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much about keeping celery, we shall venture to should be gathered and carried to the compost add a word about eating it, or rather preparing heap. it to be eaten, which few persons really know anything about. We have to remark, first, that Winter Pears.—These should be left on the celery is not grown for ornamental purposes ; trees until there is danger of frost, in order hence it should not be curled and frizzled like that they may mature as fully as possible; the hair of a vain young miss dressed for a ball; when picked too soon they are apt to shrivel on the contrary, let it be placed on the table and ripen off badly. Put them away in a cool in its plain native simplicity. Cut off the root dry place, where they will be free alike from close up to the crown; the stalks will then frost and fire heat. There they will keep well break away readily; put them in clean water, until our next number appears, when we shall and wash them thoroughly; the outside stalks devote an article to their winter treatment and should be thrown away, using none but those ripening, a somewhat complicated subject, for that are solid and well blanched; and, as inti- which we have no room at present. mated above, avoid splitting and curling the stalks. The green leaves boiled in soup impart Gathering Fruit.—Much fruit is injured every to it a delicious flavor, and will generally be season, and its value lessened by carelessness in preferred to parsley.
gathering. Fruit carefully gathered by hand
will not only keep longer, but, as it looks much Vinegar from Beets.We find, in an exchange, better than when bruised by rough handling, directions for making vinegar from beets. We will always sell more readily and at a higher have not tried it, but it strikes us that excellent price. A little care and neatness in selecting vinegar might be made in this way. We know and putting up fruit for market is by no means that much of the vinegar purchased at stores labor lost. Any one will pay more for a neatly is vilely adulterated, and we regard favorably arranged basket of fruit than for the same careany plan which will enable us to obtain a sup-lessly thrown together. A few decaying speci. ply of the pure article for domestic use. If mens will not only injure the sale, but often our readers should not succeed with the beet, really injures and sometimes destroys the we then recommend them to procure the " Vin- whole. egar Plant;" with this we know they can make a good article at a very small cost. The " Vin
THE WORLD AT LARGE. egar Plant” is not easily obtained, but we have a few which we can spare, and rill part with
A map of busy life,
Its fluctuations and its vast concerns. ---CowPER. them to such of our readers as will furnish us with the name of at least one new subscriber. The following is the method of making vinegar on the morning of the isth of August, when three
The Atlantic Telegraph has temporarily failed. from beets:
hundred and thirty-five miles from the Irish coast, and
while the “Niagara" was proceeding at the rate of four “ The juice of one bushel of sugar beets, worth twenty-five cents, and which any farmer can raise
miles an hour, the brakes were applied in order to with little cost, will make from five to six gallons of
lessen the speed of paying out, and the cable parted
some distance from the stern of the ship. The televinegar equal to the best elder wine. First wash and grate the beets, and express the juice in a cheese press,
graph squadron returned to Plymouth, where they
were to rendezvous. There still remained over two or in any other way which a little ingenuity can suggest, and put the liquor into a barrel, cover the bung continents, and the experiments made fully satisfied
thousand miles of cable, sufficient to unite the two with ganze and set it in the sun, and in fifteen or
all who took part in them of the practicability of the twenty days it will be fit for use. By this method the
enterprise. Mrs. Cunningham Burdell, it is very best of vinegar may be obtained withont any great trouble, and I hope all who like good vinegar fully related her autobiography will be one of the
said, is about to write a history of her life. If truthwill try it."
most astounding ever given to the world. . . . A Na
tional Emancipation Convention assembled at Cleve. Manure.—A late number of the American Agri-land, Ohio, on the 26th of August. It was numerously culturist says: “We have very often referred to
attended, and Rev. Dr. Hopkins, of Massachusetts, was
chosen president. They discussed, among other the value of muck and swamp mud as fertilizers
things, the appropriation of the public lands and the for all crops, and on all soils not well supplied revenue from the customs beyond the expenses of the with organic matter, and especially of the great government, to the componsation of slaveholders. utility of mixing it in large quantities with the
The American Association for the Advancement of
Science held its session at Montreal, Canada. It yard manure, but we cannot return to this topic opened on the 12th of August, and adjourned on the too often. If we accomplish nothing else than 19th. Professor Caswell presided. . . The Metropol. to stir up farmers to appropriate to their fields
itan Church at Washington, District of Columbis, for
which a great deal of money was collected in the a moiety of the rich stores of organic matter
Northern States, is said by a leiter-writer in the Northnow lying useless in the swamps, swales, and western Christian Adcocate to be “ undoubtedly & low spots, we shall not labor in vain. All these failure; at least," says the writer, “It is unknown here," black earths are the remains of plants, and, as
that is, in Washington,
A monument to the memory of the late Dr. Woods we have formerly shown, they furnish just the of Andover has been erected by the alumni of the elements to nourish other plants of every kind. theological seminary at a cost of over five hundred If not already attended to, now is the time to
dollars. It has this inscription: In reverent remem
brance of the pious care, patience, skill, learning, and dig out and pile up large stores of these ma- wisdom of their instructor, friend, and counselor, his afterials, before the ground is filled with water. fectionate pupils place here this stone... The EvangelThe carting to yards and fields can be done at
ist, from an examination into the facts of the case, inakes
it appear that, as a matter of history, Congregationalism leisure, in the later autumn or winter months.
has no greater strength in this city than it liad eight Remember that one load of manure and two or ten years ago. The Independent returns the comloads of muck are better than two loads of ma
pliment, and by an examination of the statistics of the nure not so treated." As autumn advances
New School Prosbyterians reaches the conclusion that,
"even including the Mission Churches for foreigners, and the leaves begin to fall in the woods, they the bistory of he New School Presbyterian Church in
New York for the past eight years shows a net loss of tro churches, and il net lows of 902 members in all the churches; namely, in 1949, whole number, 7,480; in 1857, whole number, 6,528." The Southern Aid Society has issued a circular calling for funds on the ground that the Gospel seems to be more decidedly owned of God at the South than at the North, there being more orthodox conversions in southern than in northern churches, ... The Erie Railroad has laid down a few miles of road with iron superstructure or roadway. It requires no bolts or spikes of any kind; and it may be taken from the furnace and adjusted upon the road with less labor and expense than is usually required to lay the ordinary wooden sleepers. This iron casting is imbedded in the ground on stone, or a similar solid foundation, where it is secure from frost and other disturbing causes. The rails rest upon India rubber springs, which deaden the noise of a train, and at the same time ease off those beavy blows and shocks of the engines and cars while running, thus diminishing their wear and tear.
The last number of THE NATIONAL mentioned a serious revolt among the native troops in British India, and it was predicted that the accounts then received revealed but the commencement of the difficulty. Later accounts confirm the prediction. Advices have been received up to the 24th of June, and they show a much more extended mutiny than previous accounts had indicated. Upward of eighty native regiments, infantry and cavalry, had revolted, or been disarmed and disbanded as no longer trustworthy. A report that the city of Delhi, the stronghold of the insurgents, had been carried by storm was in circulation, but was not generally believed. It was not taken on the 27th of June, the date of the latest accounts through known and regular channels. But on the Sth of June a strong position of the mutineers outside of the city walls was carried by assault, which probably was the foundation of the rumor in question. On the morning of June 17 General Barnard still lay before the city, waiting re-enforcements, which were proceedng thither by forced marches. At the latest intelligence from India, Delhi was still in possession of the insurgents.
The city of Delhi is situated on the River Jumna, and is the depot of communication between Cabul and Cashmere and India. It is about seven miles in circumference, is entered by eleven gates, and has a strong wall on three sides, mounted with cannon.
It contains an English Church, and a college managed by a joint committee of natives and Europeans. The recapture of the city from the natives is probably only & matter of time.
The most horrible barbarities were practiced upon European women and children at most of the points where the troops revolted. At Delhi the mission establishment of the Church of England was broken up, and all but one of the missionaries fell victims to the popular fury. Several missionaries of the London Missionary Society in various districts became martyrs, and others narrowly escaped with their lives. The Rev. Mr. Butler, superintendent of the mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church, at the call of the commandant of his district, left his station barely in time to escape a general massacre which followed. A conspiracy had been discovered in Calcutta. The ex-king of Oude and some members of his family, it is alleged, were implicated, and were arrested. The revolt, indeed, does not appear to have a military character exclusively, but to be political and national also. It is almost as much a rebellion as a mutiny, and the immense efforts which the English government and the East India Company are making to meet the emergency sufficiently shows the magnitude and importance of the crisis. The government has asked and obtained permission from Parliament to call out the militia of the kingdom during the recess of Parliament if their services are needed.
Lord Elgin, the British special embassador to China, had arrived at Hong-Kong. He had determined to send all the troops ordered for China direct to Calcutta. The British Admiral (Seymour) at Canton had made three successful attacks upon the Chinese fleet of war junks. The engagements took place on the 25th and 27th of May and the 1st of June, respectively. The Chinese fought with much courage and skill, but were totally defeated, with comparatively a small loss to the English. The latter, however, no longer speak of the Chinese as timid barbarians, incapable of prolonged and effective fighting. It is reported that Persia, since the Indian revolt, has refused to evacuate Herat, which the late treaty of peace with England required her to do....
Turkey has been made to feel that the European powers are her masters. France, Prussia,
Russia, and Sardinia have suspended diplomatic rela. tions with her, until she will consent to annol the re. cent elections in the Danubian principalities and order new ones; and it is said that England advises her to make the concession. A conference of the fire powers is to be held on the subject. Spain, after having accepted the good offices of England and France for the sottlement of her dispute with Mexico, has notifiel those powers that she can no longer consent to their negotiating the matter, and it is probable that she will yet go to war with Mexico. It is said that the government of Madrid has been plainly apprised that in such a case neither England nor France will render any as. sistance for the defense of Cuba, the loss of wbich would be an almost incritable consequence of war with Mexico. Twenty-five thousand troops have been or dered there from Madrid. ... The popular mind in the Italian states is restless and unquiet. In Genoa ? futile attempt at ipsurrection had been made at the instigation of Mazzini and his co-refugees in London. The assasination of the Emperor of France was to be consentaneous with the outbreak at Genou, but was frustrated by the vigilance of the Paris police. Three Italians, who had been hired by Mazzini for the pure pose, had been arrested, tried, and condemned to long imprisonment. The confession of the criminals and correspondence found in their possession clearly impli. cated Mazzini and some of his companions in baving employed and paid them. ... Russia is earnestly urging a claim to again anchor ber fleet in the Black
General Concha, captain-general of Cuba, has been recalled to Madrid, and Marshal Serrano has been appointed in his stead... The boundary difficulties between Nicaragus and Costa Rica have been settled by those two governments on terms mutually satisfactory. Costa Rica is to have the north bank of the San Juan River, and Nicaragua the south between Castillo and Salmas Bay. An important report has just emanated from the committee appointed by the Parliament of England to inquire into the expediency or otherwise of renewing the charter of the Hudson's Bay Company. As the chairman of this committee is a meinber of the present administration, it is to be inferred that the recommendations and sug. gestions of the committee are in accordance with the views of the government. It is proposed that Canada shall be permitted to annex the Red River settlement and the fertile valleys of the Saskatchewan as soon as she desires to do so, and can give assurance of her power to maintain authority there. So also with regard to territory lying still beyond those named. Vancouver's Island is to be detached from the authority of the company as speedily as possible, and it and the adjacent territory west of the Rocky Mountains are to be formed into a new colony. At least such we suppose to be the committee's recommendation, though, from some ambiguity in the committee's language, it is uncertain whether they may not be added to Canada. The hunting grounds of the company and the monopoly of the fur trade are to remain with the company for another term of years.
The English papers announce the death of Dr. Thomas Dick, the well-known author of the "Christian Philosopher," and other works that have had a wide and beneficial intluence; and of Dr. Blomfield, ex: bishop of London; and the French papers the death of Eugene Sue, the novelist; and Beranger, the poet and song writer.
A work has appeared in London, entitled "Burning the Dead; or, Urn Sepulture Religiously, Socially, and Generally Considered: with Suggestions for a Revival of the Practice, as a Sanitary Measure. By a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons." The Paris Academy of Medicine has again set the papers to writing and the people to thinking earnestly of the revival of the prace tice of burning the dead. They say that in the summer time the Parisian hospitals are crowded by the victims of pestilence engendered by the foul air of the graveyards in the neighborhood. The vicinity of the cemeteries is a constant source of mortality; their putrid emanations filling the air, and the poison they emit impregnating the waters, are held chargeable for the many new and fearful diseases of the throat and lungs which baffle all medical skill, ... The English Wesleyan Conference commenced its sessions at Lir. erpool on the last Wednesday in July. The Rev. Francis A. West was chosen president, and the Rer. Dr. Hannah secretary. On the 7th of August the United States frigato "Niagara" and Her British Majesty's ship “Agamemnon" commenced laying the Atlantic telegraph cable in the bed of the ocean, the Niagara taking the lead. The failure of the expedition we have alluded to above.
beauty of situation, or of environs more landscape an opening is seen between the replete with the picturesque, than Birming-hills through which the river passes onham. Indeed, to this village must be as- ward to the sea. In every direction from signed the most attractive situation of the village the views are of the most picthe valley towns. It occupies a bold emi-turesque and varied description. On the nence, as it were the point of a cape, washed one side, looking up the valley of the on the one side by the waters of the Housa- Naugatuck, the village of Ansonia appears tonic, on the other by those of the Nauga- in the distance, forming a charming feature tuck. Just below the town the two rivers in the landscape; on the other, the Valley united spread themselves over a consider of the Housatonic affords views of great able extent of surface, affording the appear- beauty, though perhaps not as varied as ance of a lake bordered with bold hills, those of its lesser but more romantic tribuportions of which are wild, and thickly tary. wooded, others under a high state of culti The view of Birmingham which I prevation. In the midst of the seeming lake sent was taken near a rock known as the an island appears, adding greatly to the “ Lover's Leap,” on the east side of the beauty of the whole landscape. On the river, about one fourth of a mile south of left is the parent town of Derby, with its Derby. Upon the left of the engraving, antique buildings. At a short distance the opening which appears is the Valley
of the Housatonic; corresponding with this, merce of Derby was very considerable ; at on the opposite side of the village, is the one period it exceeded that of New Haven. Naugatuck River.
The people of Derby date the decline in Derby boasts an antiquity greater than their commerce to the building of the any other town of the Naugatuck Valley. Washington bridge at Stratford. As early as 1653, Governor Goodyear and In 1824 the first steamboat was placed others in New Haven purchased a con- upon this route, the “General Lafayette," siderable tract at this place. The settle- running between Derby and New York. ment was commenced the following year; | This was before the commencement of this was twenty-three years before the steam navigation between Bridgeport and settlement of Waterbury. The original New York. The “ General Lafayette" name of Derby was Paugasset.
was succeeded by the “Housatonic," The year succeeding the settlement the which was hauled off on account of the inhabitants presented a petition to the obstructions of the drawbridge. From general court of New Haven for the priv- this period to the present steamboats have ileges of a distinct town. This petition from time to time plyed upon these waters. was granted by the court, and also per- Returning to the earlier history of the mission to purchase a considerable addi- Valley of the Naugatuck, its lower portion, tional tract. The inhabitants of Milford as well as the banks of the Housatonic were greatly dissatisfied with this proced- near its junction with the Naugatuck, were ure, as Paugasset had been a part of that favorite haunts of the aborigines. The town from its first settlement. Trumbull, relics scattered thickly over this region in his “ History of Connecticut,” says: are, perhaps, of as ancient origin as any to
" They therefore remonstrated against the be found in the country. A few years doings of the court at its next session, and in- since specimens of pottery were found duced that body to reconsider its vote, at least deeply imbedded in the earth, which showed so far as to order that Paugasset should remain evidence of skill in manufacture unknown a part of Milford, unless the respective parties
to the Indians who existed here at the should mutually consent to have the act of incorporation go into effect.
period of the settlement of this valley. "In 1657 and 1659 a further purchase was Within the bounds of the original settlemade of the chief sagamores, We-ta-na-mow and ment of Derby was a mound or hill, which Ras-ke-nu-te, and the purchase was afterward confirmed by the chief sachem, Okenuck.”
contained a number of graves marked with
rude stones placed at the head and feet; The settlement seems to have continued some were of ordinary length, others of alvery small up to the year 1675, when, upon most gigantic size. No tradition could be a second application for town privileges, gathered respecting them, except that Paugasset was represented as numbering Indians were buried there ;" and they but twelve families, and that about the were supposed to be the remains of some same number were intending to remove long departed tribe, who, from their method there. The settlers had made at this time of placing their memorial stones, must a provision for the support of the Gospel, have been acquainted in some degree with having procured a minister and built a the customs of the white men.* house for him. Upon this renewed appli- Mr. De Forest, in his “ History of the cation the assembly granted them the privi- Indians of Connecticut," designates the leges of a town, and it was called Derby. tribe who occupied the northern part of Birmingham and Ansonia are parishes of the original town of Derby, as the “ NaugaDerby.
tuck Indians." Below the confluence of The antiquated appearance of the parent the Naugatuck River with the Housatonic, town, with its quaint old store-houses and the Indians living upon the borders of the other edifices, presents a striking contrast stream were known as the Paugussetts or to its youthful and vigorous offspring. Wepawaugs. The last sachem of this The illustration exhibits the greater part tribe was Konckapotanauh, who died at of the village known as Derby proper. his home, in Derby, about the year 1731. The river is navigable to the landing here Mr. De Forest says: for vessels of about eighty tons, there being ten feet of water.
• For the facts contained in the last two From the war of the Revolution to the paragraphs, I am indebted to Dr. T. A. Dutton early part of the present century, the com- 1 and Mrs. E. Stone.
“ After this event the nation broke up: some bear. In addition to these means of liveli. joined the Potatucks; some went to the country hood Chuse and his followers made an annuof the Six Nations; some perhaps migrated to Scatacook ; and of those on the eastern bank al excursion to the sea-side. Their mode of the river very few remained about their of living was somewhat different from that ancient seats. In 1774 the Milford part of of the crowds that now annually go down the tribe was reduced to four persons, who lived the same valley for the same purpose. on a small reservation at Turkey Hill, now in The Indians used to say they were "going the township of Derby.
“The Naugatuck Indians, or the band to down to salt,” and the same phraseology which I shall give that name, resided at the has been, to some extent, continued to the falls of the Naugatuck, about five miles above present day. Chuse and his companions its confluence with the Housatonic."
were in the habit of going down the river Jo or Joseph Mauwehu was the son in a sail-boat, and when they arrived near of a Pequot Indian, who was the king or the mouth of the stream, they made a tent sachem of the Scatacook tribe of Indians in of the sail of their boat, and enjoyed the Kent. His father placed him in the family sea air and sea food for two or three weeks. of one of the settlers of Derby, where he They were not probably encumbered with lived until he was twenty-one. When Jo as many packages, extra band-boxes, etc., arrived at his majority his father presented as the “Flora M'Flimseys” of the present him with a tract of land in the northern day, who make similar excursions, not part of the town of Derby, now called Sey- with the view of encamping on Milford mour. Here he collected a few followers shore, but to spend a few weeks at that about him, over whom he exercised the charming resort, the Ansantawae House on rights of a sachem. Jo was here known Charles Island, nearly opposite the original by the name of Chuse, tradition stating sea-shore resort of the natives of the that he received this nick-name from his Naugatuck Valley. It is highly probable peculiar pronunciation of the word choose. that the early excursionists down the val
Chuse built his wigwam near the falls of ley, unlike those of the present day, were the river in the present town of Seymour. quite satisfied with “nothing to wear." The white population at that time was That must have been an independent very small, but soon after increased. This and agreeable sea-side life of Chuse and settlement was long known by the name his party; and besides, the Indians exhibof Chusetown. This chief seems to have ited a degree of tact which made their sumbeen a kindly-disposed Indian, and is re- mer excursions profitable. With all our ported to have lived on the most amicable boasted advancement of the present day, terms with the whites in his neighborhood, few are able to make a summer trip to any supporting himself mostly by the products known watering-place a source of revenue. of hunting and fishing. Chuse, with all The Indians found in the vicinity of Milford his amiable qualities, had one failing not an abundance of oysters and clams ; of the entirely unknown at the present day among latter they collected large quantities, which the civilized race who have monopolized they boiled, and dried in the sun. These the hunting grounds of the sachem ; that were afterward strung and carried with was a decided preference for strong drink them on their return home, affording a over water. He seems to have been of considerable stock of provisions for the that class who say, water is very well remainder of the year. These clams were in its way; but for a steady drink give me also a considerable article of traffic with rum.” “He used to come, when he was the natives of the interior, who were glad thirsty, to a fine spring, bursting from a to exchange their dried venison for the solid rock at the foot of a hill; and there products of the sea-shore. This appears he would sit down on the bank by the side to have been the earliest barter trade of that spring, and drink the sweet water known in this valley, and certainly exhibas it gushed from the rock, and praise it, its business tact as inherent to the natives, and say that if there was only another as well as to their successors. Hence, in spring, just such a spring, of rum, flowing more ways than one, the earlier sea-side by the side of it, he would ask for nothing excursions of the people of the Naugatuck more, but should be perfectly happy." Valley paid a better per centage than those
Chuse was a bold hunter, and a large, of the present day. athletic man. He used to kill, in this vicin- Barber, in his “ Historical Collections ity, deer, wild turkeys, and occasionally a ' of Connecticut,” traces the origin of the