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it is incumbent upon Parliament to aid in providing the effectual means of instruction, where these cannot be obtained, for the people.

“ 5. That it is incumbent upon Parliament to encourage, in like manner, the establishment of Infant Schools, especially in the larger towns.

“6. That, for the purpose of improving the kind of education given at schools for the people at large, it is expedient to establish, in several parts of the country, seminaries where good schoolmasters may be trained, and taught the duties of their profession."

The Committee on the Education of the poorer classes, over which Mr. Slaney presided in 1838, in their report say, “they apprehend that they have ample grounds for stating, throughout this vast metropolis, the means of useful daily instruction are lamentably deficient. It must be borne in mind, that in the various valuable reports made by the Statistical Societies of Manchester and London, and in much of the evidence adduced before your Committee, the worthless nature of the education supposed to be given in the common Day and Dame Schools, has been dwelt upon; so that in many places it may be left almost out of account.”

“Your Committee now turn to the state of education in the large manufacturing, and sea-port towns, where the population has rapidly increased within the present century; they refer for particulars to the evidence taken before them, which appears to bear out the following results :

"1. That the kind of education given to the children of the working classes, is lamentably deficient.

“2. That it extends (bad as it is), to but a small proportion of those who ought to receive it.

"3. That without some strenuous and persevering efforts be made on the part of the Government, the greatest evils to all classes may

follow from this neglect.”

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12,877: 5,254



1838. Brighitons { National: } 40,634 in 1831



1837. Birmingham


8,180 4,697 1837. Bristol


Not including

Private Schools.
SB, and F.

1,367 3,033

863 3,947 1838. Leeds. B. & F. 123,393 in 1831 No return of 2,971

Dame or Day,

but only of

Public Schools. 1838. || Sheffield

96,692 in 1831 3,359 5,905 Northamp: S B. and F.

S 1,011 1,215
ton | National.

996 1,202
Reading B. & F.
15,595 in 1891 297

28,242 in 1831 2,045 1,830


Evening. 1836. York

25,359 in 1831 1,494 2,697

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9,264 2,226 2,198 1,259 3,875

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The returns made to the Education Inquiry, undertaken in 1833 on the motion of Lord Kerry, were, from the great imperfec

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* Vide Reports of Statistical Society.

+ Report of Manchester Statistical Society on a Manufacturing District, read at British Association Ridgway, 1837. # Vide Evidence, Riddall Wood.

Where “ B. & F.” or “ National" are mentioned, it only means that the returns came through the Secretaries of those Societies.

|| Report (B. & F.) excluding superior and middling Schools. | Report of Statistical Society of Manchester, 1837.

Note. The general result of all these Towns is that about one in twelve receive some sort of daily instruction, but only about one in twenty-four an edncation likely to be useful

. In Leeds, only one in forty-one; in Birmingham, one in thirty-eight; in Manchester, one in thirty-five.

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tion of our administrative machinery, exceedingly incorrect, as has been proved by the subsequent investigations of societies, and

individuals. At the period of this inquiry, the population of de England and Wales was 14,314,102; and the number of chil

dren between the ages of three and fifteen, estimated as bearing the same ratio to the population as in 1821, was 4,294,230 ; and the returns to the Education Inquiry give 1,276,947 children as in receipt of daily instruction. We must recur to the report of the Parliamentary Committee of 1838 for the quality of that instruction, which being for the most part conveyed in Dame, and common Day-schools, is to be regarded as almost

'worthless, if not, in many instances, pernicious. The number to returned as attending Sunday Schools, in 1833, was 1,548,890,

which is to be regarded as a cheering indication of the extent of the means at present in existence, for procuring an observance of the Sunday among the children of the labouring classes, and of conveying to them a limited amount of religious instruction upon that day, but cannot be accepted as an indication of the amount of the efficient means, for the intellectual developnicnt and moral and religious training, of the children of our working classes. The children between the ages of three and seven, estimated as bearing the same ratio to the population as in 11821, was 1,574,551 ; and all under this age must be regarded as fit only for Dame and Infant Schools.

But we have already remarked, that the returns to the Parliamentary Inquiry of 1833, are utterly insufficient to test the quality and extent of education in England and Wales; we must therefore have recourse to some of the laborious investigations, conducted impartially by Statistical Societies, into the extent of education provided for the poorer classes in certain districts.

lu the Report of the Manchester Statistical Society, respecting the state of education in Manchester, Salford, Liverpool, Bury, and York, we find the population estimated as 533,000; and it has been calculated that the number of children of the working classes, from three to thirteen, for whom daily educatiou should

be provided, is 80,050; (one third having been deducted from the whole number of children between three and thirteen, for those privately educated, or employed, or sick, or prevented by casualties from attending school, and deducting the number attending superior private schools,) of these children 21,957 attend Endowed and Charity Schools, National and Lancasterian, and schools attached to public institutions, and Infant Schools.

Further, of the total number of 80,050 children who ought to be educated; 29,259 receive an almost worthless instruction, in Dame and common Day-schools, leaving 28,834 uneducated in any Week-day-schools. Therefore 58,093 children, out of 80,050, either receive no weekly instruction, or instruction only in Dame or common Day-schools.

The Reports of the Manchester Statistical Society shew the inefficiency of the instruction given in the Dame and common Day schools, which is confirmed by the Report of the Parliamentary Committee of 1838, which we have already quoted. In our Appendix, No. 1, we have given, in a tabular form, summaries of the results of these investigations.

Whenever inquiries of a similar character have been conducted in rural districts, they have exhibited an equally lamentable deficiency of the means of primary instruction, and as the physical agencies of civilization are in less active operation in rural districts than in towns, we fear that a large portion of our labouring population have already realized the description given by Adam Smith of the working classes of a nation whose instruction has been neglected by the Govern


What might be accomplished for the advancement of civilization, and for the eradication of crime by the introduction of a more efficient primary education of the working classes may in some slight degree be estimated from the following facts, showing the proportion of offenders to their respective intellectual conditions in the years 1836, 1837, and 1838.

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From this rule of moral inefficiency we fear we cannot exclude any class of schools as at present conducted, for the methods of teaching which at present prevail commit the instruction of the children even of our National and Lancasterian schools chiefly, if not solely, to the most proficient boys and girls ; and from these it is apparent that little or no moral influence capable of elevating the character of the scholars can proceed. The training of the habits and affections, and the adoption of systematic means to develope either the faculties or the feelings of the children, are therefore necessarily neglected. Such acquirements as are made in these schools result almost solely from an effort of the memory which receives a meagre supply of the most rudimentary knowledge,while in a great number, if not the majority of instances, as this knowledge is received with distaste, it is not retained long after the children leave the school, and besides exerting no influence on the character in after life is of little use in enabling its possessor even to improve his physical condition. But what is most lamentable, we may say most fearful, is the fact which Professor Pillans and Mr. Wood have fully exposed, that the religious instruction consists, chiefly if not solely, in committing to memory catechisms and formularies which are neither explained nor understood, and that thus not only are the great truths of Christianity not recommended to the rational capacity of the child, but the sympathies which they are calculated to rouse and to develope, and which form so essential a part of a lively faith and an operative sentiment of devotion are left uncultivated. While, however, we depict, with deep regret, the defects of the existing system of primary education, we render our heartý

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