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that has not been accomplished. Indeed, in both whom they instruct, that after this life there is a points of view, the College has done a world of harm. purgatorial fire in which sins may be yet refinedo The priests are decidedly worse educated than be
doctrine of which Protestants know well the efect; fore, if education be regarded as not merely the I do not say the intended effect, but what, alas: is giving of theological knowledge, but the whole that men can live anù die more quietly in their un
in fact, the effect which follows from this doctrinetraining and accomplishment of the intellect, and rardoned sins. For if there is another state of prothe expanding and direction of the affections; and bation, another state in which yet the defective spiri they are more than ever looked up to by the people may provide for final bliss, why should men be anxias leaders in political agitation.
ous to be converted now, or now to follow the will One would think that, when such is so undeniably to contirm all these superstitions in the minds of Le
of God? Protestant senators know full weil, that the case, Government would, even from merely polic aciherents, the Roman Catholic Church forbids the tical considerations, at once withdraw the grant. It use of the Scriptures by the laity in the rules has failed to accomplish the object originally in- tongue, without the sanction of the priest. Protestan tended—nay, it has produced results altogether the senators know well, that the Roman Catholic Churi reverse of those which were wished for and expected. teaches that there is ordinarily no salvation out di Why, then, should it be continued? Yet, strange to
the Holy Catholic Church, and that the Holy Catbo
lic Church is the Church of Rome; and it has in fax say, the present Government, so far from withdraw- times delivered such as were out of its pale over t. ing, as our readers doubtless are aware, are about the secular arm. These dogmas are unrepealed; largely to increase the grant! Viewed as a piece they have never been recalled by that Church; and of policy, we cannot but regard such a proceed this makes that Church—and I think I do not likel ing as signally foolish and infatuated-as marked it when I say so—the gres.test body of sectarianism in by a total disregard of all the lessons of experience, Christ's Church on earth, a large company of the-e
It excommunicates a great body c? and calculated to increase tenfold the evils which whom he recognises. If this indeed be the ancut it is professedly intended to avert. But, viewed of error, and if these are the dogmas encouraged and in other and more serious aspects, as a public recog- avowed by the Church, which none but very ignorant nition and encouragement of Antichrist, the Man persons will attempt to deny, how is it that Protesof Sin-as showing the influence which he exerts
tant senators can with a good conscience vote away over the legislative councils of this Protestant land, ance of those tenets in our land"
the public money for the promulgation and continzand as connected with the prospects of Protestant Christianity throughout the world; viewed in these
This is the grand feature of the measure which aspects, the proposed measure is one which cannot makes us recoil from it. It involves the sanction, boy but excite the deepest anxiety and alarm among the
a Protestant Legislature, of the Popish system-the friends of Christ.
expenditure of the national money for the proper tion of soul-destroying errors.
And in this there is I. Viewed, first, as a public recognition and encou committed a high sin against God--the sin of bold; ragement of Antichrist, how monstrous does the pro and intiuentially patronising a system which he las posed measure appear! In the eloquent words of declared he will yet “consume with the breath of his the Rer. Baptist Noel,
mouth, and destroy with the brightness of his coming" “ Protestant senators know full well that the sacri
-a sin fitted to call down upon our land his rigt fice of the mass is taught by the Roman Church, which
teous displeasure and indignation. impairs the glory and darkens the efficacy of the only
Even the catalogue of errors given by Mr Noel, a3 one great sacrifice which the Lord Jesus has made taught at Maynooth-long and black as it is—is infor singers; and yet they would pay men for learn- complete. And we solicit the special attention of ing the doctrine first, and promulgating it to their
our readers, while we lay before thein, a few el- 1 fellow-men afterwards. They know full well that the Roman Catholic Church will teach men to bow
tracts from the authorized class-books of the College, down to stutues and pictures of saints. Protestant containing, we believe, doctrines more revolting than senators know full well, that the Roman Catholic | many of them conceive even Rome to be capable of Church teaches the necessity of priestly absolution, inculcating. a doctrine calculated to interfere with that great Nothing is more fashionable with Papists truth, that the penitent sinner is pardoned fully, freely, and for ever, by the exercise of faith in the days than to deny that their Church approves of 1 atoning sacrifice of Christ. Protestant senators krow religious persecution; and even when one points to full well, that the Roman Catholic Church teaches Madeira, where persons are actually sentenced to the doctrine, that a man must confess his sins to his death for daring to become Protestants, the answer priest; and this resigns the laity of Christendom into is ready-that for that the Church is not responsible
. the hands of those who may institute a universal But what can be said to the following ? One of the espionage, which at this moment is exercising a most books which every student at Maynooth is obliged fearful influence in Italy, as well as in other countries. Protestant senators know well, that where the Ro
to study, is the Commentary of Menochius, and in man Catholic religion remains unchecked, there may the exposition which it gives of that part of the be seen the majestic figure of Mary bearing a crown parable of the wheat and the tares in which direcupon her head, and the Saviour as a little baby in tions are given not to root up the tares, the followher arms; both manifesting the place, as I cannot ing sentence occurs :but fear, each of those persons has in the Roman Catholic system—the one the majestic queen of the “ In this place Christ does not forbid heretics (or universal Church, and the other the baby which Protestants) to be taken aray and put to death; ou she fondles in her arms. Protestant senators know which point, Maldonatus on this place is to be coliwell, that Roman Catholics will teach the adherents sulted.”
FIRM THE SAME BY AX OATII.
77 And in referring to Maldonatus, we find him writ Again, it is a well-known doctrine of the Romish ing thus :
Church, that no priest is at liberty to divulge, in any “There are some who abuse this place, by trying to
case, the secrets of the confessional, even should it prove that heretics are not to be punished or put to be to save a man's life, or to prevent a revolution. death, which they who do seem to be anxious about So well understood is this, that a converted Popish themselves. First, indeed, it does not refer only to priest (the Rev. L. J. Nolan), stated some years ago heretics, but to men who are children of the devil, as
that, through the confessional, he had been frequently opposed to the children of the kingdom, among whom heretics are the chief species, but not the only kind. apprised of intended assassinations and most diaboTherefore, they who deny that heretics are to be put to
lical conspiracies; but had been prevented, by what death, ought much rather to deny that thieves, much is called “the seal of confession," from giving the rather that murderers, ought to be put to death; for slightest intimation to the marked-out victims of heretics are so much the more pernicious than slaughter-although in one instance he met in the thieves and murderers, as it is a greater crime to public streets a man whom he knew it was intended steal and slay the souls of men than their bodies.”
to murder! Again, in the works of Cardinal Bellarmine, who But that our readers may have some idea of the is well known as one of their standard and most lengths to which Romish doctrine and practice go esteemed authors, the following very plain passage in this matter, we solicit their attention to the follow
Speaking of putting heretics to death, he ing passage from “ Dens' Theology," one of the Maystates:
nooth class-books, also used in many of the Roman “Experience teaches us that there is no other remedy: Catholic colleges :for the Church has advanced by degrees, and tried
“What ought a confessor to answer, being interroevery remedy. At first she only excommunicated, then she added fines in money, then exile-at last she gated concerning truth, which he has known through
sacramental confession alone?-He ought to answer was compelled to have recourse to death. For heretics despise excommunication, and say that it is a
that HE DOES NOT KNOW IT; AND, IF NECESSARY, CONbratum fulmen. If you threaten them with pecuniary fines, they neither fear God nor regard man; falsehood; but the confessor would tell a falsehood,
“It is objected--It is in no case lawful to tell a well knowing that fools will not be wanting who will because he knows the truth; therefore, &c. believe them, and by whom they will be supported. If you throw them into prison, or send them into fessor would lie, because such confessor is interro
“Answer.-I deny the minor, that is, that the conexile, they corrupt their neighbours by their language, and those who are at a distance by their gated as a man, and replies as a man; but now he
does not know that truth as a man, though HE KNOWS books; therefore the only remedy is, to send them
IT as God, and that sense is naturally inherent in the speedily to their proper place."
reply, for when he is interrogated or replies out of And he goes on to say :
confession, he is considered as a man. " It is an act of kindness to obstinate heretics to take whether he knows a particular thing by sacramental
“ What if it be directly inquired of the confessor, them out of this life; for the longer they live the confession ?- It is replied, In this case he ought to more errors they invent, the more men do they per
answer nothing; so think Steyaert and Sylvius. But vert, and the greater damnation do they acquire into themselves."
the interrogation is to be rejected as impious; or he
can say absolutely, not in relation to the question, And nowhere, perhaps, is the diabolical policy of KNOW NOTHING,' because the word 'I' restricts Rome, on this point, more plainly and truthfully to knowledge acquired by him as a man.” stated than in a passage by the same Cardinal Bel We might go over several other doctrines taught
to the students at Maynooth, and afterwards, of "If, indeed," says he," it can be done, HERETICS ARE
course, taught by them as priests to the Irish people, CNDOUBTEDLY TO BE EXTIRPATED; but if they can
but our limits forbid; and enough has been stated not, either because they are not sufficiently known, to show how extreme-how fearfully blasphemous and there is danger lest the innocent should suffer for and intolerant a thing that Maynooth Popery is, the guilty, or if they are stronger than we are, and which our Government is so ready to patronize. there is danger, if we attack them in war, that more of us would fall than of them, then we are to keep II. Viewed as a proof of the influence which the quiet.”
Vatican exercises over the legislative councils of our And again :
land, the proposed mcasure may well fill us with "HERETICS, WHEN STRONG, ARE TO BE COMMITTED alarm; for we cannot doubt that Rome herself is at To GoD; WHEN WEAK, TO THE EXECUTIONER.” the bottom of the whole matter. She has her agents
everywhere--all at work, if not above ground, under “Here for once,” in the words of a cotemporary,* “ we see Popery without her mask. When heretics suitism. And so well have her plans been laid, and
it--and all directed by the consummate craft of Jeare strong (like the Protestants of England), they are not to be attacked; when they are weak (like this moment she may be said to gorern most of the
80 vigorously have they been followed out, that at MARIA JOAQUINA and her fellow-Christians in Madeira), they are to be exterminated. And this is the
Governments of Europe. France is at her feet,the system which the British Government now propose
royal family there being among the most active of her
servants. Not long ago Spain, while Espartero was to patronize by including a seminary for the training of its teachers amongst the established institu
regent, was at war with Rome, and confiscated a tions of the nation !"
large proportion of the immense property held by her
ecclesiastics. Now, however, Espartero being driven * London Watchman of March 19.
from the kingdom-(may it not have been by
Popish intrigue?)—the property is restored, and she done for them ? If we do not avail ourselves of the has resumed her sway. In Portugal, her influence is openings which 'are before us, how can we expect sufficient to get laws passed declaring it death for a the Lord to open up other fields which are now inPortuguese to turn Protestant. And with most of accessible? In France, on the Continent, and in Irethe Governments of the Continent her will is law; as land, little has been done; and on that little such a a recent proof of which it may be mentioned, that blessing has been vouchsafed as may well fill ow in Austria and Bavaria it has been declared illegal hearts with hope that if greater efforts were madefor any one to join the German Catholic Church efforts more commensurate with the necessity-the which has sprung from the movement of John Ronge. windows of heaven would be opened, and the lands These are facts sad and startling enough. But what / which are now iron-bound and barren under the shall we say when we find that even this is not all; but blight of Rome, would receive such a shower of that, worse than all, Rome is also so influential with the Spirit's blessing as might convert them into gar- i the Government of our own Protestant land, as to dens of the Lord. When will the Churches be procure from it a large sum annually for the educa- | awakened to a sense of their duty in this matter? and tion of priests, whom she may disperse over the whole when will they perform it? When, casting aside country with the view of seducing the people from the quarrels which subsist among themselves, will their Protestantism, and again bringing in her own they, as one man, go forth to put to flight the armies' dark and despotic reign? We need scarcely further of the aliens ? Much is said in our day about Chrisremark that,
tian union; but not too much, if more were felt. The
strength of Rome is in her union. In action, she is III. The proposed measure is alarming and dis
not divided, but brings a united strength to bear upon couraging, when viewed in connection with the
the accomplishment of all her objects, and therefore prospects of Protestantism. These are at present she succeeds. Protestantism“ is divided against heranything but promising. Popery has not only the self," and how can she expect to stand? Her weak- | majority of the Governments of Europe on her side,
ness is in her divisions--her strength would return and is not only working through them, she is availing
were these but healed. herself of every means within her power which may
“ The Lord reigneth; let the earth rejoice." This assist her in the attainment of her object. Swarms is the comfort of all the true people of God in the of priests are at work—the Jesuits are at work-her midst of trouble, or in the prospect of it. And it missionaries are at work—the press is at work, tracts
ought to be our comfort now, as it shows us where being distributed in hundreds of thousands--and all
lies our strength. But let us not look for results withis under the direction of a master-hand. Enormous
out using means. Let us be much in prayer to him gums are annually raised to carry on the warfare, so
that he would arise and plead his own cause—that he that her coffers are never empty. And what is Pro
would show his servants what they ought to do, and testantism doing all the while? What plans are
give them grace and strength to do it. “ The Lord devised—what steps are taken wherewith to meet
reigneth; let the earth tremble." These are words the enemy, and batile him? Why, the first thing which seal the doom of Rome. The time is coming that now stares us in the face, as an answer to such
when she shall be made to drink “ the wine of question, is the fact that the chief Protestant Government of the world is doing what ?—is actually with which the Lord shall visit her. But let not
astonishment," and shall fall before the judgments helping Rome with influence and money to secure that
such a consideration make us lukewarm in the work. ascendency after which she is straining! And what
How many immortal souls is she now keeping in are the Protestant Churches doing? In our own
darkness and in bondage ! land, the Church of England has more than enough to do with a mass of Papists among her own clergy, all actively engaged in spreading Popish principles
SUDDEN DEATH. within her borders, under the guise of Protestant truths. And the other Churches, it may be said, [The remarkable circumstance this poem records are doing nothing, at least nothing aggressive. They
happened while a party of friends were debating have their missionaries to the heathen, and it is
which might be the most happy death.] well — they should double them; but when they see Rone making such rapid strides to supremacy, Which is the happiest death to die? that the world is “wondering after the Beast," what “Oh!” said one, “if I might choose, are they doing to withstand her? when they see Long at the gate of bliss would I lie, whole kingdoms already under her withering sway, And feast my spirit ere I fly and others likely 3oon to be in the same position, With bright celestial views. what are they doing to save them ? when the enemy Mine were a lingering death without pain is coming in like a flood, where is the standard which A death which all might love to see, they ought to lift against him ?-where are their And mark how bright and sweet would be missionaries to Popish countries ? Is it said these The victory I should gain. are shut against them? It is not so with them all. France is open; and how miserably inadequate are “Fain would I catch a hymn of love the means adopted for leading the many millions of From the angel-harps that ring above her people to the truth as it is in Jesus! Several of And sing it as my parting breath the kingdoms of the Continent are open, and what is Quivered and expired in death;
ON THE MUTUAL DUTIES OF MASTERS AND SERVANTS, &o. 79
So that those on earth may hear: 4
self, and over which he has but secondary conThe harp-notes of another sphere,
trol. Traffic has its place in the appointed And mark, when nature faints and dies, 1
constitution of the world, and by the excelWhat springs of heavenly light arise."
lence of that constitution, has much of self-cor
recting tendency, if left to its native, and, 1 may “No," said another, "no not I;
say, its divine operation. But if a blinded Sudden as thought is the death I would die;
policy has opposed itself to a beneficent ProviI would suddenly throw my shackles by,
dence, no mastercan annul national impediments Yor bear a single pang at parting,
by his solitary fiat, or act in the face of them, Nor see the tear of sorrow starting,
as if they had no existence. I make these reNor hear the quivering lips that bless me,
marks merely to draw a line of demarcation, Nor feel the hands of love that press me,
and show what may be reasonably asked of Nor the frame with mortal terror shaking,
masters individually. No doubt, federal grieNor the heart where love's soft bands are breaking; vances should be redressed, and such legislaSo would I die!
tion adopted as would place commerce on an All bliss without a pang to cloud it !
enlightened footing, and thus facilitate the All joy without a pain to shroud it!
keeping of all God's commandments. But, on Not slain, but caught up, as it were,
the duty of the State, or the subjects in relation To meet my Sariour in the air!
to the State, I do not here enter--first, Because So would I die!
it would take me too far away from the immeOh! how bright
diate subject which I proposed to consider; Were the realms of light,
second, Because the discussion would assume Bursting at once upon the sight!
too much of a political aspect for a religious Even so,
publication; and, third, Because I would be I long to go
in danger of relinquishing the common ground These parting hours how sad and slow !”
of fraternal co-operation;; for, while all will
admit that the powers of masters and servants His voice grew faint, and fixed was his eye,
to fulfil adequately the duties of their stations As if gazing on visions of ecstasy;
must be greatly affected by the shape and comThe hue of his cheeks and lips decayed
plexion which law has given to trade, all are Around his mouth a sweet smile played;
not agreed what the law should be, and how it They looked-he was dead!
may be amended. Conceding, then, that masters His spirit had fled
and servants cannot, as such, put everything to Painless and swift as his own desire;
right which affects the Sabbath injuriously, and The soul undrest,
leaving the best legislative means of making From her mortal vest,
the relationship happy and profitable, to the Had stepped in her car of heavenly fire,
distinctive province of the political economist, And proved how bright
I shall content myself with offering some sugWere the realms of light,
gestions, strictly religious in their character, Bursting at once upon the sight!
and such as all whom they concern may carry Ayox. into practice.
1. Beginning in this case, as in the former, ON THE MUTUAL DUTIES OF MASTERS with Masters, there is cause for congratulation in
AND SERVANTS IN RELATION TO THE seeing so general a cessation from business on SABBATH.
the Sabbath, throughout this country. We may
still know the day by its indications, and read BY THE REV. DAVID KING, LL.D., GLASGOW.
in a prevalent tranquillity, that it is a day of Having, in a former paper, considered the rest. But there are exceptions to this admisduties of masters and servants in private fami- sion. One of a gloomy character has been lies, I now proceed to speak of the relationship | lately added to the number. A great national as exemplified in public works.
undertaking has been made the occasion of Under this phraseology I include those who shocking the sacred impressions of religious are employed in shops and offices, as well as society, and coercing the servants of a powerful in mills, warehouses, and various kinds of large company into unwarrantable and desecrating manufacturing establishments.
labours. I am aware how all opposition to We cannot be explicit in saying how much railway travelling on Sabbath is jeered at by employers have here in their power. It would numbers, and especially by interested parties, be easy to say to them: “Give moderate work who maintain the innovation, as they introduced and plenty of wages, and you vill thus promote it with a high hand, and with uncompromising the moral improvement, as well as the temporal contempt of wounded conviction. But we are comfort of your workmen, and put them into a not to be deterred, in this manner, from speakposition exceedingly favourable to Sabbath-day ing honestly on an important question. If the observance.” This is easily said, but not so matter were “settled,” as some say, there might easily done. The master's system is moulded be little good in fruitless attempts to disturb to a vast extent by influences external to him- | its settlement. But the evil lamented is only
in its first stage. When railway communications tates, and exemplify that mercy of which they shall have been opened with England, the trains solicit the benefit. on all the Scotch lines will run on Sabbath; Apart altogether from the prolongation of coaches and steam-boats will be equally in ac- service, much evil has resulted from the timing tion, for the one accommodation would be im- of its remuneration. The payment of wages perfect without the other; and thus our whole on Saturday afternoon has not only produced country will be traversed" by lovers of plea- much dissipation throughout the evening of that sure” 'from its shores to its centre, from its day, but has extended, as might have been ancrowded cities to its secluded lakes, on that ticipated, its ruinous influence to the day fol
. sacred day, when the quiet of nature was wont lowing, and caused the Sabbath, and its instito reflect the peace-speaking efficacy of a gra- tutions to be trampled under foot. But other cious revelation. O that the calamity may still arrangements are now extensively adopted, and be arrested! The originators of it have gained we may hope that, ere long, they will obtain a victory; let them acquire the higher honour universally. To my own knowledge, the change of beneficent concession. There has been has been accompanied, in various cases, with enough of heat and temper. Let a spirit of the happiest results. Masters should not deem Christian conciliation be now cherished, and let it enough, however, to make good external ar that spirit appear in “remembering the Sab- rangements. It is of great importance that bath-day, to keep it holy.”
they should look into the moral condition of The rest of the Sabbath is entrenched upon their establishments, and endeavour to find out in other cases; and its causekess violation is and repress every demoralizing abuse. If any always, even on the smallest scale, to be un servants have it for their effort and their glory feignedly lamented. If a servant or clerk be to corrupt their fellow-servants, and more essimply sent for letters on the Lord's-day, no pecially to snare the young and inexperienced; ! special reason impelling to the action, the affair if this practice be carried on constantly, syr. may seem trivial; but it concerns and impugns tematically, and unblushingly, surely these are a great principle, and nothing is unimportant cases calling for intervention. An individual which militates against the whole claim of the who always inebriated himself, would be disSabbath, and unsettles, in a single mind, the missed from the works; but he who misleads impression of its sacredness.
others-he who diffuses pestilence in his every Where the Sabbath itself is not directly en- breath—who imprints curse with his every step croached upon, an equal amount of mischief is –surely a seducer like this is infinitely mor: done, in many cases, by the misimprovement of guilty, and infinitely more dangerous ! adjacent time, and especially by prolonging Nor should masters be careful only to disa business to unseasonable hours on Saturday courage immorality—they should do what in night. If young men and women are made to them lies to induce and further good conduct. toil all the day preceding the Sabbath, and, in- Might they not institute Sabbath schools for stead of being released sooner than usual from the children of workmen? Might they not their labours, to bring the mind into harmony facilitate attendance on day-schools for general with the season and solemnities before them, education ? Might they not evince sympathy are detained and toiled through the evening with their labourers, by giving special help till the eleventh hour is struck, or the very where it is specially needed? And where the midnight has been reached-how is such pre- hand of Death breaks the staff of life, migt. paration compatible with a becoming entrance they not visit the fatherless and the widow in on the Sabbath, or spirited fulfilment of its their afiliction? Above all, might they not set functions? It may be difficult at once, and in a pattern of Sabbath propriety and general every case, to change this system entirely; but, well-doing, in their own behaviour, before the at all events, a reform should be tried. What eyes of their servants? Without this, all other can be done should be done, and no effort expedients will go for little; and this stimulus. should be spared to undo the rigour of such even when alone, has a mighty influence. There cruel bondage. The evil of late business-hours, is no preaching of righteousness like the pracespecially on the Saturday night, is happily re- tising of righteousness; and if superior station ceiving an augmented attention; and all classes and godly demeanour, from being united in fact, should combine in promoting the improvement were to become associated in the public mind, in this province which has already commenced. it would be impossible to estimate the conse Let the sufferers from the abuse plead for quent benefit. Would that overseers put the redress respectfully, but unceasingly; let fami- averment to the test ! You are intent on gai: lies beware of deferring purchases to unseason- but nothing would be more lucrative than such able hours which can be made early; and let a
It secures the blessing that makes preference be given to those generous employers rich, and adds no sorrow. It belongs to that who listen to the calls of humanity, and peril godliness which has the promise of the life tha: their profits, or make an undoubted sacrifice in now is, and that which is to come.
Your pre acting kindly by their labourers. Is the cry sent elevation will cease; your enterprises will raised against exclusive dealing ?-Let them go down, or be carried on by others; all your show some conscience who appeal to its dic-coffers, empty or replenished, you shall sova