made the undisguised scoffer of both them and through alluvial flats; beyond which on their cause. The story of McFingal is this: either side wooded hillsides arise, formthe hero, a Scotchman, and justice of the peace ing the line of the horizon. in a town near Boston, who had two gifts by right of his birth, rebellion and the second From that elevation in the cemetery sight,' goes to a town meeting, where he and one grounds known as Forest Hill, the view, Honorius make speeches at each other through looking in a northwesterly direction, is one two whole cantos. At the end of the second of great beauty. The river is here viscanto the town meeting breaks up tumultuously, and the people gather about a liberty pole ible for the distance of some two miles. erected by the mob. Here McFingal makes a Nothing can be more pleasing in landscape virulent speech of near two hundred lines, at than the effect produced by the numerous the end of which he is pursued and brought

curves of the stream as seen from this back to the liberty pole, when the constable is swung aloft, and McFingal tarred and feathered. point, sweeping gracefully along, its right McFingal is set at liberty; he goes home, and bank precipitous and thickly wooded; at night makes a speech to some of his Tory upon its left bank rich alluvial flats, just friends in his cellar, extending through the rest sufficiently dotted with single trees to of the poem, leaving only room to tell that the mob broke off his address in the middle, by as

afford a proper disposition of light and shade to the landscape ; beyond these arise wooded hillsides, while in the distance the view is bounded by hills relieved by cultivation and scattering farm houses. Near sunset the light is finest for this landscape. In the eastern portion of the cemetery the various glimpses obtained of the river, looking through the trees upon its placid waters, add greatly to the charm of the scene.

Here the stream, restless and joyous as is the general character of its course, seems to pause for a moment, as man occasionally does in the midst of the turmoil of life, to contemplate his own mortality ; silently and slowly the naturally turbulent river wends its way past the city of the dead.

Far back in Egypt's history, before the Hellenic ages, the places of sepulture selected at Thebes and other cities upon the Nile, were always upon the opposite side of the stream from the abodes of the living, the river itself furnishing the dividing line between the cities of the living and

the dead. Hence we learn that the Greeks, PORTER'S LODGE, RIVERSIDE CEMETERY.

who received the germ of civilization from sailing the house, and McFingal escaped to the Egyptians, established in that mythol Boston. These are all the incidents and this ogy which their exquisite poetry and art the whole story of a poem of four cantus, and have adorned and transmitted to future ages, consisting of some thousand lines."9

the theory of the dead crossing the River The Cemetery of Riverside is situated Styx, and the poetical fancy of the grim at the distance of about three fourths of a visaged ferryman, Charon. Here, certainmile southeasterly from the central por- ly, we have the most ancient authority for tion of Waterbury, upon the right bank of selecting the borders of a river for the the Naugatuck River. The name which resting-place of the dead. Nothing can has been adopted for this beautiful spot is form a more perpetual barrier to the enmost happily suggestive of its situation. croachments of the future in our still unFrom various elevations within the inclos- developed country. And the associations ure, the river forms a beautiful feature in of classic antiquity, too little valued in our the landscape, winding gracefully as it does progressive age, are thus cherished and

preserved. * Kettell's Specimens of American Poetry, vol. i.

“ The site of Riverside Cemetery was

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“It lies beautifully undulating along the bank of the Naugatuck River, which serves not only as a picturesque margin on the north, but as a perpetual barrier against the encroachments of the city, from which it is at such a distance as to be convenient of access, and yet sufficiently secluded, while the many beautiful prospects it furnishes of the city and the enchanting scenery around it, with the gentle hum of business heard indistinctly in the distance, serves to divest it of

that aspect of loneliness and awful stillness, MITCHELL'S FAMILY LOT.

which engenders only feelings of despair,

and which is uncongenial with the cheering selected, and the refusal of a portion emblems of hope which a rural cemetery should of the grounds obtained in 1849. In

ever present to the disconsolate heart. There

is a diversity of hill and valley, some parts the following year a corporate association

being so elevated and furnishing prospects sufwas formed under the statute law of this ficiently beautiful to suit the tastes of the most state, relating to burial grounds and places aspiring; others, so low and secluded as to of sepulture ; and a sufficient sum in

harmonize with the feelings of the most humble

and unpretending. The quiet little stream that money subscribed to purchase the first plot

runs through the center serves to enliven and of ground.”

diversify the scenery, and divide the grounds At a subsequent period additional ground into two equal divisions. The soil is well was purchased, making the present extent

adapted, being mostly free from stone, deep,

and susceptible of a high state of improvement, of the cemetery thirty-one acres.

Thus situated by nature, it will, when the imOn the 24th September, 1853, the dedi

provements which are so tastefully commenced cation of the grounds took place. The shall be completed, become a most appropriate ceremonies were altogether of the most place for the repose of the dead, and to them

we noro dedicate it, until time shall cease, and the interesting and impressive character. A

grave shall lose its porcer and dominion." platform was erected in a beautiful pine grove near the entrance of the cemetery, The attention bestowed in our day and for the use of those who took part in the ex- | country upon the selection of quiet rural. ercises. The Mendelssohn Society of this city, an association devoted to the cultivation of classical music, took part in the exercises, adding greatly to the solemnity and interest of the occasion. The following preliminary ode was sung, awakening, perhaps for the first time, the echoes of sacred music in this spot, so long one of nature's solitudes :

“ Time is bearing us away

To our eternal home;
Life is but a winter's day,

A journey to the tomb.
Youth and vigor soon will flee,

Blooming beauty lose its charms;
All that's mortal soon will be

Inclosed in death's cold arms. But the Christian shall enjoy

Health and vigor soon, above, Far beyond the world's alloy, Secure in Jesus' love !"




retreats for the repositories of the dead, neglected and gloomy burial grounds of as well as the care exhibited in the culti- former years, sometimes used as sheep vation and adornment of the grounds, are pastures, or perhaps with broken inclos. among the most striking proofs of advanc ures which admitted freely all the animals ing refinement and civilization. It is to that fed upon the common ; or, again, France that we are indebted for the first choked with brambles, the mullen being example of this kind in the well-known the only flower which lifted its head above and, in some respects, beautiful cemetery | the graves, surely we must acknowledge of Père la Chaise. Rural cemeteries were that our improvements in this respect next introduced in the United States. evince increasing refinement and civilizaEngland has at last adopted them, although tion. for many ages the crypts and chapels of It was in mediæval times that superher cathedrals have received for the most stition seemed most to delight in those part the ashes of her distinguished dead. I emblems of death which are revolting In Germany, Italy,

The skull and the and other continental

cross bones, and those countries, these im

hideous and distorted provements have not

groups, both in sculpyet been introduced.

ture and in painting, In the number, ex

known as the dance of tent, and beauty of the

death, sprung into exrural cemeteries of the

istence then. United States, we may

The refinement of be assured that our be

the Greeks led them, loved country excels

in the pagan the world.

age, to associate with A rural cemetery in

the idea of death difthe environs of any

ferent forms of beauty ; city or town, if taste

hence we have the fully laid out, and im

genius of death, a proved in accordance

beautiful figure of a with the present estab

youth leaning upon an lished style of land

inverted torch with scape gardening, can

legs crossed, holding not fail of exciting a

in his hand a cluster of good influence upon

poppy buds, emblemthe tastes of a people.

atic of rest, of the Wherever we

sleep of the grave. In these cemeteries in

the temple of Juno, at troduced we find that

Elis, death and sleep gradually the stiff and

were personified by formal lines of trees

two beautiful infants, and walks, once

twin brothers, repos

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH. universal upon

ing in the arms of grounds, are rapidly giving way to the bet- | Night. Strange that, with revealed religion ter taste exhibited in a simple copying and the hope held out to us beyond the vale, of nature. Now we see thick clumps of these beautiful images of death should trees with varied foliage, contrasting, in have given place to others distorted and their dark outline and heavy masses of repulsive. shadow, with irregular sunny openings of The natural adaptation of the grounds closely shaven lawn. It is no longer of Riverside to the purposes of a cemetery deemed a requisite of taste that trees is very remarkable. Here every variety should stand as prim as the lines of soldiers of surface is found; bold eminences, picturin a well-drilled regiment, or that walks - esque and shaded dells, quiet valleys. should only be laid out with square angles The wildest portions are left for the most and in the most precise form.

part in their natural state, others have When we contrast the modern rural been highly improved; hence the grounds cemeteries of New England with the present that contrast, so desirable in land



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Great credit is due to Howard Daniels, Esq., of New York, the civil engineer, as well as to the superintendent, Mr. John North. It is unusual to find such perfect harmony in landscape gardening ; all the available natural beauties of the spot seem to have struck the quick eye of Mr. Daniels, and he has developed them to the best possible advantage.

The prominent position which is now assigned to Waterbury among

the manufacturing places of New England, gives a degree of interest to the early development of manufactures here.

Waterbury, from near the period of its first settlement, contained the elements of manufacturing spirit. During the war of the Revolution guns were made here by Lieutenant Ard Welton, who died in the present century, on his farm at Buck’s Hill, (so called,) and where some of his descendants still reside. Joseph Hopkins, Esq., a man of some distinction, afterward a judge of the county court, was the inspector of the arms, under authority of the


State. This Mr. Hopkins Holes

was originally a silversmith, and manufactured shoe and knee buckles, indispensable articles in the costume of the time. Af.

ter his son Jesse had arscape, of native wildness with extreme | rived at man's estate, being rather discultivation. Here is a dell filled with bold satisfied with the slow method of castand picturesque rocks and native trees ; | ing buckles, which was one at a time, inbordering upon it a piece of closely shaven vented a mold to cast six. This astounded lawn, upon which is a splendid monument his father, who rebuked him in the strongin Italian marble of classic design ; the est terms, telling him that it was a device trees in its immediate neighborhood are of the Evil One, and boded no good. exotics, but the native rocks have been Fashion, however, soon afterward changed, preserved. The grounds are for the most and there was no longer a demand for part wooded, and afford every variety of buckles. native tree to be found in this vicinity. Ezra Bronson, Esq., a man of educa



tion, who held a high place in the estima- pinions; but having little means and modetion of his townsmen, was an assistant rate ambition, he was content with a very commissary during the Revolutionary War, small business. Others, more eagle-eyed and kept a tavern near St. John's Church, and enterprising, foresaw that, with proper which was also used for a magazine, as energy, the business might be multiplied well as other purposes called for by the and rendered profitable. Among them was public service. To supply troops with Colonel William Leavenworth, formerly a soap he established a “potashery,” as it large merchant, but having met with rewas then called, which was continued

verses and given up trade, he therefore many years after the peace. Specimens converted his store into a clock shop, and of the soap were preserved as late as finding his business increasing, changed a twenty years ago, and were more highly four mill which he owned into a larger appreciated than the best Windsor. establishment, where he erected improved

To the late Mark Leavenworth, Esq., machinery, and prosecuted a large busimust be awarded the credit of an early | ness for several years. In the meantime pioneer.

He was an apprentice to Mr. Hopkins, the silversmith, and being thrown out of employ by dame fashion, he commenced the manufacture of gun-locks ; this was followed by axes and steel-yards, which were about the first articles fabricated here for an outside market; these

taken South, and exchanged for cotton and tobacco.

This was about the beginning of the present century.

About this time Silas Grilley and others commenced the manufacture of composition buttons, made of pewter and zinc, which was carried on for several years with success, until superseded by the gilt buttons, which laid the foundation of the metal business. This has since overshadowed every other pursuit, and made the place what it now is.

Toward the close of the last century James Harrison commenced the manufacture of wooden clocks. He is said not only to have erected the first water-wheel known in this vicinity, but to have made the first wooden clock known in Connecticut. His commencement was in a rude way, using a saw, file, and pen-knife for machinery, turning the pinions by foot power. Subsequently, after erecting a water-wheel on Little Brook, he invented some very ingenious machinery for cutting the wheel - teeth and

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