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PARR, SAMUEL, LL.D., an English scholar, ers all his contemporaries except Dr. Johnson, clergyman, and author, born at Harrow-on-the- In 1787 he published an edition of Bellendenus Hill, Jan. 15, 1747, died March 6, 1825. He de Statu, with a preface in which he enlogized was the son of a surgeon and apothecary. He Burke, Fox, and Lord North, but attacked early manifested a taste for learning, and when, other contemporary statesmen with great viruat the age of 15, he was removed from school lence. It is esteemed one of the most successand placed at his father's business, he devoted ful modern imitations of Ciceronian Latin. His his leisure time to the study of Greek and Lat- preface to an edition of " Tracts by Warburton in with such assiduity that in 1765 his father and a Warburtonian, not admitted into the reluctantly consented to his entering the uni- Collection of their respective Works" (1789) versity of Cambridge. The death of his parent is remarkable for its polished style; but the obliged him to accept in 1767 the first assistant work was undertaken in order to annoy Bishop mastership of Harrow school, where he re- Hurd, the editor of Warburton. His other mained 5 years. Having been rejected by the writings comprise a controversy with Dr. governors as a candidate for the vacant head White, whom he accused of plagiarism in his mastership in 1771, he taught a school on his “Bampton Lectures" (1790), papers connected own account at Stanmore, and in 1777 became with the Birmingham riots of 1791, a contromaster of the school at Colchester, where he versy with Dr. Charles Combe in 1795, and was ordained priest, receiving the curacies of one with Godwin and others occasioned by Hythe and Trinity church. In the following Parr's Spital sermon in 1800, and “Characyear he was appointed master of Norwich ters of the late Charles James Fox” (1809), conschool. Two sermons“On the Truth and Use- sisting partly of original and partly of selected fulness of Christianity" and "On the Education matter. He left a considerable number of hisof the Poor” (1780) appeared during his resi- torical, critical, and metaphysical papers in dence here, and the latter served to prepare the manuscript. An edition of his works, with a way for his much admired “Discourse on Edu- memoir of his life and writings and selections cation, and on the Plans pursued in Charity from his correspondence, was published by John Schools" (1785). In the mean time the uni- Johnstone, D.D. (8 vols., London, 1828). versity of Cambridge had granted him the de- PARR, Thomas, commonly known as Old gree of LL.D. (1781), and Bishop Lowth had Parr, an Englishman celebrated on account of appointed him a prebendary of St. Paul's. In his great age, born in Winnington, Shropshire, 1786 he removed to Hatton in Warwickshire, in 1483, died in London, Nov. 15, 1635. He where he held a perpetual curacy, and here he was the son of poor parents, and after his fapassed the remainder of his life, engaged in lit- ther's decease continued his occupation of huserary pursuits, the care of his parish, and the in- bandry. He was first married at the age of struction of children. His personal unpopular- 80, and begot two children; and after the ity with the members of his own profession and death of his wife, he married again when about the dispensers of government patronage pre- 120 years old. According to a current story, vented his rising to those dignities in the church he was engaged in a love intrigue when about to which his learning entitled him. He was 105 years old, and was compelled to do penvain, arrogant, and quarrelsome, a violent whig ance for the crime by standing in a sheet in partisan, and both unjust and inconsistent in Alderbury church. When a little over 152 many of his political opinions. He advocated years old, he was taken to London by Thomas, the repeal of measures against the Roman Cath- earl of Arundel; but dying soon after, he was olics and Unitarians, but could not tolerate buried in Westminster abbey. Almost all Methodists. In his controversial writings he that is authentically known in regard to him was frequently unfair and untruthful, but he is contained in a pamphlet published in 1635 possessed great natural benevolence, and is by John Taylor, under the title of "The Olde, said to have surpassed in conversational pow. Olde, Very Olde Man; or, the Age and Long


Life of Thomas Parr, the Sonne of John Parr, PARROT, the general name of the psittaciof Winnington, in the Parish of Alderbury, in , a family of scansorial birds, remarkable for the County of Salopp, who was born in the the elegance of their form, the brilliancy of reign of King Edward the IVth, and is now their plumage, and their docility and power of living in the Strand, being aged 152 years and imitating the human voice. They have a large odd monthes. His manner of life and conver- strong bill, much arched, with acute tip, and sation in so long a pilgrimage; his marriages, the lower mandible notched at the end; the and his bringing up to London about the end upper mandible is movably articulated to the of September last, 1635."

frontal bones, enabling them to seize larger PARRHASIUS, a Greek painter, born in objects than other birds of their size; the Ephesus, flourished about 400 B. O. He was tongue is thick and fleshy, the wings and tail the son and pupil of Evenor, and, although be- generally long, tarsi short and robust, and the longing to the Ionian school of art, passed the strong toes directed 2 before and 2 behind, the greater part of his life in Athens, of which city former united at the base by a narrow memhe was made a citizen. Quintilian calls him brane. These are the typical climbers, but are the legislator of his art, from the fact that he slow and generally awkward on the ground; established certain canons of proportion for the they use both bill and claws in climbing, and human figure which were adopted by succeed. while feeding use one foot to hold their food; ing artists; and Pliny says: “He first gave to though rather sedentary, most of them are painting true proportion, the minuto details of good fliers; the neck is short, and has usually the countenance, the elegance of the hair, the 12 vertebro; the sternum is long and narrow, beauty of the face, and by the confession of the with generally an oval aperture on its inferior artists themselves obtained the palm in his margin on each side; the structure of the drawing of the extremities." He was arrogant tongue and the complicated lower larynx enand insolent in manner, and in epigrams in- able them to articulate with great distinctness. scribed on his own productions called himself They are confined to the warm parts of Ameri'ABpodlaitos, the elegant, claiming a divine de- ca, Asia, Africa, and Australia, and generally scent, and announcing that in his works the to the southern hemisphere; their food conart of painting had reached its highest excel sists of soft pulpy fruits, especially such as have lence. His most celebrated work, according to hard kernels or seeds; they are usually seen in Pliny, was an allegorical representation of the large flocks, active in the morning and evening, Athenian people, in which every quality, good noisy and quarrelsome, destructive to vegetaor bad, ascribed to the Athenians, found its tion in their wild state, and very mischievous expression. Among other famous works by in captivity; they are monogamous, and build him were a Theseus, of which Euphranor re- their nests generally in hollow trees. This is marked that it had fed upon roses, and his own a very extensive family, numbering about 300 Theseus upon beef; “Ulysses feigning Insan- species, and divided by Gray into the sub-famity;" a Meleager, Hercules, &c. He also paint- ilies of pezoporinæ, araince, lorine, cacatuinæ, ed pictures of a gross and licentious charac- and psittacin; the first 4 are described reter, two of which, the “ Archigallus" and the spectively under the titles PAROQUET, Macaw, “Meleager and Atalanta," were so highly LORY, and COCKATOO, leaving for this article prized by the emperor Tiberius that he caused only the psittacinæ, and the genus conurus of them to be hung in his own chamber. Two the macaws. Some of the parrots present rapwell known contests in which he engaged with torial characters in the form of the bill, and contemporary painters are recorded. In the especially in its soft skin or cere. Bonaparte first, when conquered by Timanthes, the sub- makes of them a distinct order, placing them ject being the combat of Ulysses and Ajax for at the head of his system, separated from the the arms of Achilles, he observed that he cared typical scansores by the rapacious birds; for little for his own defeat, but felt pity for Ajax the connecting links between the families see in being a second time overcome by an un- Owl, and Owl PARROT.-The only well ascerworthy rival. In the second contest, which tained species within the United States is the was with the painter Zeuxis, the latter execut. Carolina parrot (conurus Carolinensis, Kuhl); ed a bunch of grapes so naturally that the birds in this the length is about 14 inches, and the came and pecked at the fruit. He thereupon alar extent 22; the bill is short, bulging, and requested Parrhasius to draw aside a curtain very strong; the head is large, the neck robust, which apparently concealed his own picture; and the body and tail elongated, the latter but as the curtain proved to be the picture wedge-shaped ; the bill is white and the iris itself, the victory was conceded by Zeuxis to hazel; general color green with bluish reflechis rival, who by deceiving men had gone fur- tions, lightest below; fore part of head and ther than himself in the art of imitation. The cheeks bright red, extending over and behind story told by Seneca, that Parrhasius, when the eye, the rest of the head and neck gamboge painting a “ Prometheus Chained," put an yellow; edge of wing yellow tinged with red; Olynthian captive to the torture, in order to wings and their coverts varied with bluish obtain from him the proper expression of green, greenish yellow, and brownish red; 2 bodily suffering, has been proved to be utterly middle tail feathers deep green, the others with unfounded.

the inner webs brownish red; thighs yellow.


This species has been seen as far north as Lake fortunate repetition of previously acquired senOntario, though now it is chiefly confined to tences, and are not new words dictated by inthe southern and south-western states, and as telligence or any consciousness of their applifar as the Missouri to the west. They are very cability. Large sums have been paid for well fond of the seeds of the cockle bur, and eat taught specimens, and a cardinal is said to have almost any kind of fruit and grain, from their given 100 golden crowns for one which could immense flocks committing great havoc in the repeat the Apostles' Creed; another is said to garden, field, and orchard, destroying in search have served acceptably as chaplain of a vessel, of seeds far more than they consume; they are reciting the prayers to the sailors. In the gekilled in large numbers by the enraged farmers, pus chrysotis (Swains.), of tropical South Amerwho consider their flesh a delicacy. The flight ica, the bill is smaller but strongly dentated; is rapid and direct, with great inclinations of the wings reach to the middle of the tail, which the body and incessant noisy cries; they gen- is broad and rounded. The green parrot (C. erally alight close together on the trees bearing Amazonicus, Gmel.) is very often taken to the the desired fruit; they are savage when wound- United States and Europe on account of its ed, but are easily tamed by immersion in water; great colloquial powers; it is 12 inches long, they are destructive in captivity, and incapable the bill orange yellow, as well as the cheeks of articulating words. They are fond of sand and chin; the general color is shining green, and saline earths. Many females deposit their with a bluish purple band over the forehead, eggs in the same hollow of a tree, each one and the feathers of the hind neck edged with laying 2 or 3. Several other parrots are found black; it inhabits the country watered by the in Mexico and Central America. To the sub- river Amazon, where it often does great misfamily of psittacincs belong the parrots best chief to the plantations. The festive parrot (C. known in the domesticated condition, especially festivus, Linn.), a native of the same forests, is the gray and green parrots so common as pets; 15 or 16 inches long, of a general green color, in this group the head is without crest, the with a narrow red frontal band and eye streak, margins of the bill are dentated or festooned, blue above and behind the eyes, lower back the wings pointed, and the tail short and square. and rump vermilion, and the greater quills with In the old genus psittacus (Linn.) the bill is blue outer webs and the inner greenish black; large, rather compressed, with biangular cul- it is docile, easily tamed, and learns readily to men much arched to the tip, near which the pronounce words and sentences. The last two lateral margin is deeply notched, the under species are those most commonly brought from mandible much sinnated and the anterior edge South America; there are several others desharp; wings generally reaching to the end of scribed. In the genus psittacula (Briss.) the the tail, with 2d and 3d quills equal and long- size is generally small; the bill is rather large est. There are more than 40 species found in with the lateral margins festooned; the pointed the humid forests of Africa and South America; wings extend to the end of the tail, which is short collecting at night in immense flocks, they leave and even; there are about 30 species described, their roosting places early in search of food, in South America, Africa, and Asia and its arwhich consists chiefly of pulpy fruits and seeds, chipelago; they are rapid fliers and expert climbafter which they bathe and retire to thick ers, often' hanging head downward in their leaved trees during the heat of the day, going search for fruits; while feeding they utter a in search of food again at night; they migrate shrill chirp, like that of a large grasshopper; in large flocks to warmer regions on the ap- when sleeping they generally suspend themproach of the rainy season, rising to a great selves by one or both feet, head downward. height and uttering the most discordant screams; Here belong the beautiful little love birds," the young are fed with the disgorged half mas- the genus agapornis of Selby. Swindern's ticated food of the parents. The gray parrot love bird (P. Srindereniana, Kuhl) is a native (P. erythacus, Linn.) is the most remarkable of S. Africa; it is about 6 inches long, with a for its docility and power of articulating words, black strong bill whose upper mandible is and is the one about which so many wonderful notched; the head and napo are bright green, tales are extant; it is about 12 inches long, of bounded by a black nuchal collar; neck and an ash-gray color, with a bright scarlet tail, breast yellowish green, mantle and wings yellowish white irides, and grayish feet and toes. green, lower back and upper tail coverts azure It is a native of W. Africa, whence it has been blue; the short and nearly even tail has a meimported from a very early period; its habits dian bar of vermilion edged with black and the are not very well known in the wild state, but tip green. These parrots are remarkable for in captivity it feeds on bread and milk, nuts, their attachment to each other. Other genera and even meat, holding its food with one foot, are tanygnathus (Wagl.), of the Moluccas and and reducing it to small pieces by the bill and New Guinea, having a very large and swollen cutters on the palate; it may reach the age of bill without dentations, a very long, þroad, and 70 and even 90 years. They breed readily in wedge-shaped tail, short tarsi, and long slencaptivity. Anecdotes of these parrots might der toes; and nasiterna (Wagl.), which is a fill a large volume; it will be sufficient to very small New Guinea genus, having a short say here that many of the recorded apposite elevated bill, and the apex of each feather of speeches made by them are the result of the the short rounded tail prolonged into an acute

point; the N. pygmæa (Wagl.) is the smallest as the first of fishes, and large sums were exof the parrot family.

pended to stock the Italian waters with it from PARROT, JOHANN JAKOB FRIEDRICH WIL- the sea between Crete and Asia Minor. By HELM, a German natural philosopher, born in the ancients it was believed to have a voice, to Carlsruhe, Oct. 14, 1792, died Jan. 15, 1841. sleep at night (alone of fishes), to be very arIn 1811 and 1812 he travelled in company with dent in the pursuit of the female, to release its Engelhardt over southern Russia and the Cau- companions and other fishes from nets, and to casus, and on his return published an account have the power of ruminating; the last belief of his travels under the title of “ Travels in the naturally arose from the backward and forward Crimea and Caucasus" (2 vols., Berlin, 1815- movements of the jaws rendered possible by the '18). In 1821 he was appointed professor of mode of articulation, and necessary for the physiology, pathology, and semeiology in the complete mastication of the sea weeds upon university of Dorpat, travelled in 1824 in the which it principally feeds. Its flesh is tender, Pyrénées, and in 1829 was the first to make a sweet, and easy of digestion, and the intestines successful ascent of Mount Ararat. He wrote and their contents were highly relished; the “Journey to Ararat" (2 vols., Berlin, 1834; modern Greeks call it scaro, and consider it a English translation by Cooley, London and fish of exquisite flavor, eating it with a sauce New York, 1845); a treatise on “ Gasometry" made of its liver and intestines, as the moderns (Dorpat, 1814); and “Views in regard to Uni- eat plover and woodcock; its liver entered into versal Pathology” (Riga, 1821).

the composition of the famous dish called “the PARROT FISH, the common name of the shield of Minerva," with the brains of the peanumerous cyclolabroid fishes of the genus cock and pheasant, flamingoes' tongues, and scarus (Forsk.); the name is derived from the the milt of the muræna eel. The red parrot beak-like form of their jaws; they also present fish of the West Indies (8. Abilgaardii, Val.), the same brilliancy and variety of colors as do about 16 inches long, is a handsome species. the parrots among birds. The form is oblong The great parrot fish (S. guacamaia, Val.), from and stout, with the lateral line branching and the same locality, attains a length of 27 or 3 interrupted under the end of the dorsal fin. feet, and a weight of 30 lbs.; the colors are The jaws are prominent, convex, each divided red, blue, and green. Many other beautiful speinto halves by a median suture; the teeth are cies are described from North America in Dr. incorporated with the bone, arranged in an Storer's “Synopsis," and the whole genus is imbricated manner in crowded quincunxes, the treated at length in vol. xiv. of the Histoire naoldest forming the cutting border, and succeed- turelle des poissons by Cuvier and Valenciennes. ed by the lower ranks as the former are worn PARRY, Sir WILLIAM EDWARD, an English away; their surface is generally smooth and navigator, born in Bath, Dec. 10, 1790, died at polished; the pharyngeal teeth consist of tren- Ems, Germany, July 8, 1855. He was the son chant transverse vertical plates, two above and of a physician, and was intended for his father's one below, presenting when worn narrow els profession; but after he had received a good lipses of dentine surrounded by enamel; the education at the grammar school of his native lips are simple and fleshy, in some species place, a relative induced him to enter the navy. leaving the teeth exposed. The body is cov- In June, 1803, he was appointed a first class ered with large scales, as far as the gill covers volunteer on board the Ville de Paris, 110, the and cheeks, there being from 21 to 25 in a flag ship of Admiral Cornwallis, and remained longitudinal line and 8 in a vertical one at the in this vessel until 1806, when he was rated as region of the pectorals; those at the base of midshipman on the Tribune frigate. Having the caudal fin are large and embrace a consid- been transferred to the Vanguard, 74, of the erable portion of its rays; there is a single Baltic fleet, he was several times in action with conical dorsal, with 9 spiny and 10 articulated the Danes, and in one engagement was intrusted rays; the anal has 2 spiny and 8 articulated with the command of one of his ship's boats. rays. The muzzle is obtuse, and the profile In 1810 he obtained his commission as lieutensometimes rather high; there are no stomach- ant, and sailed in the Alexandria frigate to the al nor pancreatic cæca. There are about 100 polar seas about the North cape, where he corspecies described, living principally on the rected the admiralty charts of those waters. coral reefs of the West and East Indian archi- After the outbreak of war between Great Britpelagos, about one quarter dwelling around ain and the United States, he was sent to Halthe Molucca and Sunda islands. The best ifax (1813) to join the La Hogue, 74, with known is the parrot fish of the Mediterranean whose boats in the spring of 1814 he ascended (S. Cretensis, Rond.), of a red or blue color ac- the Connecticut river about 20 m., and decording to season, highly esteemed by the an- stroyed 27 privateers and other vessels with cients; it is about 15 inches long, of a general the loss of only 2 men. He remained on the purplish color, roseous below, and violet brown North American station until 1817, when, on the back; the pectorals orange, ventrals hearing that two expeditions, the one under with transverse lines of violet, and dorsal violet Buchan and Franklin and the other under Capt. gray with golden spots and bands. There is Ross, were about to be sent out to the north more said of this fish in the ancient writers polar regions, he solicited employment, and than of any other; in Pliny's time it was ranked was placed in command of the Alexander under


the orders of Ross in the Isabella. They left Regent inlet. On Aug. 26 they were again England in April, 1818, and proceeded to Lan- imprisoned by the ice, but they performed durcaster sound, which they navigated for about ing the winter several land journeys, sufficient 60 m., when Ross, imagining that he saw the to convince them that any attempt to reach way closed before them by a range of moun- the polar sea through Hudson's strait was tains, gave orders to return, Parry freely ex- hopeless. The appearance of scurvy among pressed his conviction that the range of moun- his men induced him in the spring to return tains was an optical illusion; and as the pub- home, and on Oct. 10, 1823, he arrived at Braslic generally coincided in this opinion, it was sa sound, Shetland. During his absence he determined in the spring of 1819 to equip a had been promoted to the rank of post-captain fresh expedition under his command. With (Nov. 8, 1821); and in Dec. 1823, he was apthe Hecla, 375 tons, and the Griper gun brig, pointed acting hydrographer to the admiralty. 180 tons, Lieut. Liddon, he reached Lancaster His “Journal of a Second Voyage for the Dissound July 30, and sailed through it. He ex- covery of a North-West Passage” was pubplored and named Barrow straits, Prince Re- lished by the admiralty in 1824. The results gent inlet, and Wellington channel, and, en- of these voyages, however imperfect, were suftering the water which has since been called ficient to encourage further search, and the Parry sound, reached on Sept. 4 long. 110° W., Hecla and Fury were consequently refitted as thereby earning a reward of £5,000 offered by speedily as possible. In May, 1824, Capt. parliament to the first ship's company which Parry sailed again in the Hecla, with Capt. should attain that meridian. He wintered at Hoppner in the Fury under his orders. His Melville island, and his expedients to preserve plan was to pass through Prince Regent inthe health and spirits of his crews during the let, but winter overtook him almost at the long arctic night were scarcely less deserving entrance of that channel; and soon after the of mention than his achievements as a discov- ice broke up, July 20, 1825, his vessels were erer. Exercise was rigorously enforced, all caught in the drift and carried down the inlet. possible precautions were taken against scurvy, On Aug. 21 the Fury was driven ashore, and and a newspaper and theatre were provided as so badly damaged that she had to be abandoned. amusements. On Aug. 2, 1820, after being Her crew and stores were transferred to the frozen in for 10 months, the ships were released; Hecla, and, deeming it impossible to continue but the state of the ice was such as to preclude the voyage under such circumstances, Capt. the hope of further progress westward, and Par- Parry returned to England, having accomplishry accordingly returned to England, where he ed little or nothing. His “ Journal of a Third was welcomed with the utmost enthusiasm. Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West He was promoted to the rank of commander, Passage" appeared in 1826. Ho now turned presented with the freedom of Bath and Nor- his attention to a plan originally proposed by wich, and elected a member of the royal socie- Scoresby for reaching the pole in boats which ty, and the narrative of his adventures was pub- could be fitted to sledges and floated or dragged lished by order of the admiralty. The results as occasion might offer; and having improved of his voyage, beside the establishment of the somewhat upon the original design and obtainnavigability of Lancaster sound and the exist. ed the sanction of the admiralty, he set sail in ence of a polar sea to the north of America, the Hecla, March 27, 1827, for Spitzbergen. were extremely important to the science of Here the vessel was left in harbor with a part magnetism, no observations having ever before of the crew, while the remainder, led by Capt. been made so near the magnetic pole. The Parry and Lieut. James O. Ross, set out for great problem however of the north-west pas- the pole in two boats, June 22. These boats sage was still unsolved, and in May, 1821, Par- were framed of ash and hickory, covered with ry sailed again with the Fury, accompanied by water-proof canvas, over which were successive Capt. Lyon in the Hecla. He passed through planks of fir and oak, with a sheet of stout felt Hudson's strait and Fox's channel, discovered interposed. They were flat-bottomed inside, and named the Duke of York's bay on the N. and had runners so that they could be used as shore of Southampton island, and passing sledges. The adventurers sailed through an through Frozen strait reached Repulse bay. open sea for about 80 m., and then found, not After a season of fruitless exploration along as they had expected a solid plain of ice, but & these waters lying immediately N. of Hudson's surface half covered with water, on which bay, his ships were frozen in at Winter island, walking and sailing were almost equally diffiOct. 8, and were not released again until July cult. They entered this ice June 24, and after 2. He now sailed up Fox channel to the mouth 5 nights of laborious travelling (for they travof the strait separating Melville peninsula from elled only by night to avoid snow blindness) Cockburn island, and named it Fury and Hecla had advanced only 10 miles. After reaching strait. As it was frozen across, he made a harder ice their progress became more rapid, journey on foot to the narrowest part of the but on July 19 a north wind sprang up which strait, whence he could see in the W. an open proved a more formidable obstacle than any expanse of water which he thought was the they had yet experienced. It was found that polar sea, but which is now known as the the ice moved southward while they were travgulf of Boothia, at the S. extremity of Prince elling toward the north, and on the 24th they

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