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COURAGE AND SPIRIT OF THE COVENANTERS.
Nor is the efficacy of the blood of Christ, as told us, we were pretty men: why would we throw a cure for an evil conscience, confined to any away our lives?-would we not take quarters ? To particular period. The man who, for the first which Sir John said: “ We disdain your quarters ! time, asks,“ What must I do to be saved ?" for we are appearing here for the Protestant religion,
and ye are fighting for Popery, for which ye ought to needs it, and is free to take it. The man who be ashamed. So he returned with his answer. In has, through grace, believed, but has been the meantime, we got into an old stone fold, which lacksliding in the ways of God, needs it, and is was a little defence to us. Sir John took the whole free to take it. The man who has long walked command upon him, and so divided us, and set one in the way of life, but who finds that in many gave orders to all to charge and make ready," and
half on his right hand, and the other on his left, and things he offends, and in all comes short of ordered those on his right hand first to receive the conformity to the law of God, needs it, and is enemy's fire, and after that not to fire till he gave free to take it. The man who has fallen into pre- them a sign by his napkin, and after the sign to fire sumptuous sin, and who has thereby inflicted on briskly, and then to take their halberts in their hands, his conscience a very deep and grievous wound, in case the enemy should attempt to come over the needs it, and is not shut out from it. In the
little stone dyke, and to defend themselves bravely;
and ordered those on his left not to tire when those view of this glorious truth may all say, in the
on his right fired, till once he gave them another language of the Psalmist : “ Purge me with sign, and then to fire close upon the enemy, and after hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, and I fire to take their halberts and defend themselves shall be whiter than snow."
from being trodden down,
The enemy approached, and we received their fire,
but fired none again till they came very near; and COURAGE AND SPIRIT OF THE then Sir John gave the sign to those on his right hand, COVENANTERS.
who gave a very close fire. The enemy, not know
ing but our shot had been done, attempted to come We resolved to mount ourselves with horses (being over the dyke, and break in amongst us, but the lads all well armed), and to ride straight toward England, on the right hand defended bravely. Then Sir John where we doubted not but Monmouth was prosper- gave the sign to those on the left, who tired furiously ing. But that troop of horse which we had put upon the enemy, so that several of their saddles were froin the water-side, got other two troops of militia, emptied, and amongst the rest Captain Cleland was and 20 came upon us, and disappointed us of our shot dead at the very dyke-side, so that they were desim. They coming within our view, we marched forced to wheel again. One of our lads stept over up to a farin-stead that stood upon the top of a brae, the dyke and pulled Cleland's scarlet coat off him, where there was a very pretty thorn hedge enclosing and put it upon the top of his halbert, and waved it a garden, into which we entered, and resolved there forgainst the enemy. They stayed a considerable time to stand for our defence. When we had waited a before they made another assault; and we put ourconsiderable time, and saw no appearance of their selves in a posture of defence, and loaded our pieces, approach, Sir John says: “ These cowardly rogues and made ourselves ready to receive them. We were dare not come and attack us in this strength. Come, ordered to behave ourselves as at the former onset. Sir let us go out and fight them in the open fields.". So John said: “They have now lost some blood; therehe divided his one hundred and fifty men into three fore they will make a vigorous assault; and therecompanies: himself to command one; and Polwart, fore, lads, take courage, and stand to it, for our cause another; and Major Henderson the third. So we is good." So at length they approached again, and marched directly towards them, who were drawn up we received them as formerly; and beat them from
in a plain, a little below the house; who, at the the dyke with the loss of more of their men. And if į very first appearance of us, fied and went quite my lord Ross had not had on harness, he would have
out of our sight. So we saw no more of them till gone the same way Cleland went; for the ball broke it was afternoon; by which time they had got other upon his hamese, and hurt him on the neck. They two troops, the one commande by my lord Rozs were so afrighted that they durst not give us the the other by Captain Cleland. These two, being fourth onset. The dyke did us good service, and detrained forces, were nuore forward than the country fended us much from their shot; for we were below gentlemen. They obyerved the way that we took, them. We had none killed in all this action, except and 80 cast about an hill, and came just before one man, who was shot through the bead, and two Us, and met us as we were coming up the hill. more wounded; besides Mr Archer, who was wounded We were marching in two men rank, the small at the first fire, before we came into the fold. After comnany that was then of us; for by this time this, they went to an old stone dyke, and the dragons we were decreased to threescore and ten-many | lighted from their horses, and stood behind the dyke, dropping off as they had opportunity. When we where they continued plufing and shooting without Frere advanced a good way up the hill, they came any harm to us, except that Sir Joho had two shot suddenly upon us, and after firing, thought to have which lighted upon his buff coat, which smarted ridden us down; but Sir John cries : “ Come up, my very much, but did not pierce his coat. After they lads, and stand' to it, and through God's grace I will were weary with shooting they gave over. Then bring you off.” Though there was little appearance Sir John said : “ It becomes us to bless God for our thereof, yet we took courage, knowing the worst of wonderful preservation.” lle desired we would be it. And after we had received their fire, we dis all in a watchiul posture; and, in the meantime, to charged upon them again very vigorously, and then go about the worship of God. And so he took a book betook us to our halberts (for every man of us had and sang the 46th psalm throughout, and after a halbert, besides special firelocks), so that we made that prayed pertinently. By this time our enemies them retire. There was no harm done on either side had guarded us round as a ring, but without reach of at the first fire; only Mr Thomas Archer, a young our shot. It was an exceeding cold day as ever I gentleman on our side, received a dangerous wound saw at that time of the year. I had thrown off my on the back, by which he was disabled, and lest lying big-coat when we first engaged; and being cold, I
went to seek it, where I found Mr Archer groaning Then my lord Ross sent one to treat with us, who | in his wounds. When I knew it was he, I was ex
on the yound.
as we can.
ceedingly troubled; he being an eminent Christian, night we had been without sleep, and with very little and my intimate. He was almost dead, what for meat. There was one of our company dropt asleep want of blood and for cold. He desired me to lift on the ground where we had been sitting. When him to the beild of a dyke, and cast something over we came to the house we did not miss him, his halhim—which I did; and got a cloak-bag and put under bert and his gun being with him. After we were his head, and laid a cloak about him. I told him I all lodged in the house he slept on, till some people
, could do no more for him at present, and that we passing by, could not awaken him, but carried biru
FR were all yet still in hazard of our lives; for we were sleeping to the first house they came to, and set down surrounded by the enemy. When I returned, I told his halbert and gun in the house beside him, there Sir John that Mr Archer was dying of his wounds, | being some lambs in the house for speaning. He who ordered several to go alongst and carry him to a slept there till it was well afternoon, and then he herd's house which was hard by, and give the people awakened, but knew not how he came there. He of the house money, desiring them to take care of thought we were either all taken prisoners, or then him. They received him very kindly; from which killed. So he lay down to take the other nap, till place he was carried afterwards by the enemy to there came a man to take out the lambs, who said: Edinburgh, where he was executed in the Grass-“ Friend, you lie not well here, you would lie better market; whose speech and testimony are in record amongst your neighbours !” He said : “Where are amongst the rest of the worthies who suffered for they? So the man brought him to us. But he owning the truth.
never knew who had carried him to the house, his After this, when it began to grow dark, Sir John sleep was so great. Then Polwart said, after we had said: “What think you of these cowardly rogues? got some meat: “I know ye have all need of sleep, They dare not fight us, for as small a number as we but of necessity four of you must watch, two at each are, but have a mind to guard us in till to-morrow, | barn-door, in case we be surprised by the enemy, to that the body of the king's forces come and cut us give warning to the rest. And the honest men will off; therefore, let us still behave ourselves like men" watch without, and give you notice if they see any (for indeed there were very pretty men amongst us, hazard." I offered myself for one, and other three that were expert both with sword and gun). “ Let us, did the like. And he desired that within two hours therefore, charge our pieces well, and let us go off we would awaken hiin, and he would cause relieve c; the field in a close body together, with as little noise which accordingly was done. We lay there all th:
If we escape them in the dark, it is well; day very safely, and saw regiments passing by within if not, let us fight our way through them.”
two miles, but none came near us. So at night ve We buried our dead man, and so made ready for a took our march again, having sent before to provide march, and so went off the field in a close body, but quarters for us. So we got a guide, who conducted! saw none of our enemies; for they were more afraid us safe to the place where we tarried next day, and of us than we were of them; for whenever it was sent some friends to inquire if they could get ang dark, they had left their ground and tied into Kil account of the Earl of Argyle, who would not cone marnock, as if there had been an host pursuing them; alongst with us over Clyde. 'In the evening they as the country folk told us afterwards. So when we brought us word that he was taken prisoner. Then had marched very hard for about a mile, Sir John Sir John called us all together, and told us thi said: “I think we are safely by them now”—we ap my lord was taken, and that we were now free from prehending them to be still keeping their ground. So our oath, and every one of us might shift for hinsel: we began to consider what to do next. And because the best way we could. So we had a lamentable many had left us the day before, Sir John took an parting.-Memoirs of Veitch and Brysson. oath of us, that we should not part one from another, without leave asked and given; and then asked, who amongst us knew the ground to be our guide. There
GERMANY_THE NEW CATHOLIC CHURCH. were none amongst us that knew it except himself, it being his father's ground that we were then on;
TUIRD ARTICLE. so he took the gniding of us himself. And so we We have already stated, that the character of the marched exceeding hard all that night, that so w documents issued by the Leipsic Council was not might be a good way off from the enemy; but when favourable, as an exposition of evangelical truth. Inday began to appear, that we saw about us, behold we had gone the round, and were come back within deed, whatever temporary injury may be done by any two miles of the place where we engaged the enemy! estrangement between the leading members, still
, Sir John said: “Woe is me! I have led you into a representing, as these do, principles so opposed, it is
I know not now what to do for it; for if we evident that any union or co-operation could only be keep the field the whole body of the forces will be effected at the expense of the truly spiritual charac upon us; 80 come of us what will, we must lodge in
ter of the movement. Accordingly, in various quarters, some house." There was a stead hard by, where two of his father's
the strongest opposition has been made to the decitenants lived. He caused us all sit down upon the sions of the Leipsic meeting, as wanting in the full ground, till he sent Major Henderson to acquaint statement of Gospel truth, and, as such, not fairlý the people that Sir John was there, and a company representing the real opinions of those who, while of men with him, and desired they might give us they heartily unite in opposing the errors and abuses quarters; and to tell them that, if they were quar
of Romanism, still desire to erect in its stead a sysrelled for it, we were a stronger party than they, and would take it by force; but they most willingly re
tem of positive scriptural truth, embracing the great ceived us. And there was a wonderful providence essentials of Christianity in the matter of the characin our being so near the place of engagement; for ter and work of Christ, and the relation of both to when they ranged all the country about, they came man’s condition as a sinner. In Berlin, the discus never near that place. The major had travelled all sions on this matter have been exceedingly animated that vight with a bullet shot in his left shoulder, some contending that there ought at once to be a sepa: and sticking like a plum within the skin, none knowing of it but himself; which was cut out when we
ration between the Rationalist
and Evangelical parties came to the house. We knew not whether meat or in the movement; while others were of the opinion sleep was most desirable; for that was the fourth that the time had not yet arrived for taking this step,
GERMANY-TIE NEW CATHOLIC CHURCH,
and that as in the Lutheran and Reformed Churches vain. The prize is well worth the combat. A CaIl differences of opinion as great did not lead to separa-tholic Church, such as that which Christ founded, tion, so, for the present at least, they should maintain the apostles taught, and the martyrs sealed with an unbroken front against the common enemy. What their blood, is the object of our struggle! Lord, may be the final settlement of the matter, time must lend us thine arm! May thy grace enlighten us ! prove. Meanwhile, we rejoice to notice the really | May thy light shine on our path! Amen." evangelical character of the influences at work in the To this protest of Czerski, a reply has been pubBerlin movement; of which the very fact of such a lished by those holding the opinions here denounced, step being seriously proposed, with the loose ideas of the substance of which is, that they deprecate such Church purity in doctrine, and discipline, and govern- discussions—that they were not prepared for this bold ment prevalent in the Prussian Church, is the most step on the part of Czerski, which must of necessity convincing proof. As a matter of course, the Catho- lead to fatal consequences, in so far as the unity of lic journals have magnified differences and dissensions the movement is concerned; and, finally, that on a J on a multiple ratio. They have even prophesied that matter which has proved a bone of contention to the the force of the movement was already spent, and Church in all ages, the Leipsic Council had no that its adherents would soon be found deneuncing right authoritatively to determine; while still enough each other more fiercely than they had done the comes out to show that they hold the ordinary Church from which they had apostatized. It may be Socinian theory of the character and work of Christ. remarked generally of such a movement as this, that And here, for the present, the matter rests. Reports if it must be judged of by a Continental, and not a have been industriously circulated of an open rupture
British standard; and one may be better enabled between Czerski and Ronge, but these turn out to be thereby to estimate its character and force from the quite groundless. Meanwhile, we are glad to observe dificulties to be met with and overcome by everything that Czerski is taking steps for the summoning of a that partakes at all of the nature of dissent.
synod for East Prussia, where his personal influence From the account which we bave already given of will naturally have its due weight. There seems no Czerski's character and opinions, it could not be doubt doubt that in all the congregations which he has been ful that he would strive to maintain the purity of the instrumental in forming, the strongest sympathy is creed of the New Church; and we rejoice to find him shown for his opinions against those of the Leipsic tow lifting up his voice against Rationalism, as he Council. In Breslau, also, steps are being taken for bad before done against the corrupt creed of Roman the more complete organization of the Churches in 2sm-against the system which would explain away its neighbourhood. what was divine, and accommodate it to fallible rea Having now said thus much of the character and son, as against the system which superadds to what doings of Ronge and Czerski, we have only to add a is divine that which is human, and strives to accom brief notice as to the other members of the New modate it to the self-righteous heart of fallen man. Church. In proportion to the number of congregaIn reference to the points at issue, he has addressed tions, which borders on two hundred, the number of a letter to the twelve Churches in his neighbourhood, priests who have seceded is, as yet, comparatively in which he says:
limited—not exceeding thirty-four; nor, indeed, is it "You have just cause to be offended that in a Con likely that large accessions will be obtained to their fession of Paith professedly Christian, Jesus Christ present number, until the Prussian or Saxon Governhimself, from whom alone it derives the appellation, ments be compelled openly to sanction the New should be passed over in silence. He forms the sole Church, by giving it the same legal privileges with the foundation of our faith; for why else are we called other Churches, not in the matter of State endowment, Christians ? If we regard Jesus Christ in the light of but as regards their purely ecclesiastical status-in a moral teacher merely, I really see no reason why the legal validity of their ordinances, and the like. Of the disciples of Confucius should not be received as the other clerical members of the new community, members of our communion; for truly it would not the three most noted are:-Dr Regenbrecht, profes| be easy to find fault with his system of morality, which sor in Breslau; Dr Schreiber, pro-rector of the Unitaught belief in God. But, verily, Jesus Christ is versity of Freiburg, in Baden; and Dr Theiner, who God! »
holds a high ecclesiastical office in the Cathedral, as After quoting the Apostles' Creed as his, he con also in the University of Breslau. cludes his letter thus:
1. Regenbrecht, in his letter to the suffragan bishop, " You see, brethren, that I hold the true apostolic states the high expectations which Catholics throughfaith, and that, far from desiring to impugn its vene out Europe were led to entertain, when, thirty years table, true, and unchangeable doctrines, I rather sum ago, the allied powers reinstated the Pope in his mon you all to their defence. Our aim is not to pull chair. They had expected that, in Germany, at down what God hath built, but rather to overturn least, the Pope could not find a body of men who that which men have raised, and falsely called the would blindly carry out his policy, if it should run work of God. We have awaked from sleep. Let counter to the true temporal or spiritual interests of the thorns and thistles be gathered into bundles and the country. These expectations were, however, at
Take unto you the armour of light and once proved delusive, when such men as Sailer, Hug, faith; lift up your voices to God, that his almighty Hermes, and others were denounced as deluding arin may protect us against all the powers of dark- teachers, though they were men who shone as bright ness, and his grace prove to us a brazen shield against examples to their fellow-countrymen, by their apostowhich the arrows of human opposition shall strike in | lic lives and untiring zcal in the investigation of Chris
tian truth. The power which the Pope had thereby ultramontane in its opinions, is yet sufficient to show acquired, was unscrupulously applied to the maintain that there can be but little truth in the report of his ing his own rule and that of his Jesuit general. The being a disciple of Sailer. Theiner, again, not conicut plain doctrine of the Gospel was accounted a dan- with a formal secession from the Church, has 16 gerous thing; nor could it be allowed to be given to iterated his former opinions, published a reply to the the flock, until it had been “recast into a system of address of Deipenbrock, and is actively engaged ia scholastic niceties and Jesuit ambiguities.” Then he disseminating, by word and deed, the principles which proceeds to allude to the exhibition of the Holy have determined him to take this final step. MeatCoat, which he denounces with great eloquence and while, he has published a liturgy for the use of the indignation, as the artifice of policy and superstition. New Church, which seems pervaded by the tra After praying that God would give them enlightened evangelical spirit; and he has at present in the pres princes, living in his fear, and preventing their sub a large work on Romanism, which cannot fail jects from growing lax in the good cause, and stating drawing the attention of the learned to this singiz that, if so blessed, there would be no ground to de movement. Let us pray that God would raise up Lea, spair of the fortunes of their country, as contrasted actuated by the true principles of the Gospel of with such lands as Italy or Spain, he concludes Christ, to guide a movement which, for good or eri, thus :
is daily becoming more formidable. “ The light of Christ's truth will always shine 4. As to the other members of the New Church, brighter and brighter through surrounding darkness, we know but little. Kerbler, we fear, is of the school if we pray God for it without ceasing, in spirit and of Ronge; Licht, again, who is stationed in Elberfeld, in truth. With these words, I sever myself from a seems to the full as evangelical as Czerski. He is a Church whose labours I cannot reconcile with the old man, who was deposed by the Archbishop of Tretes, Spirit of Christ. May God's help be with me in my for declaring his opinion, that his congregation should future course!”
not countenance the pilgrimage of the Holy Cost 2. Schrciber is a learned man, of high station and He closes his letter of demission thus:influence in Freiburg, and his accession has given a “It is devoutly to be hoped that the good Spirit of great impetus to the movement in Southern Germany. God, whose workings are even now visible in opening In his letter to the archbishop, he states that he has up the way of the Lord, will more and more establish felt himself called on to take this step, not only as a and bring near to us the kingdom set up on earth t; man and a Christian, but also as a teacher in the Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only Mediator be university. It is to be hoped that, by the accession tween God and man; and by bringing about an. of some such men, who have themselves been the confirming peace and love among all the confessar teachers of the Catholic youth, the cause will gra- of his name, hasten the fulfilment of his gloria dually force itself upon the attention of the learned, promise, that 'as there is but one Shepherd, so there as well as the common people. In 1831, Schreiber shall be but one sheepfold."" published a book on Christian ethics, in which he Of the documents published by the separate cos boldly protests against the celibacy of the clergy; for gregations, the most satisfactory are those of Elberwhich, as he refused to recant, he was removed from feld and Unna; both of which are characterized by a the faculty of theology, and became an ordinary pro truly evangelical spirit. An admirable letter, fe: fessor in the university. Since his separation, merly noticed, has been drawn up by the orthodox Schreiber has placed himself at the head of the new section of the Berlin congregation, which contails community there, and is actively engaged in dissemi an excellent exhibition of the truth as it is in Jesus nating his opinions.
The authors of it protest against the anti-ecriptura 3. But by far the most important secession which character of the sentiments embodied is the Leipsi has yet taken place, is that of Dr Theiner of Breslau. Confession and Articles, especially He is avowedly one of the most distinguished of the character of Christ as a divine person, and his work az Catholic theologians of Germany, and has, besides, Mediator. After stating their own views on what played a principal part in the ecclesiastical affairs of they regard as the turning-point of every Confession, Silesia. It is currently stated that he was, at one they proceed :time, in the confidence of the leading Jesuits; and, “Our protest is neither the offspring of foreign inaccordingly, the most extraordinary efforts have been fuence, nor of self-conceit and pride. Our cole but making to retain him in the communion of the all-engrossing object is the salvation of the immortal Church. Of late years, his views have been greatly souls of those who are committed to our care, as well modified; and as the expression of them, he publish as of all who will listen to our warning voice; and, ed an elaborate pamphlet, which created consider therefore, we join to our protest an earnest entreats able sensation at the time, on the reform of the to all who share our sentiments, to separate themselves Church. The report has been currently circulated, from a movement whose tendency is evinced in the that the newly appointed prince-bishop of Breslau published creed, and to unite with us in trying to at one time entertained similar sentiments, and ac realize the true idea of a truly reformed Church, a? tually had a long correspondence with Theiner, as to therefore genuinely Christian Catholic Church. We the best
method of producing such a reform in the stand on the positive foundations of Christianity"on German Church as would secure it-the support of all the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesut its best friends. As matters stand at present, the Christ himself being the chief corner-stone!' Whattwo parties are directly at issue. The bishop has soever in the traditions of the Church is found 1/4 published his pastoral address, which, though not to coincide with the Scriptures of the Old and Net
as regards the
Testaments, we unhesitatingly relinquish; but all press is just a large, coarsely made, wooden box or shall be retained which is proved to be in unison with trough, with a spout to carry off the juice. Two tbem. .. These are solemn times, and such as call men and sometimes four mount into the press, and for decision, more especially in circumstances in with their bare feet vigorously tread the grapes—the which indecision must prove the most deadly foe. juice, which is called must, making its escape by the An act is called for, which may promote the salvation spout into the vessel placed to receive it. These naked of many, and, perhaps, by God's help, pave the way feet are sometimes none of the cleanest; but non imfor that noble unity, after which the believing faith-porte, there are worse things in cookery. Sometimes ful of all ages and lands have earnestly longed." they have music, which makes the men prance (To be continued.)
famously. When they have got all the juice which
they can out of the grapes by treading them with FORSAKING ALL FOR CHRIST. their feet, they collect the husks into a heap in the
form of a cheese in the middle of the wine-press; this BEFORE thy throne we daily meet, As joint petitioners to thee;
they wrap round with a rope to keep the heap of husks In spirit we each other greet,
together. This rope is oftentimes made of the roots
of the vine, and sometimes of ivy. When the heap And shall again each other see.
of husks is thus prepared, by being wound with the The heavenly hosts, world without end, Shall be my company above;
rope, a short strong stick is laid across the top of it. And Thou, my best and surest friend,
Everything about the wine-press has a name given Who shall divide me from thy love?
to it by the country-people, and this stick they call
the juiz or judge. Upon it they lay a piece of strong BAXTER.
board, which covers the whole head of the heap; on
this board is placed a log of wood which they call NOTES ON MADEIRA.
porco (or the pig), and other smaller logs, called porBY THE REV. J. J. WOOD.
cinhos (or little pigs), are placed upon it to any number
required. A strong pressure is then applied by means NO. II.
of a huge beam fastened at one end, and having a THERE are several things in Madeira which strike heavy stone suspended at the other, and elevated and one, from the illustration which they furnish of Scrip- lowered by means of a screw exactly like a chceseture statements. 1. One sees, that “it is hard to kick press. against the pricks” (Acts ix. 5), when one witnesses When all the juice which can be obtained by this the oxen and their drivers on the beach, and in the pressure has run off, the beam is raised, the heap of streets of Funchal. All draught is done in Madeira husks is spread on the bottom of the press, and the men by oxen; horses are used only for riding. The oxen again with redoubled vigour attack them with their are of a large dun breed, with immense horns. The bare feet. The exertion at this time is very violent, and horns are almost universally perforated at the tip, brings vividly to one's mind that striking passage in and have a thong passed through the hole, by which Isa. lxii. 24: “Wherefore art thou red in thine apthe animals are led and tied up in the stable. Two parel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the of these oxen are yoked to a very primitive sledge wine-fat? I have trodden the wine-press alone; and (for there are no wheeled carriages), consisting of of the people there was none with me: for I will little more than a strong broad plank, somewhat tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my hollowed out on the upper side. A man or boy goes fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my before, encouraging the oxen by his cries, which garments, and I will stain all my raiment. For the usually are not spared; and another man goes behind day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my armed with the prick or goad. This is a pole hooped redeemed is come.” Woe be to the enemies of Jewith iron, having inserted into it a peg of iron pro- hovah, when he shall tread them in his anger, and truding about half an inch. With this the drivers trample them in his fury, as the treader in the wine
urge on the oxen, and when angry, which is too often press furiously trampleth the refuse of the grapes ! 1 the case, strike it into them with great fury. Were After being thus thoroughly pounded, the husks ; the animal to kick out against this instrument, it are again made up into a heap with the rope round would be an unavailing expression of rage, hurtful it, and subjected to the pressure of the press as before, only to itself.
when all the juice possible to be obtained is squeezed 2. Wine-making is a very important matter'in out. Sometimes, after this, the men throw a pailful Madeira. When the grapes are ripe, which is in the of water upon the husks, and after stirring them and month of September, they are gathered in baskets by pounding them with their feet, subject them to the the women and children. When a superior wine is press once more. By this they get a thin, weak wine, wished, the grapes are allowed to hang on the vines which they call aqua de pé or foot-water, and which till they are very ripe-almost raisins. By this means, the common people drink like small beer. whilst the quantity is diminished, the quality is im The juice or must pressed from the grapes is immeproved; and, further to improve the quality, women diately put into casks, and in the course of a few days are sometimes employed to go over the bunches after a strong fermentation commences. The husks, after they have been gathered, and with scissors cut out having been cleansed from the stalks, are sometimes any unripe grapes which they may meet with. put into the casks along with the must. This is
The grapes are then put into the wine-press, of particularly the case with the red wine, which gets which there is one in every vineyard. The wine- its red colour, not so much from the juice of the red