by his industry plants from distant lands wrought in the various fruits are remarkand different climates may be cultivated able ; the peach owes its origin to the with success, and many have been intro- rough-coated almond, and the plum to the duced by his enterprise, for immediate use, austere sloe, and our finest apples have from far-off regions.

sprung from the harsh crab. No one has The most exhilarating beverages which greater opportunities of observing the we have, and which are in general use, operations of nature than the agriculturso as to be ranked more as necessaries ist; and, observing them, he is peculiarly than luxuries, are brought to us across situated to trace the Almighty hand which lands and seas. China sends us our tea, directs them, and on which he must deand India Felix our coffee.

pend for the prosperity of his work, and The power which plants have of ac- he learns to reverence the unseen influence commodating themselves to climates of by which all that surrounds him is effected. which they are not natives, is exemplified His own endeavors may be strenuous and every day by the numbers introduced into ingenious; but he knows in his very heart our garden. Observation and pains have that something more is necessary. He overcome their tendency to thrive in no may rise early, and go to rest late; he climate but their own. The names of may sow, he may plant; but he knows it those which have been long naturalized is God who gives the increase. He knows would fill a large catalogue ; indeed, the that the very soil would fail to produce, original soils of some of them cannot now were it not that its fertility is adjusted by be traced. Corn, of different kinds, and the agency which a Superior Power has the potato, cannot be traced back to their appointed. The physical operations by original condition ; all have improved un which this is effected are continually emder cultivation, and spread through divers ployed for our benefit. From the geolocountries : thus has man's labor been gist we learn that the waste of the vegetable blessed to him. Botanists and gardeners mold is replenished by the influence of are so well acquainted with the habits of the winds and waters; the dust and crumbplants that they know how to minister to ling of the rocks, which is ever going on, them; it is no uncommon expression among are scattered by the air, or borne along by them, in speaking of plants, to say that the mountain-rills to the lands below. they love such and such situations; and This is noticed by Professor Playfair, they have stakes and sticks for those whose who says: habit it is to climb and cling. Rice, which is indigenous to the East Indies, has been

“How skillfully nature has balanced the

action of all minute causes of waste, and rencultivated in South Carolina and in the

dered them conducive to the general good! Of northern parts of Africa, for a considerable this we have a most remarkable instance in the time, and was introduced into Italy about provision made for preserving the soil or the a hundred years ago ; it has been approach coat of vegetable mold spread out over the ing toward the north ever since. There loose materials, is easily washed away by the

surface of the earth; this coat, as it consists of are considerable plantations on the banks rains, and is continually carried down by the of the Weser; a vast number of plants rivers into the sea. The effect is visible to might be named, which, though of foreign every one; the earth is removed, not only in the growth, we may now call our own.

form of sand and gravel, but its finer particles, The

suspended in the waters, tinge those of some Brazilian passion-flower, the Chinese rose, rivers continually, and those of all rivers occaand the Fuchsia from Chili—all of which sionally, that is, when they are flooded or were considered as rare exotics, within swollen with rains. The quantity of earth thus the recollection of many among us—have

carried down varies according to circumstances.

It has been computed in some instances that become so inured to our climate that they the water of a river, in a flood, contains earthy are found in all our gardens. The Ailan- matter suspended in it amounting to more than thus, a native of China, now so common

the two hundred and fiftieth part of its own in almost every street of the city, was

bulk. The soil, therefore, is continually dimin

ished, its parts being delivered from higher to once, and not a great while ago, cultivated lower levels, and finally delivered into the sea ; as a tender green-house plant. The Cre- but it is a fact, notwithstanding, that the soil ator has thus endued plants with a power remains the same in quantity, or at least nearly of accommodation highly beneficial to the

the same, and must have done so, ever since human race.

the earth was the receptacle of animal and

vegetable life. The soil, then, is augmented The changes which cultivation has / from other causes just as much, at an average,

carry on the

as it is diminished by that now mentioned ; his home. The gardener knows when to and this augmentation evidently can proceed cover his plants, and when to expose them from nothing but the constant and slow disiutegration of the rocks. In the permanence,

to the air, from the effects which he knows therefore, of a coat of vegetable mold on the such treatment will produce. When he surface of the earth, we have a demonstrative puts down the seed his senses do not deproof of this continual destruction of the rocks, ceive him ; though it appears no more and cannot but admire the skill with which the

than a grain of dust in his sight, he feels powers of the many chemical and mechanical agents are employed in this complicated work assured that it will sprout into a goodly —all so adjusted as to make the supply and plant, only to be retarded by such operathe waste of the soil exactly equal to each tions of nature as he knows could never other."

fail to impede its growth. So unfailing So true is it that “there is not one are the actions of nature, that he can calgrain in the universe either too much or culate almost to the day when to expect too little ; nothing to be added, nothing the embryo plant to burst its prison. The to be spared.”

wonderful adaptation of one part of the Almost all plants contain some mineral creation to another is a convincing proof ingredient: iron is a constituent part of of design. There is a mutual dependence animal bodies, and essential to their healthy all through nature, which no chance could condition. The mineral kingdom has have effected. We cannot deny the acclained not only animal productions, but tion of an unseen influence in all that survast woods and forests as its own. Those rounds us; we know how utterly powerrelics of ancient days, lying as in a store- less we are of ourselves hoase far beneath in the depths of the most trifling operations of the system in earth, over which their branches once which we live and breathe ; we are conwaved, still minister to the comforts of scious that something more is necessary man, in the shape of coal and iron. The than our own endeavors. We cannot conmineral productions may indeed be called trol the functions of our own bodies : their the tablets of Nature, on which the mighty growth, the circulation of the blood, the changes she has wrought are inscribed ; action of the nerves, are totally independthe mute historians of bygone ages, tell- ent of any effort of our own. We must ing of races long extinct, and giving to own some more powerful influence, let us science information which no living tongue call it by what name we may; but how can impart. From among these, tvo, has its secret works, its silent operations are been discovered that inestimable stone effected, we cannot tell. We cannot say which guides the adventurous mariner on from whence the wind, which produces his way across the wide seas, by a sure such wonderful effects and makes such track, unmarked by human tracings; but mighty changes, comcth, nor whither it which he knows will bring him to his pur- goeth. We cannot tell how the countless posed destination. Accommodation and stars are upheld in their respective posicompensation appear to be two of the great tions, nor how the planets are directed in laws of Nature; the undeviating accuracy their courses; nor can we explain why by which they are characterized could the wonderful changes, with which chemnever have been adjusted by any influence ical experiments have made us familiar, but that of a stupendous and Divine intel- take place. We may speak in technical ligence. The various processes of nature terms of these wonders, but why it is so is are carried on with a regularity which there one capable of devising? We sec gives, even to the untaught, a conviction the effects; we know, with the most accuof her constancy. All are alike aware of rate certainty, that we can produce them, the uniformity of her operations; we want but the cause lies beyond our reach. The no further assurance than that which ex closest examination of buds and germs will perience gives of the alternations of the never reveal the cause of that unseen proseasons, and of day and night; we look cess by which they are matured. We for springtide and harvest at the very time must admire the mysterious influence of their arrival. The laborer retires to which has induced the combinations for rest without a doubt that the sun will their growth and perfection, and refer it to again light him to his morning task ; he a power mightier than chance could exact speeds to his work without a doubt that --to a love more tender than chance could the shades of evening will recall him to ! bestow!

Vol. XI.-28



HERE is a simple illustration practically FROM VARIOUS AUTHORS.

applied, and worthy to be pondered by those

who would“preach not themselves, but Christ With what object do you read? A simple Jesus the Lord.” It is from that veteran question, but one that many never pause to minister, John ANGELL JAMES : answer. If they did, it is very possible that

The power of the magnet gains nothing from the the answer would not be gratifying to their gilder's or the graveris art; its attraction lies in itself, self-respect or even to their vanity. As a pre and is diminished by foreign accretions. So it is with face to our gatherings for the present month

that greatest of all maghets, of which Christ spake

when he said, “ And I, if I be lifted up, will draw all here are, from Dr. Hawes's Lectures, a few

men unto me." We may draw men to ourselves by HINTS ON PROFITABLE READING. genius, eloquence, eccentricity, but we can draw mon to It is often said that man does not know bis weak

Christ only by the attraction of the cross. ness. It is quite as true that he does not know bis strength. Multitudes fail to accomplish what they

DEPARTED SPIRITS. might, because they have not due confidence in their powers, and do not know what they are capable of ac The truth of the adage that there is but complishing. Hence they yield their understanding one step from the sublime to the ridiculous to the dictation of others, and never think or act for

is well illustrated by the absurd fooleries of themselves. The only use they make of reading is to remember and repeat the sentiments of their author.

rapping and table-turning, attributed to the This is an error. When you sit down to the reading

denizens of the other world. On this subof a book, believe that you are able to understand tho ject, and more especially with reference to subject on which it treats, and resolve that you will

the spirits of the departed, WASHINGTON IRYunderstand it. If it calls you to a severo effort, so

ING Bays: much the better. The mind, like the body, is strengthened by exercise, and the severer the exercise, the

My mind has been crowded by fancies concerning greater the increase of strength. Ono hour of thorough

these beings. Are there indeed such beings? Is this close application to study does more to invigorate and space between us and the Deity filled up by innumerimprove the mind, than & week spent in the ordinary able orders of spiritual beings, forming the same gradaexercise of its powers. Call no man master. Yield tions between the human soul and Divine perfection, not your minds to the passive impressions which others that we see prevailing from bumanity down to the may please to make upon them. Hear what they have merest insect? It is a sublime and beautiful doctrice to say: examine it, weigh it; and then judge for your

of tho early fathers, that there are guardian angels apsolves. This will enable you to make a right use of pointed to watch over cities and nations, to take care books: to use them as helpers, not as guides, to your of good men, and to guard and guide the steps of helpunderstanding; as counselors, not as dictators, of loss infancy. Even the doctrine of departed spirits rewhat you are to think and believe.

turning to visit the scenes and beings which were dear

to them during the body's existence, though it has THE CENTRAL GLORY OF THE UNIVERSE.

boen debased by the absurd superstitions of the vulgar,

in itself is awfully solemn and sublime. DR. GUTHRIE says, with no less of truthfulness than of beauty:

THE PURITANS OF NEW ENGLAND Here at the cross is the place in the great universe, from which God and his attributes may be best beheld

Have had many defamers, and, perhaps, as and studied. It corresponds to that one spot in a noblo many eulogists. Of the latter, none have cathedral lying right beneath the lofty dome, where

spoken with more truthful eloquence than the spectator, commanding all the grandest features of the edifice, is instructed to look around him if he would

E. P. WHIPPLE, one of their illustrious desee the monument of its architect. I scale bartizan or

scendants : tower to embrace at one view tho inap of a mighty The Puritans! there is a charm in that word which city. Or I climb the sides of some lofty hill to survey will never be lost upon a New England ear. It is the landscape that lies in beauty at its foot. And had olosely associated with all that is great in New EnI the universe to rango over, where should I go to ot gland history. It is hallowed by a thousand memtain the fullest exhibition of the Godhead? Shall I ories of obstacles overthrown, of dangers nobly braved, soar on angel-wings to the heights of heaven, to look of sufferings unshrinkingly borne in the service of on its happiness and listen to angels' hymns? Shall I religion and freedom. It kindles at once the pride of cleave the darkness, and, sailing round the edge of the ancestry, and inspires the deepest feelings of national fiery gulf, listen to the wail and weep over the misery veneration. It points to examples of valor in all its of the lost? No; turning from the sunny heights and modes of manifestation; in the hall of debate, on the doleful regions, I would remain in this world of ours, field of battle, before the tribunal of power, at the and traveling on a pilgrimage to Palestine, would stand martyr's stake. It is a name which will never die out beneath the dome of heaven with my feet on Calvary. of New England hearts. Wherever virtue resists On that consecrated spot, where the cross of salvation temptation, wherever men meet death for the sake of rose, and the blood of a Redeemer fell, I find the center religion, wherever the gilded baseness of the world of a spiritual universe. Here the hosts of heaven de stands abashed before conscientious principle, there scended to acquaint themselves with God in Christ. will be the spirit of the Puritans. They have left Here, concentrated as in a burning focus, bis variod deep and broad marks of their influence on human 80attributes flow and shine.

ciety. Their children, in all times, will rise up and

call them blessed. A thousand witnesses of their cour-tally untaught to carry their thoughts beyond the age, their industry, their sagacity, their invincible per objects of sense? Are you not aware that such a repseverance in well-doing, their love of free institutions, resentation would considerably tend to restrict yon their respect for justice, their hatred of wrong, are all in your contemplation to a defined image, and therearound us, and bear grateful evidence daily to their fore a most inadequate and subordinate idea of the memory. We cannot forget them, even if we had Divine Being? While the idea admitted by faith, sufficient baseness to wish it. Every spot of New En- | though less immediately striking, is capable of all that gland earth has a story to tell of them; every cherished progressive thought can accumulate, under the coninstitution of New England society bears the print of tinual certainty that all is still infinitely short of the their minds. The strongest element of New England reality. character has been transmitted with their blood. So intense is our sense of affiliation with their nature, that

LITTLE CHILDREN. we speak of them as our “fathers." Though their

Mary Howitt, in all her writings, disfame everywhere else were weighed down with calumny and hatred, though the principles for which they plays the feelings and sentiments of a true. contended, and the noble deeds which they performed, hearted woman. She loves little children ; should become the scoff of sycophants and oppressors, and, in this respect at least, she resembles and be blackened by the smooth falsehoods of the cold the Nazarene who went about doing good : and the selfish, there never will be wanting hearts in

Tell me not of the trim, precisely-arranged homes New England to kindle at their virtues, nor tongues

where there are no children, "where," as the good and pens to vindicate their name.

Germans have it, “the fly-traps always hang straight THE DEAD ARE OURS.

on the wall;" tell me not of the never disturbed nights

and days, of the tranquil, unanxious hearts where The thought is not new, but was never children are not; I care not for these things. God uttered in more fitting language than by the sends children for another purpose than merely to author of “Quiet Hours :"

keep up the race; to enlarge our hearts; to make us

unselfish, and fall of kindly sympathies and affections ; What God takes from us it is always gain to lose. to give our souls higher alms, and to call out all our He gives back to us our friends more deeply, more faculties to extended enterprise and exertion; to bring tenderly, more sacredly, after they have been taken round our fireside bright faces, and happy smiles, and from us by death. When they become wholly his, loving, tender hearts. My soul blesses the great they become more intimately ours. The intimacy Father every day that he has gladdened the earth with before death pertains more to the flesh and its senses; little cbildren. after death it pertains more to the spirit and its inmost affections. It is as though God gave them to us out

THE BRITISH PULPIT. of his own bosom, with the holiness and fragrance of the Divine nature added to them. By death they be

An Edinburgh reviewer thus comes to the come too chaste, too heavenly, for our light moods defense of the clergy of the present day; and our common hours; they visit us only in our and, albeit with a little touch of the satirholiest moments. They act upon us, therefore, as mo- ical, insinuating not only the characteristic tives to prayer, watchfulness

, and retirement of spirit, faults, but the remedy: They greatly befriend our best interests. As the Lord before his death was " with" his friends, but afterward Malignity itself cannot accuse our pulpits and theo"in" them; 80 our holiest friends help us the more | logical presses of beguiling us by the witchcraft of when they put off flesh and are no more seen. genius. They stand clear of the guilt of ministering

to the disordered heart the anodynes of wit or fancy. SEEING THE INVISIBLE,

Abstruse and profound sophistries are not in the num

ber of their offenses. It is mere calumny to accuse JOHN FOSTER, speaking of the faith by them of lulling the conscience to repose by any siren which “the Invisible appears in sight,” thus songs of imagination. If the bolts of inspired truth meets an objection sometimes urged against are diverted from their aim, it is no longer by enticing the doctrine:

words of man's wisdom. Divinity fills up her weekly

hour by the grave and gentle excitement of an orthoIf it were & thing which we might be allowed to

dox discourse, or by toiling through her narrow round imagine, that the Divine Being were to become mani

of systematic dogmas, or by creeping along some low fest in some striking manner to the senses, as by some

level of school-boy morality, or by addressing the inresplendent appearance at the midnight hour, or by itiated in mythic phraseology; but she has ceased to rekindling on an elevated mountain the long-extin- employ lips snch as those of Chrysostom and Bourdaguished fires of Sinai, and uttering voices from those

loue. The sanctity of sacred things is lost in the fafires, would be not compel from you an attention

miliar routine of sacred words. Religion has acquired which you now refuse? Yes, you will say, ho would

a technology, and a set of conventional formularies, then seize the mind with irresistible force, and religion torpifying those who use and those who hear them. would become its most absolute sentiment; but he only presents himself to faith. Well, and is it a worthy reason for disregarding him, that you only believe him

FORGIVENESS. to he present and infinitely glorious! Is it the office

A BEAUTIFUL gem of oriental literature is of falth to vail or annihilate its object? Cannot you quoted by Sir William Jones from the Perreflect that the grandest representation of a spiritual and Divine being to the senses would bear, not only no

sian poet, Sadi: proportion to his glory, but no relation to his nature, The sandal-tree perfumes, when riven, and could be adapted only to an inferior dispensation

The axe that laid it low; of religion, and to a people who, with the exception of Let man, who hopes to be forgiven, a most extremely small pomber of men, had been to Forgive and bless his foe.

The National Magazine.

and adorn the waste of waters. By what right, then, did Mr. Aiken take away its innocent life? Whence did he derive authority to slaughter that beautiful bird with a ruthless and cruel hand? Shame on Mr.

Aiken! It was a wanton shedding of innocent blood. OCTOBER, 1857.

Shame on every man who kills without purpose, slays without necessity, any of the harmless and beautiful

things of God! It was a cowardly thing in Mr. Aiken EDITORIAL NOTES AND GLEANINGS. to steal like a thief upon the security of victim,

and then, like an assassin, strike it to death in an un. TO PLEASE EVERYBODY is a task difficult in guarded "moment. It was a savage and inhuman act all cases; in the editorial management of a in Mr. Aiken to kill that beautiful bird. An honest

hearted man would not have done it. Shame on Mr. periodical, impossible. Indeed, if an editor

Aiken! Nature and humanity cry, Shame upon him! succeeds in pleasing himself, it is quite as much as he has a right to expect, and in a great many

SUICIDE IN FRANCE.--M. Lisle, a member of instances it is more than he is able to accom

the Imperial Academy of Medicine of France, plish. Let not correspondents wonder, then, if

has written a very able work on suicide, in their wishes are not always complied with, nor readers think it a strange thing if occasionally investigations are concerned, they are far from

which he conclusively proves that, so far as his they meet with an article or a paragraph that corroboratory of the opinion of Montesquieu and is not exactly in accordance with their own taste. The editor shares the affliction with ennui and the suicidal monomania of England.

the national Gallic belief touching the mortal them, but relieves himself by reflecting that it takes all sorts of people to make up a world, in France, from 1836 to 1852 inclusive, 52,126

It appears from his statement that there were and that in the circle of his readers there is suicides, or a mean of 3,066 a year; the num; almost every variety of taste and prejudice. bers rising steadily from 2,340 in 1836, to 3,674 We have frequent illustrations of this fact. in 1852. From 1827 to 1830 the mean number By the same mail we have had letters applaud- had been only 1,800 a year. Before 1836 the ing and censuring the same article. Occasion proportion was one suicide for every 17,693 ally a subscriber is so sensitive as to threaten inhabitants; in 1836 it was one for 1,420. discontinuance because of a few lines which do In 1852 it had risen to one for 9,340. In not exactly square with his own notions; and

1838 and 1839 England had one suicide for now and then a correspondent pours upon us a phial of wrath because of the rejection or ab- every 15,900 inhabitants; France, one for breviation of his article. In the general, howevery 12,489. Between London and Paris, for

the same years, the difference is yet more reever, we are on the best of terms with all our

markable, the figures being, for London, one in patrons, in which category we include those 8,250 ; and for Paris, one in 2,221. This is who write for us, and those who read what is surely a sufficiently distinct contradiction to written. The great mass have too much good the generally received opinion. sense to take offense where none is intended,

The north of France is the most prolific in or to espect from an editor the impossibility suicides; nearly balf of the whole number beof always pleasing everybody.

longs to the north, which has increased its

own ratio by one third. The north has one in WANTON DESTRUCTION OF LIFE. The cele.

6,483; the east, one in 13,855 ; the south, one brated botanist, Pursh, in one of his rambles in 20,457. The department of the Seine, which in the Western wilderness, took a long nap includes Paris, has risen with frightful rapidunder the grateful shade of a large tree, far

ity; but Paris and Marseilles, and all large cenaway from the dwellings of men. On awaking he saw, to his unutterable horror, a large rattle ters, are the foci of suicides to a very striking

extent. Russia stands the lowest of European snake coiled up within a few feet of him. The

states in the scale, her suicides being only one botanist started up and quietly proceeded, un

in 49,182; while Prussia has one in 14,404; harmed, upon his journey. But, said one, to

Austria, one in 20,900; New York, one in whom he related the adventure, did you not return and kill the snake? No, indeed, was the 7,797; Boston, one in 12,500; Baltimore, one

in 13,650; and Philadelphia, one in 11,873. calm reply. He spared my life, and I could

Climate has not much to do with the matter. not find it in my heart to take his. God made In latitude from 42 deg. to 54 deg. the proporus both. This little incident was recalled by tion is one in 38,882 ; from 54 deg. to 64 deg., a statement in one of the country papers that

one in 56,577. Yet the last figures include a Mr. Aiken had shot a beautiful swan somewhere in the State of Michigan, which the much more rigorous, damp, uncertain, and jog

Moscow and St. Petersburg, and represent & editor chronicled as a feat worthy of commen

less climate than the first. Certainly the low dation, The Albany Register, copying the state

condition of civilization between these latiment, comments upon it on this wise :

tudes influence the statistics to the full as . We do not think Mr. Aiken did a thing to boast much as any other assigned or assignable cause : of in shooting that 'beautiful swan' What had that but that mere temperature and climate bare gwan done to himn; what wrong had it coinmitted ;

little to do with the question is proved by the what harm to any living or dead thing, tbat he should take away its life! It was trespassing upon nobody's average number of suicides occurring in the possessions. It was where it had a perfect right to be different months of the year of France, which It was in its own domain, and its charter was given it

are highest in the sunniest, brightest, and most by the Deity himself. It was just where nature in

We cannot refrain from tended it should be, where its instincts taught it to go. enjoyable seasons. It was a harmless bird. It interfered with the rights giving the table entire ; it opens a view so of no living thing. It was not a bird of prey. It had

very different from the one popularly received. nothing to do with carnage. It simply floated upon the river, a buoyant and beautiful thing, one of the

The list is the average of seventeen years' ornaments fashioned by the great Creator to beautify computation.

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