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with stems from heaven. Do you desire to corruptible shall have put on incorruptiou, and know whether he has succeeded in regard to you, this mortal shall have put on immortality, then and whether, after you are removed from this shall be brought to pass the saying that is writnursery below, you shall be reckoned meet to ten, Death is swallowed up in victory." The be planted in the garden of God above? What unbeliever dare not die, lest he should meet the sort of fruit do
bear? “ By their fruits shall God whom he has despised, and he is driven ye know them,” says the divine Husbandman. away in his wickedness-the time-server, who Do ye bring forth grapes of Sodom and clusters tried to serve God and Mammon, makes the fatal of Gomorrah ? If so, ye cannot always, ye plunge in dismay. The Christian alone sees cannot long, be permitted to cuinber the ground. the heavens opened like Stephen, and Jesus But if ye bring forth the "fruits of righteous standing on the right hand of God, and is ready ness, which are through Jesus Christ to the to say, Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly”praise and glory of God,” ye are “ trees of “Go forth, my soul, into boundless and endless righteousness, the planting of the Lord,” and happiness.” in you shall he be “ glorified.”
The ancient Heathens wondered when they This is what is meant by the double-sided saw a rich man of a sad countenance. Why seal or joint certificate of Scripture. “The testi was he sad, said they, when he had more than mony of God standeth sure, having this seal: his heart could wish?-A blind and foolish esThe Lord knoweth them that are his, and, timate of the worth of earthly things. But far Let every one that nameth the name of Christ more need we wonder that Christians should not depart from iniquity;" i.e., the seal has two desire to make sure their right to an everlasting sides and two inscriptions. Both sides cannot inheritance, and, having done so, should not de be seen at once; nay, one side cannot be seen at sire to rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of all. It is like the other side of the sky—it is glory, although now for a season, if need be, up in heaven, and God alone can read it. Its they are in heaviness, through manifold templanguage is solemn and mysterious : “The tations. The time of trial will soon be past. In. Lord knoweth them that are his;" but the stead of affliction, there shall be glory; instead of other side is distinct and legible, “known and light affliction, there shall be a weight of glory; read of all men,” like this side of the sky, and instead of affliction for a moment, there shall be wherever you can see it, you are quite certain "a far more exceeding, even an eternal weight that the other inscription is there also, though of glory.” Now you are in the wilderness; invisible: “Let every one that nameth the name before you is the promised land, and ye shall of Christ depart from iniquity." Whosoever is come to Zion with songs, and everlasting jog made, really in purpose as well as deed, to de- upon your head. Now you are in the battle; part from iniquity, is stamped with the seal of then shall you be hailed with the acclamations God, on the other side of which is the record of victory. Now you are in the deep, tossed of his everlasting salvation.
on the waves of trouble; then shall you reach And 0 what a mighty comfort to be at peace the shores of immortality, and sorrow, and sighwith God! Not only are the dark forebodings ing, and danger shall flee away. Now you are of a guilty conscience silenced, but a prospect in the midst of death, and beneath your feet opens up radiant with hope and immortality. It are the wrecks of many generations; but God is like “life from the dead.” Are we cast out will “show you the path of life: in his presence from friends ? “Whither can we go from God's is fulness of joy; at his right hand are pleasures Spirit, or flee from his presence !" Whenever for evermore.” we eat, he spreads our table; or rejoice, he fills Christ only dwelt for a short season on earth; our cup, and anoints our head with oil; or rest, so do his people. But he dwells for ever glorihe spreads the wings of his protection over us; ously in heaven; so shall they. Now they live or weep, he is near to comfort us.
in tents in the wilderness, and these of clay; alarmed at the remembrance of our sins ?_“I, then they shall dwell in a glorious, eternal even I, saith God, am he that blotteth out your palace, not made with hands. Now they are iniquities for mine own name sake.” Are we tenants at will; then they shall possess, as heirs called upon to encounter temptation ?-_“My of God and joint heirs with Christ, an inhergrace is sufficient for thee; I will perfect my tance which cannot be moved. Now they dwell strength in thy weakness!" Are we encom amongst the servants in the outer court of the pass with aftliction ?-“ Be not afraid; for I temple, exposed to many evils, and the sons of am with thee: when thou walkest through the the King of kings obey sometimes the servants waters, I will be with thee.” Are we abused of Satan; but then they shall pass within the and vilified ?—“Blessed are ye, when men shall veil, and mingle amongst the bright children of revile you, and persecute you, and say all man- God, and in ages to come_even through the ner of evil against you, falsely, for my sake.” | ceaseless ages of eternity--they shall show forth Are we afraid of death? Be not afraid to go the riches of God's grace and bis kindness todown to the grave; I will go down with thee, wards them through Christ Jesus. What bright and I will surely bring thee up again--" This and glorious prospects are these, which we are corruptible shall put on incorruption, this mor called to contemplate ! Can man really be adtal shall put on immortality. So when this mitted into such exalted blessedness? May
BIBLE RIVERS AND LAKES.
an eternity of such joy be his ? Are these not
carry us back into the remotest ages.
Towards the north, the height of Ramah Samuel nal life, and this life is in his Son. “To.day, reminds us of the last judge in Israel; and Scopus if ye will hear his voice, harden not your brings Titus and his battering army to our recol
hearts." Ye are not straitened in God, be not lection. phie straitened in your own desires; for Christ is
Towards the south, the winding way to Bethlehem Printing able to save unto the uttermost all that come
seems to point to Micah's words: “But thou, Bethcreate unto God through him; and whosoever cometh
lehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the || he will in no wise cast out. Flee to the strong- forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose
thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come hold, ye prisoners of hope. Even to-day, saith going forth have been from of old, from everlastthe Lord, I will render double unto you.
And yonder, the curiously-shaped Frank mountain shows the last retreat of the Crusaders;
and Hinnom, the abomination of Managseh; whilst JERUSALEM.
to the west Jerusalem bows her widowed head into
the dust. (From Ewald's “ Journal of Missionary Labours in the
Here it was that the Lord of Glory, looking down City of Jerusalem.")
upon the doomed city whilst still in all her royal
dignity, exclaimed: “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem,” &c. ITS OUTER WALL AND GATES. alates The Holy City is surrounded by a massive stone
Most of the streets are desolate, badly paved, narin 1542 by Sultan Sulyman, with tower, battlement, row, and disgustingly filthy. The houses, with few and loop-holes, like that of York; and so constructed exceptions, are out of repair, and many are entirely that a convenient walk may be taken on the top of
in ruins. The dust-cart is not known here; the rubit , with perfect safety. In the cool of the evening, rather expensive; to avoid which, the inhabitants of
bish is carried out of town by donkeys, which is and early in the morning, this promenade is one of the most pleasant recreations the Holy City still Jerusalem, who are for the most part poor, have reaffords.
course to a curious expedient. There are a large The wall is in tolerably good repair, except towards number of deserted magazines scattered throughout the north-east, where in some places the masonry
the town; in these all the rubbish is collected, and, has given way, and threatens to fall. It appears
as often as one of them is filled, they close it in with that originally there had been a trench around the
a stone wall, I have counted more than an hundred whole city, which in lapse of time has been filled up
of this description. Sometimes it happens that these with the rubbish brought out from the town and
walls give way; then the whole neighbourhood is thrown into it. Vestiges of it are yet seen at the enveloped in the dust of many generations. Others north-east and north-west of the town.
do not even take the trouble of carrying the rubbish The present wall encloses only a part of Mount
out of their houses, they appropriate one room as a Zion-Ophel is entirely without, as also a large por
common receptacle, and when that is full they take
the next. tion of the north side of the ancient city. The cir
Soon after our arrival, we hired a house cumference of modern Jerusalem is about three large rooms completely choked in the way men,
for the use of the mission, in which there were two Iniles. It took me an hour to walk round it. Of the several gates of the Holy City mentioned in
tioned. Pickaxes were required to clear them, and
Bethe Scriptures and in Josephus, four only have been
it was a work of many days before it was done. left open, leading to the four cardinal points.
sides these nuisances, there are the shambles, in the The West Gate, called by the Europeans the Jaffa Jewish quarter, and the disgusting tan-yard on the Gate, leading to Jaffa, Bethlehem, Hebron, and Guza.
east side of the Holy Sepulchre, which infect the air The natives call it " Bab Alchaleel,"—the Gate of the
with a pestiferous odour, and create many maladies. Friend. Abraham is styled in Holy Writ, the Friend These evils might easily be remedied, if the local of God; and as he resided in Hebron, the Arabs call
government cared less for their purses, and more for that place, in honour of their grand ancestor,
the salubrity of the town, and if the Mobammedans chaleel”--the Friend.
were less fanatic. The tan-yard occupies the posiThe North Gate is known by the Europeans as the
tion where formerly the Templars had their palaces, Damascus Gate; by the natives as “ Bab Ashsham,
to desecrate their memory; and the shambles are to Sham being the Arabic for Damascus. It leads to
annoy the Jews.
The East Gate, called by the Europeans “ St
BIBLE RIVERS AND LAKES.
BY THE REV. J. W. TAYLOR, FLISK AND CRIECH.
Cities on the Lake of Gennesaret - The Greater Jordan
The Dead Sea, natives call it “Bab Seedna Daivid ”-i.c., the Gate of our Lord David-because outside this gate is the BEFORE leaving the Lake of Gennesaret, let us take tomb of David. It leads to the Christian cemetery, a passing glance of the towns which once gladdened the Nether Pool, Bethlehem, and Siloam.
its shores; for once did this lake resemble a silver
bowl, with its border raised, and enriched according to as being left on their minds by their visit to it: “No 11 the art of the silversmith, with clustering leaves and place, excepting Jerusalem, is so deeply and solemniy fruit. Of the towns with which it was bordered, impressive as the Sea of Galilee." none possesses more interest, to the Bible reader, than The Jordan, whose course, according to some tra Capernaum. It is called “ Christ's own city;" for vellers, is distinctly visible through the whole ex after leaving “Nazareth he came and dwelt in Caper- tent of the lake, issues from it with a fuller streamc naum.” And as this was the port from which those fifty feet, and enters upon the extensive Vale di sailed who, by the way of the sea, intended to visit Jordan. This vale is formed by a barren and unis the parts beyond Jordan, there was thus a striking teresting range of mountains, which rise on either fulfilment given to the prophecy of Isaiah: “ The side, and stretch from the Lake of Gennesaret (eland of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, the wards to the Dead Sea. The district enclosed by these way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gen hills is about thirty miles in length, and its utmes tiles, the people which sat in darkness, saw great breadth is fifteen. Through the midst of this plais, light.” Here also Christ wrought many miracles. but in a lower valley, the Jordan flows, until in We seldom meet with a tiner specimen of simple and waters are lost in the Dead Sea: The banks, when graphic description, than is furnished by the writers the river is at its lowest ebb, are about fifteen fee: of the “Narrative of a Mission of Inquiry to the Jews," high, and the stream is about twenty-five yards ir in their account of Christ's works of benevolence and breadth, while it was so shallow, at the time when devotion at Capernaum : “ It was in this city that Mr Buckingham visited it, as to be easily fordable by Jesus healed so many upon one Saturday evening, the horses. The current is rapid and clear, and the when the Jewish Sabbath was over, and the cooling water is sweet to the taste. Its banks, in various breeze of sunset was favourable to the journey of the places, are adorned with the oleander, the zacchowa sick. We could imagine them coming, some up the or Jericho plum tree (80 called from Zaccheus, as it side of the lake, others from its northern towns, or is supposed to be the tree on which he climbed to se? down the Valley of Doves, from the interior of Gali- the Saviour pass), and a thick brushwood of huslee, till all meet in this very plain, where they hear bler plants. During the time of harvest, Jordan over, that Jesus is in the city, and forthwith pour in to floweth all his banks; and as the harvests, owing to find him. He receives them, heals many that were the vigour of vegetation in Palestine, return both sick of divers diseases, and casts out many devils; for in the spring and autumn, these inundations occur he did most of his mighty works there. And being twice a-year. By the risings of the river, the wid left alone, ‘he rose a great while before day, and beasts which have sought shelter within these leafy went out and departed to a solitary place,' wander- retreats, are driven from their lairs, and prowl in ing up the Valley of Doves on the west, or the deep fierceness over the surrounding country. This cirravines of Saphet on the north, and there prayed till cumstance in the natural history of the river furSimon Peter, and a multitude of anxious souls, found | nishes the Prophet Jeremiah with a bold figure by him out among the rocks, and said unto him: ‘All which to describe the hostile advances of a fierce men seek for thee.""
enemy: “ Behold he shall come up like a lion from Not much disjoined from Capernaum by situation, the swellings of Jordan against the habitations of the as they were associated with her in Christ's wither- strong.” Such is the general appearance of the ing woe, stood the cities of Chorazin and Bethsaida. Jordan. Their present desolation explains, in part, the mean Throughout its whole extent, from the Lake of ing of Christ's words; for scarcely any ruins remain Tiberias, the Jordan is fertile in historical reministo mark the spot which these highly favoured but
At the point where it issues from the impenitent cities once occupied. The frequent en towards the east, lay the country which owned the graving has made every eye familiar with Tiberias— stern sway of Og, king of Bashan—the last of the standing on its little headland, adorned with its giants. Superstition has thrown over his life her minaret and mosque, and skirted with its straggling romantic and gloomy light. His stature has been palm trees. It is built in the form of an irregular magnified into incredible dimensions, deeds of super. crescent, and is protected towards the land by a wall human daring have been ascribed to his arm, and flanked with turrets. Its circuit does not exceed a his court has been represented as the last resort of mile, and the houses hardly amount, in number, to the giant race. A surer word than tradition erfive hundred. The chief subject of curiosity within hibits the facts from which these legends have sprung. its walls is the mosque, which is said to be erected “ His bedstead," says the sacred historian, * was of over the spot where stood, in Gospel times, the hum- iron; nine cubits was the length thereof, and four ble home of Peter. Tiberias, or as it is now called, cubits the breadth of it; and the land of Bashan, Tabareah, is another of the four holy cities of the over which he reigned, was called the Land of Jews, being held in high veneration by the Talmud Giants.” ists as the place where their Mishna and Gemara Adjoining to this lie the rich pasture-lands of were compiled.
Gilead. The singular beauty and fertility of this We now bid adieu to the Lake of Gennesaret, re part of Palestine still attract the attention of the tramembering the saying of the Jews: “God loved that veller, and warrant the description which the two sea above all other seas; ;*** and bearing away with us tribes, Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasthe impression which the deputation have recorded seh, gave of it in the days of Moses, “as a land for
cattle." “ We continued our way,” says Mr Buch• Wells.
ingham, “to the north-east, through a country the '
BIBLE RIVERS AND LAKES.
beauty of which so surprised us, that we often asked calibres, from the Caireen Copt to the fair-skinned each other what were our sensations, as if to ascer Russian. Nor was it enough that their bodies were tain the reality of what we saw, and persuade each consecrated—all their clothes were plunged; and they other, by mutual confessions of our delight, that the drank the unconscious element, not each out of his picture before us was not an optical delusion. The own hands, but out of those of a fellow-pilgrim, the landscape, which varied at every turn, and gave a two palms being joined together to form a cavity for new beauty from any point of view, was of itself the liquid; while bottles of every form and metal worth all the pains of an excursion to the eastward were filled for distant markets." of the Jordan; and the park-like scenes that some Borne down by the stream of the Jordan, we artimes softened the romantic wildness of the general rive at that celebrated lake which receives its waters character as a whole, reminded us of similar spots in the LAKE OF ASPHALTITES, or the DEAD SEA. It less neglected lands.” Mr Banks frequently re is called Asphaltites by the Greeks, from the quanmarked, that throughout his very extensive travels, tity of asphalt or bitumen which abounds in its he had met with nothing equal to this landscape, neighbourhood. This lake is also known in Scripexcept in some parts of Portugal betwixt the Mincio ture as the “Salt Sea,” and the “Sea of the Plain.” and the Douro.
The Arabs name it “ Bahr Loot"_the Sea of Lot. The western side also opens up much scenery, in- The bare mention of the Dead Sea gives rise to solemn teresting from the facts which it recalls. About emotions. The mind naturally recurs to the time three miles from Tiberias may be seen the low and when this was an extended plain, well watered, even verdant hill of Huttin, from which the Saviour de as the garden of the Lord, and studded with its thriylivered his beatitudes. Here, opposite to Shittim, the ing cities—to the morning when Lot filed to Zoar, and waters retired together as an heap, and Jordan was the sun, which rose in brightness upon those wicked driven back at the presence of the Lord, the God cities, saw them, before it set, struck with the lightof Israel, until the tribes passed over. It was the ning of heaven, and buried beneath the sluggish second dividing of the waters in the glorious march waters which now roll over their ruins. ing of Israel; and the Hebrew poet joins the Red The general appearance of this lake, and of the Sea and the Jordan in his bold interrogation : surrounding country, is a standing witness to the
truth of the awful catastrophe which overwhelmed “The sea saw it and fled,
these guilty towns. Two ranges of uninteresting Jordan was driven back. What ailed thee, O thou sea, that thou fleddest ?
mountains bound this lake on either side. No trees Thou Jordan, that thou wast driven back?"
or shrubs cover them; scarcely a spot of verdure is
to be seen-nothing but the naked rocks casting their It was here, also, that the chariot of fire received blackening shadows over the waters which lie at their the Prophet Elijah, and the stream, acknowledging base. And as if partaking of the desolation which his presence, separated before him. Thither was the everywhere reigns here, the Valley of Jordan, so far proud Syrian directed to repair, and experience the
as the eye extends, presents one scene of uninterhealing virtues of Jordan's waters; and here, at the rupted barrenness : “The whole land is brimstone word of the prophet, did the iron, forgetting its gra- and salt, neither is it sown, nor beareth, nor does any vity, and rising from the bottom, buoyantly swim
grass grow thereon."
But the most interesting obupon the surface. And, what is most interesting of ject in this gloomy picture is the lake itself. It preall, these waters were consecratod by the descent and
sents a surface of thirty miles in length, by seven in baptism of the Lord Jesus, who was purer than the breadth. The stillness of death is on its waters-no stream, when he was about to enter on his public ripples break on its beach-no cooling breeze breathes ministry.
from its surface-no foot of man passeth by, save it It would appear, from the narrative of the Rev. be the Bedouin Arab, or the curious traveller. As Vere Monro, a recent traveller in Palestine, that the if the shades of this dark picture were not suffiJordan is still venerated for its baptismal excellence, ciently deep, Imagination has lent additional sadness and that pilgrimages are yearly performed by mis- by horrors of her own; for Fancy loves excess. Long guided crowds, who expect that their graces will be was it believed that so pestilential were the waters increased by ablution in its stream.
“ The sun was
that no fish could live in them, and no bird fly over rising," writes he,“ over the tops of Abarim, and the them; and that bodies, instead of sinking, were upriver's bank presented one of the most extraordinary borne to the surface. A more correct observation scenes which it has ever been my lot to witness. The has pronounced such stories unfounded. main body of the pilgrims had arrived, and a gene It is impossible, when speaking of this subject, not ral undressing commenced. The first who prepared to recall to mind the finished description furnished himself was a Russian, with hair of enormous length, by the graphic pen of the great novelist; and imawho, having stripped and enveloped himself in a gination, as if unsatisfied, brings forward into view long new shirt, dropped carefully in; and holding on the figure of the stately crusader, slowly moving by the grass, dipped and shook himself, and dipped along these lonely shores the only representative of again, much after the manner of a duck that pre- life in this region of death. The features of gloom sages wet weather. There were men of all sizes which characterize this scene must ever render it an and seasons, from the tottering octogenarian to the object of attraction to those whose minds are accescrawling bambino, who, being immersed with its head sible to a feeling of the sublime; but there are cirback and its mouth open, filled and bubbled like a cumstances in which some travellers have the fortune
ladies of all ages and angles, colours and of seeing it, which greatly heighten its grandeur; as
when the heavens, blackened with tempests, appear started by Burckhardt, who, when he explored Edom, to sympathize with the scene below, or
found a broad valley stretching from the Dead Sea “ When over it the cold moon shines through storms,
through Arabia Petrea to the eastern extremity of Topping its dark waves with uncertain light."
the Red Sea. More recent investigation has, how
ever, decided that this must have been impossible, as The testimony of the superior of St Saba, that, at the level of the Dead Sea and of the Plain of Jordan the southern extremity of the lake, remains of walls
is very much below that of the Red Sea, and as all and other buildings were seen by him beneath the
the springs in the valley, instead of flowing in a water, has been quoted by almost every traveller. southerly course, flow northerly towards the Dead The fact is a curious one, and can only increase the
Sea.” The most prevalent opinion is, that a lake regret that means have not been taken to obtain an
must always have existed here; that there is no accurate survey. A survey was indeed undertaken hidden outlet for its waters; and that there never was some years ago by a Mr Costigan, an Irishman; but
any visible connection betwixt this lake and the Red the world was deprived of the result of his labours Sea, but that it is relieved of its waters solely by and discoveries by his early death. His attendant evaporation, the power of which, under the steady mentioned to Mr Stephens, that large hewn stones, such as are used in building, were distinctly seen by rays of an Eastern sun, is very great.
While we stand by the shores of the Dead Sea, let them.
us contemplate in it an emblem of a selfish spirit. The number of cities which were destroyed by the
It receives all that its tributary streams supply, but judgment of Heaven has been differently stated. The it sends none of its waters to the sea. It.rolls over Book of Genesis mentions particularly Sodom and
ruins. It is calm; but it is the gloomy calm of death Gomorrah; but the words of the historian are so
--the evidence and consequence of a curse. general as not to contradict the fact, that more than these two were involved in this destruction. The Book of Deuteronomy specifies Sodom and Gomor SORROWING, YET REJOICING. rah, Admah, and Zeboim. Stephen of Byzantium
They that are merry, let them sing, mentions eight, and Strabo extends the number to
And let the sad hearts pray; thirteen. As to the manner in which these cities
Let those still ply their cheerful wins, were overthrown, the most general opinion, among
And these their sober day. those who wish to furnish a philosophical account of the facts which Scripture simply states, is, that they So mounts the early warbling lark were built upon a mine of bitumen; that lightning
Still upward to the skies; kindled the combustible mass; and that the cities So sits the turtle in the dark, sank in the subterraneous conflagration. The geo
Amidst her plaintive cries. grapher, Malte Brun, has improved upon this hypothesis, by adding the suggestion, that the cities may
And yet the lark, and yet the dove, have been built of bituminous stone.
Both sing, though different parts;
And so should we, howe'er we move, Search will be made in vain for the celebrated
With light or heavy hearts. apples of Sodom which mock the gazer's eye, and turn into dust in the hand of him that grasps them. Or, rather, we should each essay, Some writers deny their existence, and consider
And our cross notes unite; them merely as a poetic image to point a moral, Both grief and joy should sing and pray, “their being and their beauty being alike fabulous;"
Since both such hopes invite while others, such as Hasselquist, Ammar, and Chateaubriand, have discovered certain shrubs, the fruit
Hopes that all present sorrow heal, of which they consider the same as these golden
All present joy transcendand treacherous apples. We quote the description
Hopes to possess, and taste, and feel of a fruit discovered by Chateaubriand, in which he
Delights that never end. thinks he perceives the fabled apple of Sodom. It is
HICKS. known by the name of “osher." “ The shrub which bears it grows two or three leagues from the mouth of the Jordan—it is thorny, and has small taper GERMANY-THE NEW CATHOLIC CHURCH. leaves. Before it is ripe, it is filled with a corrosive Our readers are already acquainted with the general and saline juice; when dried, it yields a blackish seed, nature of the movement that is at present going on which may be compared to ashes, and which in taste in Germany. Suffice it here to repeat, in a single , resembles bitter pepper."
sentence, that the exhibition of the pretended coat We omitted to mention, in another place, that at of our Lord in the Cathedral of Treves, last autumn, the southern extremity of the Dead Sea stands the has proved the occasion of a large and influential little town of Zoar, to which Lot fled to avoid the secession from the ranks of the Romish Church. At judgment which overthrew Sodom and her daughters. the head of the movement stand John Ronge and
It was long thought, that before the overthrow of John Czerski, both priests in Silesia. The first conthe Cities of the Plain, there was no lake where the gregation established was that of Czerski, in SchneiDead Sea rolls its waters, and that the Jordan held demühl; the second that of Ronge, in Breslau; and on its course in a southerly direction, until it found so rapid has been the movement, that in about ten an outlet into the Red Sea. “This idea was first months nearly one hundred and fifty congregations