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sengers, and invalids frequently receive in them earlier stages, that benefit can be expected from very little of the care and attention which they a temporary residence in Madeira. Many leato require, whilst the expense is the same as that this country and go out to Madeira too late by the regular and comfortable sailing packets when they are far gone in disease. And then i from London.

comforts are not awanting to such, and many There are a number of very comfortable attentions are paid to them, still they have ne boarding-houses in Funchal, of which a consi- the comforts of home-they want the presti. » derable proportion of the visitors avail them- and soothing attentions of loving and beloved selves. The usual charge for board is fifty dol- kindred. They come to the island exhaustri lars, or rather more than £10 per month; and by the fatigues of a voyage which, in their state it is generally required that an engagement be of weakness, they were little able to bear, asi made for three or four months. There is no they droop and die among strangers, their hear. such thing as lodginys, where a person might yearning for their kindred and their home. engage rooms, and provide his own food-a There is a Free church and an Episcopus state of matters which has been felt is a great chapel in Funchal; but of these more her disappointment by sundry who have had occa after. sion to visit Madeira. Many of the visitors We have occupied this paper with brief notes prefer taking a furnished house, engaging their of information, which perhaps may be useful a own servants, and living as they choose. A some who may have occasion to think of guir: furnished house may be had for from two hun out to Madeira. We had some doubt wherbe dred and fifty or three hundred dollars, up to these notes were suitable for the “ CHRISTUS seven hundred dollars for the season; if taken TREASURY,” but it seems not inconsistent wios for the year, a small addition is made to these the kindness which we owe to one another,

This is the most economical and com- contribute in any measure to allay the anxietic fortable way for a family, and even for two or and smooth the way of those who are advisni three individuals who may find it convenient to visit that distant island, and to whose inerand agreeable to join together.

perience and want of knowledge the undertakThere is scarcely any level ground in the ing appears not a little formidable and difficub. neighbourhood of Funchal; and this, together This must be our apology. From experiece with the nature of the climate, makes walking we know the value of hints, however meagre. by no means a suitable exercise for invalids; Often was I deeply struck, during my resand, indeed, it does not seem to be much in dence in Madeira, with the difference betwer! favour wiih any class of the British. All ride, men's care for the life of the body and thand though the up-hill and down-hill nature of care for the life of the soul. I saw my country. the roads, and their skirting course along the men and countrywomen coming out to that ir edge of ravines and precipices, make many, at island, leaving behind them beautiful residences first, feel a little nervous, it is surprising how -happy homes-beloved kindred. I witnessed soon the most timid get accustomed to the exer them undergoing much trouble and fatigue, and cise, and how much they come to enjoy it. incurring a great expense, which, in some inBoating is also much recommended for invalids, stances, could be but ill afforded; in short, and a good deal practised by a number of them. doing everything that possibly could be dore, Both horses and boats can be had to hire on either by exertion or sacrifice, for the restora reasonable terms.

tion of their health, and the prolongation of With regard to the benefit to be derived from their life; and rightly so. the climate of Madeira, much, under God, de But how seldom do we witness anything of pends on the state of the health when the the kind with regard to the health and the life patient goes out to it. When nothing more of the soul! How far from being general is a than a tendency to chest complaint is mani- thorough sacrificing earnestness to have cured fested, decided advantage may be derived—the the disease of sin—to avoid spiritual death, tendency may be warded off, the health estab secure spiritual life! As I liave pondered the lished, and the constitution confirmed. There striking difference between the one and the are many cases, too, where disease seems to other, often have our Saviour's words occurred have commenced, in which, by escaping from to me: “ The children of this world are, in their our chill, variable climate, and by a residence generation, wiser than the children of light." of a year or two in the mild, equable climate of Will the reader of these sentences think how it Madeira, disease seems to be entirely checked, is with him in regard to this matter? and a large measure of health is afterwards enjoyed. And even where disease has made such

JERUSALEM. progress as to make cure hopeless, many instances occur which life is apparently pro- (Continued from Ewald's Journal of Missionary Leveri longed for many years by a continuous resi

in the City of Jerusalemi"). dence in Madeira, with, it may be, an cccasional visit, during the summer, to our own The number of the resident inhabitants in the country. Still, beyond all question, it is orly on

Hoły City amounts to about eighteen thousand souls the threatening of pulmonary discase, or in its of whom there are eight thousand who profess the

POPULATION.

THOMAS BILNEY, THE MARTYR.

375

Mohammedan religion; six thousand are Jews; and Alchawatshad” - the Bazaar of the Gentlemen, four thousand Christians of various creeds, namely, where they sell various articles, chiefly for the use of Greeks, Armenians, Syrians, Latins, Copts, Abys- the Arabs. sinians, and Protestants. During the time when the Learning is at a very low ebb with them. There pilgrims are in Jerusalem, which is from December are few who know the grammar of their own lanto April, the number increases to twenty-eight thou guage. As to arts and sciences, they are not known. sand.

They have several public schools, where the boys,

squatted on the floor, are taught to read the Koran. THE JEWS.

Their girls are never sent to school, nor is it conThe Jewish quarter is on the declivity of Mount sidered necessary that the females should visit the Zion towards the east, opposite Moriah.

mosques, or attend any kind of public worship. It The Jews were not permitted to settle perma- is, however, one of their chief duties to visit the nently in the capital of their own country, till it was tombs of their departed relatives, to keep them in conquered by the Mohammedans; from that time they repair, and to whitewash them. The Mohammedan have increased almost annually, till their number has believes that the soul of every true Moslem goes to amounted to six thousand souls. The quarter in a happy place till the day of resurrection, when it which the Jews reside, comprises only the twentieth will be reunited to the body, and then enter Paradise. part of the town; and if the whole city were in- Every Friday the soul visits the grave of its respechabited in proportion to that quarter, Jerusalem tive body. You see, therefore, on that day, the would have a population of one hundred and twenty burial-ground covered with Mohammedan fernales, thousand.

who converse with the souls of their departed friends The Jews in Jerusalem form two distinct bodies, as if they actually saw them. They tell them all their the Spanish community, and the German community. family concerns, all the news of the day, and at evenThe former are the most numerous, natives of the ing take leave, with the promise to gee them soon country, subjects of the port, and are under the again, jurisdiction of their own chief Rabbi, who is the

TIIE LEPER VILLAGE. head of the civil as well as the ecclesiastical court, and bears the title of “Hakkam Pasha.” They Near the Zion gate is the wretched village of the have four commodious synagogues, and several col miserable lepers. This unfortunate and pitiable leges.

race consists of about one hundred. They are comThe German Jers are those who have emigrated pelled to live separate from all, intermarry, and are from various parts of Germany, Poland, and other thus allowed to propagate their miseries from one places in Europe to the Iloly Land. They enjoy the generation to another. The malady appears geneprotection of their respective consuls, and are on that rully when they are about twelve or fourteen years account less oppressed by the local government. old, and increases every year till they lose literally

They, again, are divided into two distinct com one limb after the other; as they grow older their munities. Thé Perooshim (Pharisees), and Chasi- sight fails, their throat and lungs become infected, dim (Pious). Each of these communities possesses

till death ends their protracted sufferings. They two synagogues, and is governed by a chief Rabbi. live upon charity, which they receive from the pil

Generally speaking, the Jews in the Holy City are grims and other persons.
all learned men, whose chief occupation consists in
studying Jewish literature. In fact, they are inain-
tained on that account, and for that purpose, by all

THOMAS BILNEY, TIE MARTYR. the Jews over the whole world. Contributions are sent to Jerusalem from all the quarters of the globe,

BY TIIE REV, JOIN FAIRBAIRN, ALLANTON. which are divided among all according to established laws and regulations. The various synagogues send also their messengers,

Some have denied Christ; some have died for him; from time to time, abroad to collect inoney. There

some have both denied him and died for him. Judas are thirty-six Jewish colleges in Jerusalem, in which denied him from want of principle—he had not faith: the professors who teach, and the students who learn, Peter from pressure of temptation-his faith failed are paid. These colleges are maintained by certain him for the time; yet his faith was habitually strong funds accumulated by legacies which have been left by pious Jews for that purpose.

-as strong as his heart was warm and his affections On that account few Jews in Jerusalem follow any

ardent. “A proud look before a fall;" this was trade, except those without which the Jewish com- strongly exemplified in the case of Peter.

“ What? munity could not exist, as bakers, butchers, and deny thee? Surely this love I am conscious of togrocers; for, according to their law, they must pur wards thee shall carry me through fire and flood chase their bread, meat, and various other articles of with thee. Though all should deny thee, yet shall

Think not so unworthily, O Having less care for the things of this world, they

I never deny thee. spend much time in devotional duties. They rise at | Lord, of thy servant." The disciple was counting midnight to perform the prayer appointed for that upon his own strength; he had forgotten that it is only time.

through grace that any man can stand. Being full

of this self-confident spirit--we may call it this carBezetha, situated to the north-east, may be called nal pride—what a poor part did he act when it came the Mohanimedan quarter, for it is entirely inhabited to the extremity? Not silently denying Christ by Moslems, and encloses the most ruinous part of not, by giving no answer to their questions, tacitly the town. They are the lords of the land; are proud, admitting their charge; but with stormy words giving overbearing, and fanatic; style themselves "effen

it a flat contradiction. His passion getting up, too, dim"-noblemen, though there is very little of nobility about them. The nine soap manufactories of amongst his fears, he curses and swears, as one would the city, the oil presses, and the above-mentioned suppose, to give them a proof of what he said, leavleather factory, are in their hands. They possess, ing them to infer (if, indeed, he was at the moment

one bazaar exclusively, called the “ Sook capable of reasoning) that one with so foul a tongue

the Jews.

THE MOHAMMEDANS.

likewise,

could never have been associated with the Lord tive doctrines, as they called them, were soon picked Jesus, as one of his disciples. So it went on till the out, and the alarm raised. “ We are here to guard crowing of the cock, when the words of his Master the purity of the faith, and such weeds must be coming to mind, smote him dumb with remorse; and rooted out." They accordingly complain to Wolsey, the look of Jesus—a quick glance cast towards him who was not slow in appointing a tribunal for the clove his heart, and stuck in it like a two-edged trial of the man who disturbed the peace.

* This," sword. He could no longer deny Christ. He could says one of the biographers of Latimer, “ was in bear no more.

He went out and wept bitterly. The 1527, and Tonstall, Bishop of London, a man of mild tradition of Peter's death is doubtful. During his character, laboured so effectually with Bilney, as to life, as every one knows, he, on several occasions, prevail upon him to make a public abjuration." The gave good proof that, being now strong in the faith, same is noticed by Latimer, in his own quaint way, and full of godly zeal, he was ready to endure all in one of his sermons. His text is, Luke xxi. 25-3 things--death itself-on behalf of his Saviour and Speaking of the evil times mentioned in the text, the glorious work of preaching the Gospel, to which amongst many other things, he says: “Men shall be he was commissioned.

wonderful, fearful—they shall pine away for fear; Peter was not singular in his denying of Christ, and no doubt these shall be good men which shall and afterwards bitterly and sincerely repenting of be thus troubled with such a fear of this day; for his great wickedness –suffering all sorts of persecu- you know the worldlings they care not for that day; tion almost, for Christ. In the records of the mar yea, they scant will believe that there shall be tyrs like instances frequently occur. There is the such a day--that there shall be another world—or at case of Bilney, for example—“ Little Bilney,” as the least way, they would not wish that there should Latimer affectionately calls him. He suffered in the be another world; therefore they shall be godly men days of Bloody Mary, with many others of Christ's which shall be so used, to be tokens unto the world faithful witnesses who were then thinned out. He And no doubt there hath been here in England many was an ardent spirit, with a heart overflowing with already which have been so vexed and turmoiled love to Christ-a most zealous labourer in the Gos- with such fear. That same Master Bilney which was pel vineyard—not easily daunted—not readily to be burned here in England for God's Word's sake, was inturned aside from his purpose-which was, through duced and persuaded by his friends to fear [abjure] the help of God, to win precious, immortal souls. It a faggot at the time when the Cardinal [ Wolsey) was was dangerous work, in those days of Rome's triumph, aloft, and bore the swing." to preach the everlasting Gospel; and still more dan Bilney, like Peter, has denied his Lord. Through gerous at Cambridge, one of the strongholds of Rome's the fear of martyrdom, by the persuasions of Toxcamp, where almost all were sworn liegemen of Anti-stall, and whosoever else, he has made public recanchrist, with their eyes and ears eagerly set against tation, and is sent down again to his college at Camthe truth, from whatsoever quarter it might come. bridge, to live quietly and enjoy what peace he can. Bilney was a Cambridge student, and his zeal found We must follow him there, and watch him, and see out many ways to publish the Gospel amongst his if he had peace. He was thoroughly persuaded of fellow-collegians, the sick, and in the prison. It two things-of justification by faith alone, and of the was through his instrumentality that Latimer, at the Antichristianism of the doctrires of Rome. Not only time covered with renown, and the stoutest Papist persuaded intellectually—he was a true and sincere among them all, was brought to the knowledge of believer in Christ. What torments has he prepared the truth as it is in Jesus. Here I have occasion," for himself!-worse than the prison, the gibbet, or the says Latimer (in his first sermon on the Lord's stake. He has denied his Lord-sold him-crucified Prayer), who frequently makes mention of Bilney, him afresh-put him to an open shame. He cannot and always with true warmth of feeling, “ to tell you rest. It is as if he had the worm of hell in his a story which happened at Cambridge. Master Bil-bosom. Day or night no rest for him. He is pined ney, or rather Saint Bilney, that suffered death for to a shadow, and has become deadly pale. No man God's Word's sake, the same Bilney was the instru can relieve his suffering. “A wounded spirit who ment whereby God called me to knowledge; for I can bear?" He does not want for human sympathy. may thank him, next to God, for that knowledge I Many love him; there are several with him who were have in the Word of God. For I was as obstinate a converted, or built up, through his labours. One or i Papist as any was in England; insomuch, that when other is often with him in his chamber; sometimes I should be made Bachelor of Divinity, my whole ora singly-sometimes together. They strive for him in tion was against Philip Melancthon, and against his prayer. Every comfortable passage is searched out of opinions. Bilney heard me at that time, and per-Scripture, and brought to him. “God is faithful; all ceived I was zealove without knowledge; and he his promises are true. Let all God's people be sure to came to me afterward in my study, and desired me comfort themselves with them—they cannot fail; for God's sake to hear his confession. I did so; and but as for me I have betrayed Christ; for a little to say the truth, by his confession I learned more worldly ease I have sold him. I have dug for myself than afore in many years. So from that time for a piace in hell.” And so he could take no comfort, ward I began to sinell the Word of God, and forsook and remained day and night, for twelve months, in the school doctors and such fooleries."

most dreary, comfortless despair. “An irksome thing The heads of houses, and other rulers of the uni- and an horrible image must that needs be that is versity could not remain long blind to what was pass brought in by such a thing so hated by God; yea, this ing so near them. Bilney's heretical and destruc- l face of death and hell is so terrible, that such as have

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NO. 11.

been wicked men, had rather be hanged than abide more to say: 'We have a law, and by our law he it. As Alithopliel, that traitor to David, like an ought to die.'" ambitious wretch, thought to have come to higher It so turned out-Bilney was condemned, and during promotion, and therefore conspired with Absalom the time that ran between his condemnation and against his master, David;-he, when he saw his execution many resorted to him, with whom he held counsel took no place, goes and hangs himself, in much comfortable intercourse, exhorting them to contemplation of this evil-favoured face of death. perseverance in the faith, and strengthening them Judas, also, when he came with ambushments to take out of the Scriptures, which he expounded much to | bois master, Christ, in beholding this horrible face, their edification. He had with him much of the hanged himself. Yea, the elect people of God, the near and most precious company of his Saviour, and faithful, having the belolding of this face (though at the stake was greatly upheld, sealing his testimony God hath always preserved them--such a good God with his blood, and passing through the cruel flanes is he to them that believe in him, that he will not to the rest prepared for the people of God. suffer them to be tempted above that they are able to bear'), yet for all that, there is nothing that

SPAIN-POPERY. they complain more sore than of this horror of death.

I knew a man myself, Bilney, little Bilney, that
| blessed martyr of God, what time he had borne his
faggot (abjured) and was come again to Cambridge, MORAL AND RELIGIOUS CHARACTER OF THE
had such conflicts within himself, beholding this

PRIESTHOOD. image of death, that his friends were afraid to let But what is the character of the priesthood? This him be alone; they were fain to be with him day is a point of chief importance. They form a very and night, and comforted him as they could; but no numerous body in Spain; they exert an immense intiucomforts would serve. As for the comfortable places ence upon others, and they may be expected to reflect, of Scripture, to bring them unto him, it was as most exactly, the spirit and tendency of the religion though a man would run him through the hcart with of which they are the administrators. It is no breach & sword." *

of charity, with the evidence which we possess before Out of this fearful state Bilney was at length de us, to say that there is among the ecclesiastical body livered. He was again restored to peace and com much ignorance and irreligion, infidelity and imiofort. The countenance of his gracious Redeemer rality. If the condition of the people at large be so shone in upon his soul, and filled it with abundant wretched as the facts which have been quoted attest, joy. He immediately took his resolution. He found it is not to be expected that their teachers would be that it would not do for him to remain silent-he must blameless; there is too close a connection between be

ир and about his Master's work. In the hall of the parties to allow us to entertain this idea for a Trinity College, he one evening took farewell of his moment; but let us advert for a little, on the autho | friends, never again to return to their society, though rity of the Rev. Mr Rule, to the moral and religious l it so turned out, in the dealings of Providence, that condition of the people generally, before tracing it

Latimer and he were afterwards associated in prison. up to the character of their priesthood. From Cambridge, he hastened into Norfolk, his The scientific ignorance even of educated men is native county, and preached the Gospel, first in marvellous. It seems as if Providence had allowed private houses, and then openly in the fields. In this some countries, and particularly Spain, to come down work he was not long engaged until he was appre to modern times nearly as they were in the middle ages, hended, and put upon his trial. Of the details of the better to show what was the real state of things his trial we do not stop to give an account; nor of at that period, and to put to the blush the foolish the answers which, by writing and otherwise, he gave admiration which is often expressed for these ages. to the charges brought against him. During his im- The design, at least the result, serves also to show the prisonment he corresponded with Latimer, who was real character of Popery when unchecked by the also in prison, and at first kept in a separate apart presence of Protestantism. Our author gives a ludi

ment, although afterwards he, and Bilney, and Cran crous instance of ignorance in the medical departi mer, were confined in the same chamber—the prisonment. One of his children having become seriously

becoming crowded by many recent arrestments. The ill, from the carelessness of the nurse allowing it to letters that passed between them are very interest- take poison, a doctor was called, of whom he says: ing. The reader will find some of them in Fox. One

“ A pompous practitioner prescribed, but so ridicuextract of a letter of Latimer to Bilney we quote, as lously, that his treatment may be mentioned in illuscharacteristic of its writer and of the times. Bilney tration of the wretched state of the healing art in was consulting him as to the defences he should put Spain, or rather the empiricism which unworthily in. “ Better," writes Latimer, “a few things well assumes the name. An emollient syrup steeped in pondered, than to trouble the memory with too much. white wine, to be laid on the stomach, were preYou shall prevail more with praying than with study- scribed as remedies to neutralize the effects of mineing, though mixture be best; for so one shall alleviate ral poison !” Thus does Popery, where pure and the tediousness of the other. I intend not to contend unbroken, drag down the interests of man in every nuch with them in words, after a reasonable account form, whether temporal or eternal. It is the foe of of my faith given; for it shall be but in vain. They science as well as of true Christianity. But to refer will say as their fathers did, when they have no to the higher interests of our nature—what can be * Latimer-7th Sermon before Edward VI.

more melancholy than the combined irreligion and

infidelity proclaimed in such a statement, as that I low; and nothing was to be heard for an hour afterseven-ninths or seven-tenths of the population of waris but jests, at the expense of His Majesty,' Seville do not observe even the forms of religion as they call the host, which might have been amusing Where these forms include the mass and the contes- ' enough if the holy names of God and Christ had not sional, in one sense we may say it is of little conse- been associated in monstrous and disgusting blue quence, in some respects an advantage, that they are phemies.”—P. 205. We may add a more genera] not observed; but when it is remembered that there' statement. After being at the capital (Madrid), is no antagonist Protestantism to provide for the and revolving all he had seen on the way, our multitudes thus loose from Rome–that utter careless author says: “I felt painfully convinced that the ness, infidelity, and hopelessness, must bear an un great mass of the people were abandoned to idlenes divided sway-the fact, at least, is deeply affecting. and vice. They had learned to despise, and hai Mr Rule was informed, that out of a population of been driven to hate, the long-established superstition ninety thousand, not less than seventy thousand were | Infidelity had spread berond all that a stranger entire strangers to religious ordinances; and he could have imagined. Here was no merely blank alds: “ What is affirmed of Seville may be presumed ignorance, but inveterate wickedness, luxuriating in of all the chief towns of Spain;” and even of those wild and horrible excess. It seemed as if missions who wait upon the ordinances of the Romish Church, in Pagan Africa could not be so difficult as in this it is more a form than anything else. On entering nominally Christian country.”—P. 169. the cathedral, “ a few penitents, dispersed over the One need not wonder, after such representations as floor, were dimly seen to be kneeling, and as we these, that there should be great indifference to the passed them, they were heard to whisper by tale, and I life of others, and that little should suffice to proroke in a hurried manner, forms of words which, even if men to draw the dagger and stiletto. A still more understood and felt, could scarcely be designated melancholy picture is supplied in the following prayers, though at first sight an uninformed stranger sentences :might have admired them, as very models of dreotion.” * One characteristic of Heathens, given by the There can be little doubt that this latter observation apostle when he calls them arte you (* without natural explains much of the Popish devotion which hasty affection ') is powerfully illustrated in Spain. On travellers often attribute to Rome, to the disparage our way from Madrid to Valencia, our attention was ment of Protestant worshippers. Our author else- directed to an old letter-carrier, who followed the where remarks, that the rubrics and ceremonials of diligence for the sake of the armed escort which acthe Church so abound in matters of management, companied us. A few days before, he had been “ prescribing, to the minutest movement, the whole stopped on the road by a party of robbers, as he was mockery of devotion, that no one who has but travelling the way with his son, a fine young man; glanced over these directories can be affected by the the latter resisted the robbers, and was killed on the appearance of recerential awe which is assumed by the spot. The stones were yet stained with his blood when priests and the better drilled part of the people, when we passed by. It was said that he looked on with they appear in public."

apparent indifference; expressed no horror or grief at Speaking of Seville at a later day (March 1838), he the murder of the son of his right hand, who had says: “ The changes of the preceding three years had served him;' but, after all was over, coolly asked the produced a very visible effect. Infidelity, the vigo murderers for a cigar, and smoked it out in their rous daughter of the Babylonian harlot, seemed to be company!" strangling her ancient mother. The theatres were Who could have imagined the possibility of such a open in Lent, as it was said they had never been be scene in the west of Europe? Ah! for how much is fore; and it was also reported that on the last corpus Popery responsible, which, directly or indirectls

, Christi day, many of the people displayed their con carries men hearing the name of Christ, back to the tempt, by keeping on their hats while the host was feelings and the practices of the worst Paganism? carried in procession." Of the three thousand stu We now turn to the PRIESTHOOD. They are prol: dents at the university, “the greater number are giously numerous, as might, indeed, have been inferred said to be Infidels.” Writing of Grenada, another from their annual revenue. A few years ago, they large and ancient town, and on a similar occasion, Mr were two hundred and sixty thousand in number, of Rule says: “ The day was spent in conversation on one in fifty of the population.

Every fiftieth per religious subjects; but trifling and blasphemy were son met in Spain is an ecclesiastic! 90 natural to the persons with whom I met, that they character? It may be gathered from the old maximwere incapuble of perceiving any impropriety in “Like priest, like people” reversed into “Like people, language which, to me, was most disgusting; and in like priest,” only that they are worse than the people, this respect they were an undisyuised specimen of the inasmuch as they have the means of knowing better, mass of Spanish society.” He then describes the pro-, and are bound, as the guides of others, to be of higher cession of the host, which was conducted with great excellence. Their ignorance of theological literature pageantry.

“ The soldiers lined the way, and as and learning is great. There is not, according to Mi their deity approached, they laid down their arms Rule, in the Spanish language one standard work of and knelt. Many of them hinted their contempt by a Hebrew criticism; and the science of Biblical intersarcastic grin, and I heard one of them say: • They are pretation, judging from conversation with the most rrying the bread to the oven.' Some accident be- learned ecclesiastics, including Amat, the bishop who,

he wafer. This afforded,” adds Mr Rule, “ no a few years ago, was engaged in the translation of the inerriment to the mob-nay, to high as well as Scriptures with notes, has yet to begin. In the <

What is their

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