. A little care and attention to theso matters now will save much labor in the spring, and your plants will be the better for it.
Tulips. These may continue to be planted as long as the ground can be worked. The soil should be deeply spaded and enriched with good old manure. They may be planted in beds, clumps, or rows, or in any form the fancy may suggest. When planted in beds, verbenas, petunias, etc., may be put in between them in the following spring; the bulbs should be lifted as often as every third year, and divided. Two inches is sufficiently deep to plant them. The single varieties are best for outdoor culture, and are more generally admired than the double ones.
Brooklyn Horticultural Society.—This active and vigorous young Society held its annual exhibition at the Athenæum on the 23d and 24th of September. The exhibition was one of the best yet held, and was well attended. The display of fruit was fine, but the great feature of the exhibition was the large collection of specimeu plants. We have no room for details, but we cannot help saying that such plant growers as Louis Menand, Martin Collopy, George Hamlyn, J. E. Rauch, etc., deserve a high meed of praise for the great care and manifest skill exhibited by their splendid specimen plants. This society is moving on with a steady determination which promises to make it the leading society of the State, if it is not already so. wish it great success.
New School Presbyterians held at Richmond, Virginia, resolutions were adopted to the effect, that inasmuch as the relation of master and servant does not properly belong to church judicatories as a subject of discussion or inquiry, therefore, that it is resolved by this Convention that the General Assembly of the Church has no power to pronounce a sentence of condemnation on a lower judicatory, or individuals, for any cause, unless they have boen before the Assembly in the way prescribed by the constitution; that tho Convention recommends all Presbyterians opposed to the agitation of slavery to appoint delegates to the As. sembly to meet at Knoxville, on the third Tuesday in May next, for the purpose or organizing & General Synod, under the name of the United Synod Presby. terian Church of America. ... Ono of the greatest hail storms on record visited some parts of Green County, Pennsylvania, in the month of August last. The hail came down in a perfect torrent; the stones varied from the size of a partridge's to that of a hen's egg, and came with such force, and in such quantities, as to do great damage to nearly everything in the track of the storm. Shingle roofs were split to pieces, the growing oorn was perfoctly stripped of its blades and shoots, the apple trees were left naked of leaves and barren of fruit, the buckwheat was entirely destroyerl, the forest trees were left almost as naked as in mid winter, and the fruit trees of all kinds were almost entirely stripped of their foliage and fruit. The fowls which were without shelter were killed
by the weight and force of the hail stones.
The Minnesota Constitutional Conventions closed their sessions at St. Paul after deliberating for seven weeks. The con. stitutions produced by both bodies were identical. They were regarded as fully meeting the requirements of the public welfare. An interesting report has been received by the War Department from the superintendent of the Wagon Road Expedition from Fort Defiance. The camel experiment is pronounced successful. These animals carried seven hundred pounds burden each, principally provender for mules, and were much less jaded than the mules. Their temper, tractability, capacity for bearing burdens, and going without water, while they live on food upon which other animals would starve, render them valuable for transportation on the prairies. The Steamship "Arago" was boarded on the 6th of September, off Cape Race, by a fishing smack, when only eight days out from Southampton, and telegraphed from St. Jobn's, Newfoundland, to New York. This was the first successful result of an experiment which has for some time been projected; and until the completion of the Atlantic telegraph, we may look to the frequent receipt of European advices of only a week old; after which, we shall have it daily perhaps.
the Centeniai Anniversary of the birthday of Lafayette was appropriately celebrated in New York on the 7th of September, by the Garde Lafayette and a number of French and American residents, who partook of 8 banquot at Jones's Wood.... new steam frigate "Roanoke" broke her back on being launched from Norfolk a few months since. She has to be built anew about midships, at a cost of twenty thousand dollars.
A curious law question arises in the lapsing of a legacy which recently came before the Surrogate of Now York. Mr. McLoskey, a gentleman worth one bundred and ifty thousand dollars, dying in Paris, left six thousand to a niece in Dubuque, Iowa, who died on the same day as himself. If the hour of her death preceded his, the legacy lapsed, if it succeeded his the lege acy is vested in her. The time of their decease was so nearly identical that it is supposed it will have to be determined by the differenco between solar and true time, the legacy thereby depending upon a question of longitude.. The late Convention with Neue Grile nada covers only the matter of claims of American citizens against that republic. New Granada regrets the Panama massacre, and promises to punish tho offenders when convicted. A commission is to pass upon all claims of American citizens against New Granada from 1818 down to the Panama riot. One hall the sum annually paid by the Panama Railroad Company is to go toward satisfying the claims. The balance of the claims is to be otherwise provided for.
Our government is allowed the privilege of purchasing an island in the bay of Panama for a coal depot, and our citizens and mails are to be exempted from annoying and oppressive taxes on the transit of the Isthmus. . By the will of Mrs. II. II. Coalter, who died lately, ninety-two negroes were set free in Stafford County, Virginis. They are to go to Liberia, or whatever freo State they may select...: The forty-eighihinnual me ng of the American Board of Commissioners for
THE WORLD AT LARGE.
A map of busy life,
The Rev. James B. Finley, a well-known minister, and for many years a missionary among the Indians, died at Eaton, Ohio, September 6th. He was a native of North Carolina, and had reached the ripe age of seventy-six. Thomas Dick, LL.D., author of the "Christian Philosopher," and of several other valuable works, recently died at his residence in Broughty Ferry, Scotland, in the eighty-third year of his age. . . Dr. Rufus W. Griswold died in this city, on the 27th of August. He was born in Rutland County, Vt, February 15, 1915. Early in life he was ordained as a Baptist minister, but soon left that profession to devote himself entirely to literature, and was successively connected with the weekly papers, the New Yorker, the Brother Jonathan, the Nero World, and the monthly publications, Graham's Magazine and the International Magazine. .. A National Compensation Emancipation Society was organized at Cleaveland, Ohio, in August last. Its object is declared to be the extinction of American slavery by contributing to the compensation of slaveholders for their lossos in the omancipation of their slaves. Professor Silliman, of Yale College, was elected president; and Elihu Burritt, corresponding sec ary.... At a Convention of
Foreign Missions met at Providence, Rhode Island, in bill were then debated with varying results, governSepteinber, and was largely attended. Eight hundred ment in some divisions being left in a minority. The and forty laborers are employed by this society, at bill was finally passed. : Th« barbarous airocaties home and abrosd, and there are nineteen thousand two perpetrated by the rebels in India continue to fill s hundred and thirty-six children in the schools of the large place in our latest English papers. It is said mission. Before the convention adjourned Dr. Arm- that si Cawnpore, on the 24th of June, in consequence strong road an autograph letter from the Hawaiin king. of Sir Hugh Wheeler being mortally wounded, the It was a very well written production, prosented the force had accepted the proffer of safety male by Nena need of a college at the Sandwich Islands, and expressed Sabib and the mutineers. Nena allowed them to get the hope that the project would be favorably received into the boats, and then fire was opened upon them and liberally aided in this country. The "Reformed from the banks of the river, and all were destroyed. Dutch Churches formally dissolved their relation to The London Times, after dwelling on this inhuman the Board, intending hereafter to conduct their own act, and also upon the brutal manner in which the missionary affairs. The corner stone of the Mar- women were treated at Delhi before they were iner's Ilarbor Baptist Meeting-house was laid in the put to death, says: “It ought to be known, reluctant city of New York on the 9th of September. ... On as we are to tell it, that the women and unmarried the same day the corner stone of the new church edi- girls who fell into the hands of the mutineers and fico for the Methodist Episcopal congregation, formerly populace of Delhi were carried in procession for hours worshiping in Mulberry-street, was laid, corner of through the chief thoroughfare of ibe city, with every Twenty-Second-street and Fourth Avenue, New York. horror that could degrade them in the eyes of the peoThe church is to be of rough marble, built in the Roman- ple, previous to the last brutalities and cruelties that esque style, and, with the ground, when completed, then, in the sight of thousands, were perpetrated upon will cost one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. them. It was done of settled purpose, to degrade It is intended to accommodate about twelve hundred England, to degrade Europe, to degrade a Christian people. The presentation of General Jackson's empire, and a Cbristian queen. Now, we say it after gold snuff-bow to Major Dyckman did not take place full deliberation, and with a due regard to the objec. at the time expected; Mr. Jackson declining to permit tions always forthcoming Against any real and effectual the relic to pass from bim, there being so many re- policy, that not one stone of that city should be left monstrances sent to him denying that the major was upon another. Delhi should for the future be only New York's bravest son in the Mexican war. .. The known in history as Sodom and Gomorrah, so that its Scott Legion, the remnant of the two Pennsylvanian place shall not be known.” The ratifications of regiments that served in the late war with Mexico, the treaty of amity and commerce between Great celebrated last month the anniversary of the ontry of Britain and Honduras, containing the article guaranthe American army into the Hall of the Montezumas, teeing the Honduras railway, have been exchanged by a procession, after which they were addressed by in London. Senor Haran, the Honduras plenipoten. several individuals, who distinguished themselves on tiary, bad re-opened negotiations on the Bay Island the orcasion, among whom was Major Dyckman. . and Mosquito shore contentions, and there was every Brigham Young is making the most fiery demonstra- prospect that the modifications desired by Hondu. tions against the action of our government in sending ras would be at once conceded, in which case these out troops and a new governor to keep him and his conventions would immediately go into effect... The deluded followers within the bounds of reason. British Minister to China, Lord Elgin, bad explained The steamship - Central America" was lost in a ter- the Chinese policy of the English government to the rible hurricane, off Cape Hatteras, on the 12th of Sep- people of Hong Kong. The Emperor of China must tember, when upward of four hundred passengers, either disavow tho acts of Yeh in Canton, or take the che Californian mails, and nearly sixteen hundred very unpleasant consequences. An American citizen :housand dollars in specie, were lost. • . . The stern- had been convicted of piracy at Hong Kong, and senpost of a new flag ship for the Russian navy was tenced to transportation for life. The Ret. Dr. raised at the yard of William H. Webb, in this city. Livingston had attended a meeting of the ManchesThere were present a number of distinguished officers ter Cotton Supply Association, Chamber of Commerce, and gentlemen, and all paid honor to the Ozar for giv- etc., for the purpose of explaining the commercial reing to an American mechanic the preference of build- svurces of Africa. He said that country was well ing what is to be, when completed, the swiftest war adapted for producing cotton, sugars, etc., and he prosteamer in the world, ... The Attorney General posed to devoto the next fow years of his life to special has given his decision on a point of law submitted to efforts developing these pursuits in Africa. Resolutions him by the Secretary of the Interior, regarding the were adopted calling on the government to furnish payment of pensions to children of deceased revolu- Dr. Livingston with a steamer to ascend the Bambest tionary soldiers. He decided that children had no River, and to enlist the Portuguese governinent in legal right to pensions granted to deceasod parents. . . favor of the enterprise. Lotters from Lady The quantity of public land sold by the government Franklin's arctic steamer, Fox, at Baul's River, in during the last niscal year was nearly 4,143,000 acres, Greenland, report the progress of the expedition, and
say that it has exceeded expectations, and that the Commissioner of the Land Office has decided that rail- vessel answers admirably. The weather had been roads are to bave no lands set apart until after actual very severe, which would have the effect
of breaking survey and location. General Scott has replied the ice up, and rendering the head of Baffin's Bay to General Pillow's recent elaborate revelations re- clear, Advices from Madrid state that Queen specting the alleged bribery of General Santa Anna Christina bad written to her daughter, Queen Iseduring the pendency of the war with Mexico. Gen. belle, that she should have the greatest pleasure in be eral Scott positively declares that he never gavo Santa ing with her at the period of her accouchment, but Anna a dollar. A terrible er plosion occurred that she neither could nor would go to Spain while on the evening of the last day of September, in the the Duke of Valencia was at the head of the govern. Knickerbocker Plaster Works, situated in West-street, ment. . . . In Italy things are in a very unsettled New York. The explosion blew to atoms the factory, state, and must sooner or later result in an outbreak, a three story brick edifice, together with two or three the saccess of wbich will, of course, be determined brick dwellings adjoining, occupied by several poor by the action of the great powers. England bas families. A large number of persons were buried be- enough on her hands at present to prerent her st. Death the ruins, a few of whom escaped without injury, tempting any active interference in the political albut the majority were either killed, or so badly fairs of the continent. This fact, it was thougbt in wounded that their lives were despaired of.. The some circles, would operato as a stimulus to Mazzini American Sunday School Union, of Philadelphia, and his adherents.
The French Minister of have published a card announcing the defalcation of Marine has issued an order to all captains of ships of the Corresponding Secretary, Mr. F. W. Porter, for an war to give evory aid to English vessels conveying amount believed not to exceed ninety thousand dol- troops to India, and to take them in tow when be Jars. He has issued notes and acceptances at various calmod. An English troop, ship having put into Altimes to that amount without entering them upon the giers in distress, was towed thence to Gibraltar by a books of the Society.
French steam frigate...
... The Chinese refused to alThe Reports of the Harvest from all parts of Eu- low the Russian mission to enter the country of rope are most encouraging, and an abundant supply Keakhta It had consequently descended the Amoor of food is promised. The Dirorce Bill was taken in order to present itself at Shanghae. Russia is tsk up in the llouse of Lords, last month, and a motion ing active measures to increase her fleet and strengthen that the Cominons amendments be taken into consid- her position in the Pacific. ... A narrative of Prince eration that day six months was rejected by a vote of Napoleon's Voyage in the North Sess will shortly forty-four to sixty-six. The various clauses of the appear, written by a Polish gentleman.
THE CAMELS ARE COMING. THEN we remember that the camel To Major Henry C. Wayne, of the
was among the earliest animals do- United States Army, was assigned the mesticated by man, it seems surprising special duty of importing the camels, and that we should have remained to the pres- Lieutenant D. D. Porter, of the United ent day so little acquainted with its phys- States Navy, was associated with him in iology and habits. In 1855 Congress the commission. Porter's orders were to resolved to make an experiment of intro- set sail with the storeship “ Supply" diducing camels into the, United States. rect for Spezia, in Genoa; Colonel $36,000 were appropriated to this object, Wayne took passage for Southampton in the animals to be employed for military May, 1855. Through the politeness of purposes under the War Department. The Professor Owen, F. R. S., the Cuvier of information acquired during the progress England, he was introduced to Mr. of this experiment is highly interesting, Mitchell, the Secretary of the Zoologand the trial thus far has exceeded the ex- ical Society. In its garden the colonel pectations of success in the undertaking. found two fine specimens of the Egyptian
camel of burden, a present from the Pasha from forty to fifty dollars for the choicest of Egypt. They have now been in the females, and seventy-five to a hundred for garden five years, never seriously unwell, the males. The three camels shipped, at and have bred five calves, two of which Tunis were in good condition, and did not died. Mr. Mitchell stated that no partic- suffer from their voyage. They conular care was taken of the animals, and he, sumed from eight to twelve pounds of hay with Professor Owen, thought that they and six quarts of oats a day, drinking could be acclimated and bred in the United once in three days from two and a half States.
to three buckets of water. When the At Paris Colonel Wayne met General officers left the United States they par. Dumas, who had served long in Africa, ticularly desired to visit Persia, but at of whom he obtained much valuable infor- Constantinople they learned the impracmation, and especially from his pamphlet, ticability of such a journey on account of “Cheval de Guerre," upon the acclima- the disturbed state of that country and the tion of the camel in France. Here he lateness of the season. Hence they left adopted the classification of the camel into for Balaklava, in the Crimea, and were two kinds, the Bactrian, or camel with politely received by the British officers on two humps, found in Tartary and North- duty there. From Colonel M'Murdo, in ern Central Asia, and the Arabian, with charge of the land transportation service, one hump, of Persia, Asia Minor, Arabia, they obtained useful information. Under and India. He regards the term drome- General Napier, in the expedition against dary, as its derivation indicates, the swift Scinde, he had used about twenty - five courser or racer, in contradistinction to thousand camels, and now had three thouthe camel of burden. It is the intention of sand for the campaign next spring. Their the American government to domesticate average loads, he stated, were about six the Arabian camel and the dromedary, and hundred pounds, which they carry with thus introduce a new animal into the heart ease twenty-five or thirty miles a day. of our continent where there are neither During the expedition against Scinde Gennavigable rivers nor practicable roads. eral Napier organized a most efficient From Spezia Lieutenant Porter visited corps of one thousand men upon five hunFlorence and Pisa, and found two hundred dred dromedaries, two men to each, sitand fifty camels upon the grand duke's ting back to back, armed with rifles and farm, which number was sufficient to per- sabers. At the scene of operations the form the work of one thousand horses. dromedaries were taught to kneel in They were overworked and supplied with square ; five hundred of the men acted as no food, except what they could glean drivers, the other five were infantry. In among the pine barrens. Neither were case of extremity the square offered a they housed during the winter in this high cover for the whole thousand behind the latitude of 43° 30', where it is severely animals, who were prevented from rising cold, with a climate much more trying by a hobble on their fore legs. From this than Texas. The Tuscans force them to curious barrier the men used their rifles carry seventeen hundred pounds, a weight most effectually. The camel corps could equal to twelve hundred pounds English, be marched seventy miles in twelve hours, and to work from sunrise to sunset. and rendered great service throughout the
In July Colonel Wayne joined the lieu- campaign. General Simpson, in the same tenant at Spezia, and immediately sailed service, had procured five or six for his for Naples via Tunis. At the former personal use, and with them often travplace they purchased their first camel, an eled seventy miles between sunset and ordinary animal, but the Bey of Tunis sunrise. Major Delafield, of West Point. presented them with two good specimens, then on a visit to the Crimea, inquired one a remarkably fine animal. Thence whether General Simpson would not have the expedition visited Malta, Smyrna, and preferred the best English horses to camSalonica, reaching Constantinople in the els; he replied, “ No! for packing his bagmonth of October. At Smyrna they gage on them in light loads, he could move learned that the British government had more quickly and continuously.” The purchased a large number of camels for introduction of this new beast of burden transportation purposes, besides the hiring into the heart of our continent., where of eight thousand more. The prices ranged | there are neither traveled roads nor navi
gable streams, we can readily imagine themselves in owning. The Governor of would be of great political and commercial Alexandria was to select the animals; but importance. With such a facility how he deputed the next in office, and this one easily could the roaming tribes of Indians passed the matter to a “cavass," or under be checked in their predatory and warring officer, who would make a handsome expeditions, and how admirably would profit out of the operation. After a week's they be calculated for long journeys over delay the dromedaries made their appearwide tracts of desert where food and wa- ance; but they were such wretched lookter are scarce.
ing creatures and so diseased that the When the expedition reached Constan- | Americans would not receive them. In tinople in October the officers were con- fact, they were not dromedaries at all, but firmed in their plan of not visiting Persia. , the ill-used common street camel of AlexOur own dragoman, Mr. Brown, at the andria, and Captain Porter communicated Turkish capital, uniting in the same view, to the viceroy the trickery of his suborthey now turned their attention to Egypt. dinates. The imposition was forthwith In the meantime the Turkish government corrected, and six selected, two males and resolved to present four camels of the four females, out of a lot from the interior. best breed to the United States, and Mr. | These were not the far-famed dromeBrown was authorized to order four of the daries of the desert, but the ordinary finest to be found in European Turkey. “ Mount Sinai” breed, used for the After waiting twenty days the animals transportation of goods and passengers did not arrive, and the expedition was across the Isthmus of Suez and short obliged to sail for Alexandria, reaching journeys. They are strong, and will that port on the 22d of November. Major travel fifty miles a day for seven or eight Wayne proceeded forthwith to Cairo, days in succession. The viceroy doubted where he met with unexpected difficulties, whether any of them would stand the the viceroy refusing to allow any more voyage to America ; but he was mistaken, than four camels to be exported.
as they bore the transportation better than sonal call by the party upon his highness the burden camels of Asia Minor. induced him to increase the number to The dromedaries on board the convoy fourteen ; four only could be purchased sailed for Smyrna on the 22d of Janby the time when the vessel was to sail. uary, with three natives of the country,
The four dromedaries were purchased to help take care of the animals. Captain by Colonel Wayne in Cairo; but, upon Porter thinks that a Bedouin or Egyptian their arrival at Alexandria, they were cannot be taught much beyond what they stopped at the Custom House, and Lieu- already know; in his opinion an intellitenant Porter treated with so much disre. gent Yankee in a short time will know spect that he complained to the American more about the treatment of camels than consul, Mr. De Leon, when amende hon- they do. During his voyage not a single orable was promptly made, his highness, accident happened to an animal under the the Viceroy of Egypt, at the same time charge of his sailors; but the Egyptians informing him that he intended to present were so treacherous and careless that the United States government with six of something wrong occurred with theirs the his finest dromedaries. He owned a large whole time. number, and at that moment was engaged As soon as the dromedaries reached the in drilling a dromedary corps on the Per- vessel they were thoroughly cleaned with sian system, each to carry two men, soap and water, a wine glass of powdered armed with carbines. In the meantime sulphur administered in their drink for Mr. Heap, the draughtsman of the deputa- three days, and every suspicious looking tion, was dispatched to Smyrna to pur- spot on the bodies rubbed with sulphur chase what camels were required for the and olive oil. At three o'clock each was vessel to leave that port by March the fed a gallon of oats, or oats and peas, first on her return to the United States. their racks filled with hay, each eating on
Captain Porter was greatly gratified an average daily ten pounds in good with the promise of receiving six drome- weather. Before feeding they were aldaries from the viceroy's own stock, and lowed three gallons of water, and great expected the very best blood of Omar or care was necessary not to increase this Nubia, such as Eastern potentates pride allowance except in very warm weather.