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the commentary. We have no hope of an edu- then, when we look beyond the enclosure to cation in which the two are at variance; we the uncultured wilds, all is bartenness together. have all hope in one in which they agree. To We repeat it, we bave great confidence in the illustrate this, let us consider,

potency of an early Christian education-a conIV. The Tendencyand Result of Timothy's Instruc- l fidence based at once on our knowledge of the tions. They were able to make himn“ wise unto divine adaptation of the Gospel to the desired salvation throngh faith which is in Christ Jesus.” | end, on observation, and on the express state 1 The language of Paul here is remarkable, and ments of the Word of God. And so it is that must not be passed over without a momentary, even where we have seen the child of godly notice. It evidently teaches that Christ is the parents going astray, we have trembled, indeed; great theme of the Old Testament as well as of but we have trembled less for him than for the New, and that it is in the way of knowing others whose early days had been spent in and believing in him as the divinely qualified scenes of ungodliness. We knew that there and divinely appointed Messiah and Saviour that were instructions in his mind which he could we are made wise unto salvation. Such had not forget-which would not forget for himbeen the experience of Timothy. Through the that a mother's voice would be heard, in its instruction of his parents, while he was yet a tender whispers, louder than the raging voice child, he bad become intimately acquainted with of passion—that there were divine seeds in that the Old Testament Scriptures; the consequence heart, dormant still, but that must yet spring to of which was, that when Paul came to Lystra, lite; and that, sooner or later, the cry would be in his missionary travels, and proclaimed Jesus heard from those lips : “My Father, my Father, as the Christ, his familiarity with ancient type be thou the guide of my youth.” and prediction enabled him at once to see and We have sometimes thought that in the for to appreciate the apostle's argument; and he mation of the coral islands in the Southern showed that he had believed Moses by believing Seas, we discovered a fit illustration of the Christ. Through the many labours and prayers history of our Christian tuition of the young. of his parents, followed by the ministry of Paul, You know that the soil of those islands, after he was now animated by the same unfeigned they emerge above the deep, is formed very faith as before had dwelt in his grandmother gradually. Every rising tide leaves its scanty Lois, and in his mother Eunice.

deposit of mud and wreck There is long barAnd, in general, it may be affirmed, that renness in the slowly accumulating soil, until where there is similar parental fidelity and there is seen gathering over its surface a ver prayer, there will, sooner or later, be similar dant vegetation, and even lovely flowers spring

Parents often give way to despon- up from hidden seeds that had been dropped dency in the matter of their children's education perchance by some passing sea-fowl or bird of too soon. They expect immediate fruit; and prey. Now, you have something of this grabecause this is not always, or even commonly, dual preparation, followed at length by sudden vouchsafed, they forth with begin to slacken verdure, in the hearts of children. Every their efforts. But surely there is enough, both lesson you impart is just the deposit of so much in Scripture and experience, to quicken us on soil. There may be long and wearisome barto cheerful and unfaltering effort. First, let us renness, but the propitious moment at length realize the solemn fact of our children's im- arrives when the labours and prayers of years mortal existence--let us remember that when are graciously rewarded; for the Spirit has yonder sun shall have become dim with age, given efficacy to the long-slumbering truth, and and this earth shall have perished in its sheet the life of faith and holiness is begun. He of fire, they shall still be conscious--living- who “ from a child had known the Holy Scripactive; and that it will greatly depend on our tures,” is made“ wise unto salvation." exertions whether their immortality shall prove Hitherto we have spoken exclusively of the to them the greatest blessing or the heaviest efforts of parents themselves in the training of woe. Next, let us bear in mind that the Gospel their children; and we wish it to be understood is the only remedy for the moral and spiritual most distinctly and unequivocally that, as re evils under which our nature groans. It alone gards the first few years of the child's existence, is able to make wise unto salvation. We may, we place their efforts above those of every other indeed, present the Gospel, and it shall be re- being in the world. fused; but if we withhold it, the universe con At the sametime, we should not be stating tains no other remedy. Moreover, is it not true, the whole truth on this subject, did we not add that in the great majority of instances where that, in addition to the parents' instructions, the saving truth is instilled by the parent into and as powerfully subsidiary to them, the the tender minds of his children, confirmed by children should very early come under the example, and sanctified by prayer, it is, sooner care of the Church, and pass into the congre or later, followed and rewarded by the best re- gational Sabbath school. A congregation withsults? There may occasionally be strange and out a Sabbath school is not coinplete in its mysterious exceptions, just as, in the best cul- spiritual machinery. And I scarcely know tivated orchard, you will sometimes meet with anything better adapted to second the instruc a barren tree, but the exceptions are rare; and tions of the fireside, than a well organized and

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THE TRIAL OF MARTIN BUCER AND PAUL FAGIUS.

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cliciently conducted system of juvenile instruc- could not see through the device) as if the step were tion here. A well appointed band of Sabbath taken at the earnest request of the university itself. school teachers forms the right arm of a Chris. Such acts of hypocrisy are inconsiderable matters in tian minister. A well attended, well conducted the transactions of Papists. The minute details Sabbath school is a sure token of present, and given by Foxe, of this visitation, are very interesting. one of the surest pledges of future, congrega Our space forbids to mention them all. It will be tional prosperity.

proper, however, to take notice of some of them, that How bright a day of promise would that be we may see how the commission goes through its fur the Church in this land, when every parent work. Instructions are sent down to Dr Perne, the and every pastor solemnly resolved, in refc. vice-chancellor of the university, a true Papist, that rence to the children of his charge, that from a he must appear, with the heads of houses, fellows, child they should know the Holy Scriptures ! scholars, &c., in one of the churches of the univerScotland, we believe, would not be an age older, sity, before the commission, between the hours of until it was blessed with a universal pentecost! eight and ten, on the morning of the 11th of January

1557. In the meantime they are to search out, and THE TRIAL OF MARTIN BUCER AND PAUL have in readiness against that time, “all statutes, FAGIUS.

books, privileges, and monuments, pertaining to the

university, or any of the colleges, or, finally, to any BY THE REV. JOHN FAIRBAIRN, ALLANTON.

of themselves; every man, moreover, must appear AFTER the death of Edward VI., and during the personally.” Several questions may require to be reign of Queen Mary, the sword of Rome, so often put, and some oaths taken; every man must, therebathed in the blood of the saints, had free scope in fore, appear in person. Thus, the visitors proceed in England, and raged with ungoverned fury. Cran a very business-like way-the drift of which is very nuer, Ridley, Latimer, and a multitude of other wit. apparent. nesses for the truth, suffered at the stake, sealing The 11th of January arrives. The court is astheir testimony with their blood, and “lighting such sembled; the visitors take their seats; they are seated a fire in England as they expected, by God's blessing, on an elevated platform, covered over with cushions, would not soon be extinguished.” So merciless was and carpeted to the ground. The vice-chancellor the fury of the Papists, and so energetic their mea- sprinkles them with holy water; and proposes to sures, that the preaching of the Gospel was almost burn incense before them; which, on this occasion, entirely suppressed. As in the days of Abab, the they deciine," though afterwards and elsewhere, people of God-and there were many in the land- they refuse it not." Why should they? If the were hidden and silent.

people of Lystra would have sacrificed to Paul and The University of Cambridge was suspected. In- Barnabas, whom they took for Mercury and Jupiter, deed, there was no great reason for suspecting it. why should not the Pope's representatives have equal Sach of the teachers and officials there as had pro- honour? Because Paul and his companion rent their fessed the Gospel had been already removed; and garments and restrained the idolatry of the FIeathen, Popery was firmly seated within its walls, and in its does it follow that the servants of Antichrist should chairs. Still, in that university, for a good many refuse the worship of the votaries of Rome ? years back, there had been many eminent and learned To pass over other business, which occupied the men, natives and foreigners, infected with the heresy visitors three days, we coinc to the trial of Bucer and of the Reformation. They had with all diligence Fagius. The reader, unacquainted with the history, preached, icctured, laboured, written—who could tell naturaliy supposes that Bucer and Fagius are present; but that some of the evil influence which they spread at all events, that they are still alive, and have, up around might still be lurking and fermenting in till this time, been preaching and lecturing--training quiet corners, ready to convey the poison of the their students, and, by all other available methods, Gospel over the land, pouring it forth through secret leavening the university and the town with Reforma

tion principles, which the visitors have come to silence Cardinal Pole and his coadjutors thought that this and root out. Nothing of the kind. They have been had better be inquired into. It would do no harm- dead and buried for several years. Bucer is interred it might do much good. They knew well enough in the vaults of St Mary's Church-Fagius, in those how matters stood. They knew how firmly the uni of St Michael's; which churches, till matters be versity, being well purged, stood for Rome. Still, brought to an issue, are placed under interdict. No such an inquiry—and let it be a rigorous one-will religious service must be done in them. They are I have a salutary effect. We have cleared the land of polluted, unconsecrated — rendered unholy by the

the bolder of the Reformers; we must have a visita ashes of the heretics. ution of the university. In connection with what has How are the accused to be tried? There appears already been done, it will show how fixedly we are some difficulty in the matter. The reader does not resolved to have Protestantism thoroughly rooted see exactly how it is to be set about. The ingenuity out, and Popery established.

and zeal of the visitors soon thread the difficulty, and A commission of visitation is accordingly deter- get matters adjusted orderly. There was, indeed, a mined upon-the visitors nominated-arrangements good deal of discussion; “ forasmuch as the present mude for their procedure. To remove all odium from state of the case required great deliberation and adthie cardinal and his deputies, should anything odious vice.” Of course it did. What if Bucer and Fagius ve done, it is made to appear (to all at least who should not appear ? “ What is your opinion, Vice

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chancellor Perne ? and yours, ye heads of houses and would rather it were otherwise; but he must sacrifice masters of colleges ? As the matter is weighty, let his own feelings to the public good. “For, howevery man, in due order, give his verdict."

ever," he remarks, “we ourselves are inclined to After much debating, the vice-chancellor and all mercy in our hearts, than the which we protest there the collegians agree to the following resolutions :- is nothing under the sun to us more dear and accepThat the visitors be humbly requested to proceed table, yet, notwithstanding, the very law rises up against Bucer. Whilst he yet lived, he taught revenge; so that the common salvation of you all, poisonous doctrines among them; was himself a sec which the law provides for" (a law unheard of, except tary and famous heretic-had erred from the Catho in Popery and Puseyism), “must be preferred before lic Church, and caused others to err; his dead body the private charity of our minds. But if God, as he must be digged up, that inquisition may be made is slow to wrath and judgment, will wink at it," as to his doctrine (which, of course, could not be (i. e., at the preaching of the Gospel); “yet, notwithdone in absence of the same). Inquisition being standing, if we, upon whom the charge of the Lord's made, should his doctrine be found to be, as re Rock leans, should permit so execrable crimes to ported, not good and wholesome, then the law must

escape unpunished, we should not live in quiet one take course against him. There are many reasons why hour." it should be so. For example, the law is, that the Having finished his speech, the bishop pronounced body of a heretic must not be buried in Christian sentence. Bucer and Fagius were condemned for burial. If respect is to be had to the glory of God, heresy. The punishment which, in these day, and the edification of the faithful, no room should Papists inflicted upon Protestants, was burning to be left for the body of a heretic to rest in. The death at the stake. Order is given that the bodies body of a heretic is noisome and injurious to the of the condemned should be dug up—degraded from very elements; “ the place where it has been buried their holy orders, and delivered over to the secular must be purged, and all things so ordered, as may be power “to be executed.” “ For," adds the historia satisfying to the consciences of the weak," for which somewhat facetiously, “it was not lawful for sueb Popery has a most tender regard.

innocent persons (as the visitors), abhorring (as they These resolutions are unanimously agreed upon. did) all bloodshed, and detesting all murder, to pe! They are preliminaries. Order is at length taken to

any man to death." cite Bucer and Fagius to appear before the commig The magistrate obeys, as he must, if he would live sion. Opportunity shall be given them to defend in peace a little longer, or, indeed, live at all. Aft themselves, or to any other who may wish to appear place is prepared—a stake erected—the bodies of on their behalf. This is on the 15th of January. Bucer and Fagius, in their coffins, are fastened to itil That everything may be done with the decency with chains. A fire is kindled; many condemned which becomes so grave a court, the 18th is fixed books are also thrown into it, that the heresy of the upon as the day of appearance. Groups of people | Reformation may be consumed root and branch. may be seen, in the meantime, around the door of It is well known that during the reign of Mary, St Mary's Church, the doors of the common schools, the measures of the Papists were characterized by and still larger groups thronging about the market energy and bloody cruelty. Great numbers suffered cross. The citation is posted on such public places. to the death. Popery flourished—imbrued its hands They are reading it-making, no doubt, their remarks in blood—was full of restless activity. We shall upon it. It would be interesting to hear them; but conclude with an extract from Latimer, who suffered they have not been preserved.

in this persecution, which casts some light on the The court is aguin assembled; for the 18th has subject, and which is not so old-fashioned but that it

Neither Bucer nor Fagius appeared. They may be useful even now, Times may soon corne obeyed not the citation; they proved contumacious. when such preaching will be required :—“And now But observe the meekness and courtesy of the com I would ask a strange question: Who is the most! mission; they will not proceed to judgment—"which, diligent bishop and prelate in all England, that nevertheless, for the contumacy of these two dead passeth all the rest in doing his office? I can tell; men in absenting themselves, they might have done." for I know him who it is; I know him well. And Being mercifully inclined, they choose rather to will ye know who it is ? I will tell you; it is the proceed anew with the citation. This is done, and devil. He is the most diligent preacher of all other; the trial adjourned till the 26th of the month, that he is never out of his diocese--ye shall never find parties may not be pressed for time.

him unoccupied. Call for him when you will, he is The 26th also arrives. The court is once more ever at home—the diligentest preacher in all the assembled; the contumacy of those cited is intole- realm; he is ever at his plough. He is ever applying rable—they do not appear; business must be pro- his business; ye shall never find himn idle, I warrant ceeded with this time. The vice-chancellor rises up, you. And his office is to hinder religion—to mainand, mustering “a grave face,” reaches to the pro- tain superstition--to set up idolatry-to teach all kind sident of the commission the process lately published. of Popery. Where the devil is resident, and hath He reports, at the sametime, that it had been duly his plough going, there away with books, and up with served—“executed according to the effect and pur-candles; away with Bibles, and up with beads; away port of the same." After a pause, the Bishop of with the light of the Gospel, and up with the light of Chester, one of the visitors, gets upon his feet and candles, yea, at noonday. Down with Christ's cros, takes speech in hand. He shows that the law must, up with purgatory pick-purse-up with him, the of necessity, be put in force. As an individual, he | Popish purgatory, I mean. Away with clothing the

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PART II.

naked, the poor, the impotent/up with decking of images, and gay garnishing of stocks and stones; up

TIME. with man's traditions and his laws down with God's The bell strikes one. We take no note of time, traditions and his most holy Word. Down with the But from its loss. To give it then a tongue old honour due to God, and up with this new god's Is wise in man. As if an angel spoke, honour. All things must be done in Latin. God's I feel the solemn sound. If heard aright, Word may in no wise be translated into English." It is the knell of my departed hours.

From the above may be gathered the estimation in Where are they? With the years beyond the flood.
which the labours and memory of Bucer and Fagius It is the signal that demands despatch.
were held by the Papists. The reader may be curious How much is to be done! My hopes and fear
to know in what light they were regarded by some of Start up alarm’d; and o'er life's narrow verge
the most celebrated Reformers. In regard to Bucer, Look down-on what? A fathomless abyss-
Calvin expresses himself in the following terms :: A dread eternity! how surely mine!

“ Martin Bucer, a most faithful doctor of the And can eternity belong to me,
Church of Christ, besides his rare learning and co Poor pensioner on the bounties of an hour?
pious knowledge of many things—besides his strength

Young. of intellect, his extensive reading, and other many and various virtues, in which he is scarce excelled by any now living-has few equals, and excels most;

Biographical Sketch. has this praise peculiar to himself, that none in this age has used exacter diligence in the exposition of

THE REV. DR BALMER, Scripture."

Beza, in his work entitled “ Bezæ Icones,” thus speaks of him :

" This is that countenance of Bucer—the mirror Me BALMER was much beloved by his people. of mildness tempered with gravity-to whom the There were a few who, at first, had objected to city of Strasburg owed the reformation of her Church; his settlement over the Berwick congregation, whose singular learning, and eminent zeal, joined but their objections were soon dissipated, and with excellent wisdom, both his learned books and their hearts won, by the affability and gentlepublic disputations, in the general diets of the em ness of his demeanour, and the faithfulness of pire, shall witness to all ages. The German persecu

his ministry. He was exemplary in the distion drove him into England. He was honourably charge of all the duties of his station. He entertained by Edward VI. He was for two years made conscience of preparation for the pulpit chief Professor of Divinity at Cambridge, with-his sermons being well, and even elaborately, greatest frequency and applause of all learned and studied, and studied, moreover, in a spirit of pious men until his death."

prayerfulness and dependence—while, during " Bucer,” says Fose, in his Book of Martyrs, the week, in visitations, in classes for the young, "what by writing, but chiefly by reading and preach in congregational and district prayer-meetings, ing openly-wherein, being painful in the Word of he watched for souls, and assiduously disGod, he never spared himself, nor regarded health charged the duties of his calling. Nor were brought all men into such admiration of him, that his labours without reward. He was not withceither his friends could sufficiently praise him, nor out evidence that he had many souls for his his enemies in any point find fault with his singular hire, and the comforting and building up of life and sincere doctrine."

many more. “Paul Fagius," says Beza, “ born in the Palatinate, Mr Balmer (says his biographer) was careful, became most skilful in the Hebrew tongue. Being while not neglecting his ministerial duties among called to the ministry at Igna, he published many

his people, to give himself to reading. We have ancient and profitable Hebrew books. Being invited before us a list of the books he had read, marked

by himself from month to month, commencing in to Strasburg, he there discharged the duties of a

1808, and continued to 1843. While it comprises teacher with great applause. The same persecution

a good deal of the popular literature of the day, it drove him and Bucer into England, where he was shows that he was especially given to that kind of preferred to a professor's place in Cambridge, and reading which might furnish him more richly for Boon after died.” Besides the above, many other

the work of the ministry-that he did not neglect testimonies ha been borne by eminent men to

to keep up his acquaintance with the classics, and the learning, piety, worth and zeal, of Bucer and nal languages. The list contains, on an average, about

was a diligent student of the Scriptures in the origiFagius.

twenty volumes in the half year. Some, perhaps, may read more, but few, we believe, to better purpose.

It was his habit to have always some book in PREPARATION FOR DEATH. If you forget anything the course of reading, not for cursory perusal, as a when your sea is full, and your foot in that ship, source of relaxation, but as a subject of study, that there is no returning again to fetch it. Have all he might make himself master of its contents; and things in readiness against the time that you must it was a very common question with him to his fall through that black and impetuous Jordan; friends and brethren in the ministry, introductory and Jesus—Jesus who knoweth both these depths, often to much pleasant discussion, and comparing of and the rocks, and all the coasts—be your pilot. notes in regard to their opinions of authors, “ What Rutherford.

book are you reading just now ? "

He visited London in 1819, and again in already mentioned, he did at the beginning and end 1823, for the purpose of supplying the pulpit of every week, he showed peculiar simplicity an) of his friend, Dr Waugh. Both times, on his heavenliness of affection. In no part of his public

assurance of faith, and solemnity, tenderness, and way home, he spent a few days at Leicester duty was the fine union between the virtues of the with the celebrated Robert Hall

, and his re- professor and the graces of the “ man of God" soi miniscences of their conversation, partially apparent. The charm of sanctity which hallowed published some years ago by Dr Olinthus Gre- | all his official accomplishments and acts was here gory, have been published entire in an appendix traced to its source, in the deep devoutness of his to his Memoir. Hall had a high opinion of character. His affectionate interest in his class was Mr Balmer, and invited him on both occasions and pathos with which he implored on their behalf

never so strikingly manifested as in the earnestness to preach for him.

all the blessings of Christian salvation and minis In the year 1826, he entered into the mar. terial endowment, and the fatherly solicitude with riage relation with Miss Jane Scott, daughter which he deprecated, one by one, the sins and evik

The language of of Mr Alexander Scott of Aberdeen; and by this which“ most easily beset them. union, which was truly one of mutual affection these prayers was, indeed, "fitly chosen." Some

times it almost appeared as if it were premeditated; and esteem, his comfort and usefulness were

a supposition, however, which, considering the progreatly increased.

priety and refinement of his spoken style, and his Mr Balmer was a man of peace, and had no intimate familiarity with the devotional language fondness for anything that savoured of war. He of Scripture was probably unfounded. He alueet was never so much at ease as when engagei dents; and certainly, though this was no doubt far

never criticised the language of prayer in his stuin the unostentatious and unobserved discharge from his thoughts, his own example was better than of ordinary duties, or when mingling in the

any directory. society of friends. For instance, although a In his general intercourse with his students, there Voluntary, he scarcely at all meddled with was the same striking simplicity and kindness which that controversy, when it raged so fiercely indistinguished him in the professor's chair. He was the land. His biographer says:

at pains to put himself on the most friendly terius Mr Balmer was slow to take part in the conflict. session, to bring their difficulties, of whatever, kind

with all, by inviting them, at the opening of each He had cherished in his heart, as friends and

to him, when he was always ready with his counsel brethren in Christ, many members and ministers of and help. He was also in the habit of inviting his the Established Church. He was never, perhaps, whole class, once, at least, in the course of each ses altogether satisfied in his own mind with some of the

sion, in small parties to his residence; and seemed arrangements of Dissenting societies. He felt that the popular voice, which in them is so powerful, was

never happier than when in their society. The slight sometimes fickle and unreasonable. And he lamented dence, which marked his demeanour on other occm

reserve, arising not from pride, but from self-ditthe hardships to which many of their ministers were

sions, was then completely dissipated; and without subjected, in consequence of the want of a liberal losing that calmness and dignity which were so pe; spirit, or of the means of exercising it, on the part of those on whom they were dependent for support.

culiar to him, he gave way to the most cheerful

and unconstrained flow of conversation, calling up He, however, attended some meetings, and reminiscences of his college and hall life, speaking addressed one at Jedburgh.

without any scrupulous delicacy of living men and In April 1834, he was chosen, by the Synod, with the greatest frankness, and displaying

opinions, answering all manner of enger inquiries Professor of Systematic Theology. With cha what of a mild and simple humour, which but rarely racteristic modesty he would have declined to broke out amid the graver duties of his public accept of the appointment, had not his friends oflice. strongly urged him to the contrary. He could not understand, he said, why he had been Providence to be the source of his greatest

Ilis professorship, however, was destined in chosen in preference to others in the connec bitterness. Our readers are aware of the untion, whom he had deemed so much superior happy controversies, on the question of the ! to himself. But having the office pressed upon atonement which have for some years agitated him, he did not feel himself at liberty to refuse. the Secession Church, and in which Dr Balmer," '; It appeared as a call from the Lord, and he did of necessity, bore a prominent part. It is, of not doubt but that Ile who gave the call would course, not within our province to adjudicate on give him the strength to follow it. Accord- these controversies, nor is it our wish. Sutice ingly, he devoted himself with all diligence it to say, that several of Dr Balmer's brethren, and earnestness to the discharge of the duties dissatisfied with his views on that sub'ect, as of his new position; although the care of the expressed in a preface written by him to : ministry, with which his professorship was work of Edward Polhill, and afterwards in his conjoined, must have rendered his labours excessive. He was a general favourite with the It was a subject on which he appears to have

Statement to the Synod, publicly attacked them. students—they regarded him with reverence long had doubts, and to have been much per and esteem, In his published Memoir an in- plexed; and we find him taking every opporteresting and evidently truthful sketch of his tunity of asking upon it the opinions and advice professorial course and character is given from of men whom le esteemed-among others, of the pen of one of his students; part of which Robert Hall. The end of the discussions which we subjoin :

* He hail received the degree of D.D. in the In conducting the devotions of the class (which, as from the University of St Andrews.

some

year

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