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felt very indignant at your touch yesterday, and was saw in the Church of St Peter at Rome. While ready to make his escape;" they therefore requested engaged in their temple-service, they laugh, and joke, me candidly to tell them if I had touched him or not. and gaze at every object passing in the street. Had I answered in the affirmative, the Brahmans would forth with have proceeded to a second consecration, which is always accompanied with a sump

Anecdote. tuous dinner; and I should have had to pay the bill of fare. My reply was: “I shall not tell you; if the stone be a god, my touching him with a stick can have done him no harın; and if he be not, you de

“OVERCOME EVIL WITH GOOD." ceive yourselves; accordingly, the sooner you throw The founder of Philadelphia, William Penn, was him away the better for you, and then come and completely armed with the spirit of the principleworship the true God with me."

“Overcome evil with good.” When he visited Ame

rica, he came without cannon or sword, and with a II. HINDU IDOL TEMPLES.

determination to meet the Indians with truth and The idol temples are, generally speaking, not such kindness. He bought their land, and paid them;

he splendid edifices as our churches. Shiva's mundir, made a treaty, with them, and observed it; and he or temple, is a regular square building, surmounted always treated them as men. As a specimen of the by a dome or arched roof. The room in which the

manner in which he met the Indians, the following idol is placed, is not generally more than ten or twelve instance is very striking :-There were some fertile feet square. In villages, they are usually in the centre, and excellent lands, which, in 1698, Penn ascertained or near the market-place, and they are surrounded by

were excluded from his first purchase; and as he was a few mango or tamarind trees, under the shade of

very desirous of obtaining them, he made the propowhich the natives sit down to smoke their hookahs, and sal to the Indians that he would buy those lands, if converse on the events of the day. In large towns, they were willing. They returned for answer, that and particularly in Benares, there are splendid mas

they had no desire to sell the spot where their fathers terpieces of architecture; I have particularly admired

were deposited; but to “ please their father Onas," the sculptures in stone, covering the walls, most taste

as they named Penn, they said that he should have fully and elaborately executed; many of them repre

some of the lands. This being decided, they concluded senting historical pieces in their mythology. Nothing the bargain, that Penn might have as much land as is so meritorious as the building of such a temple; all

a young man could travel round in one day, “bethe blessings of Heaven are promised for it, especially ginning at the great river Cosquanco,' now

Kensingwhen it is raised on the banks of the Ganges, or at ton, and ending at the great river Kallapingo,' now Benares. In the latter city, there are nine hundred Bristol;" and as an equivalent, they were to receive Shiva temples. Wealthy rajahs have endowed some

a certain amount of English goods. Though this of them in a munificent manner. Juggernath's tem- plan of measuring the land was of their own selection, ple, in Orissa, is said to possess an income of ten been tried; " for the young Englishman chosen to

yet they were greatly dissatisfied with it, after it had thousand pounds annually.

walk off the tract of land, walked so fast and far, as III. HINDU IDOL WORSHIP.

to greatly astonish and mortify them. The governor

observed this dissatisfaction, and asked the cause. The ceremony of worship in the temple is this:- The walker

cheated us," said the Indians. "Ah! how At the time of sunrise, the officiating priest opens can it be? ' said Penn, did you not choose yourselves the door, and prostrates himself before the idol; he to have the land measured in this way?' “True,' then takes Ganges water to wash the image; after replied the Indians, but white brother make a big this it is rubbed with ghee, or clarified butter; and walk.' Some of Penn's commissioners, waxing warm, when this ceremony of cleansing is performed, he re said the bargain was a fair one, and insisted that the peats his muntrus, or forms of prayer, in a hurried, Indians ought to abide by it; and if not, should be careless, undevout manner; flowers are strewn, and compelled to it. 'Compelled,' exclaimed Penn,“ how offerings of sweetmeats, fruits, and boiled rice, are can you compel them, without bloodshed? Don't you placed before him, and the Brahman begs the idol to see this looks to murder?' Then turning with a beeat, and enjoy himself. Meanwhile, some Sudras are nignant smile to the Indians, he said: “Well, brothers, eeen approaching; some prostrate themselves—others if you have given us too much land for the goods first merely touch their foreheads in token of reverence, agreed on, how much more will satisfy you?' This proand walk away. When this senseless mummery is posal gratfied them; and they mentioned the quantity over, the priest puts the eatables together, shuts the of cloth and number of fish-hooks with which they door, and eats them for his breakfast. Being divine would be satisfied. These were cheerfully given; and himself, he says his eating the offering is just the the Indians, shaking hands with Penn, went away fame as if the idol had enjoyed it; probably he thinks smiling. After they were gone, the governor, lookit passes all into one pantheistical stomach.

ing round on his friends, exclaimed, 0 how sweet So careful is he for the rest and comfort of his and cheap a thing is charity! Some of you spoke god, that he spreads a net over him during the hot just now, of compelling these poor creatures to stick season, lest he be bitten by musquitoes; in the cold to their bargain-that is, in plain English, to fight and weather, likewise, he dresses him with a shawl, to pro- kill them, and all about a little piece of land. For tect him from the inclemency of the season. Some this kind conduct, manifested in all his actions to the times, however, it happens that rats eat holes into Indians, he was nobly rewarded. The untamed he idols of clay and straw, and make nests in savage of the forest became the warm friend of the them.

white stranger; towards Penn and his followers, they The idols in honour of Vishnu are laid down to buried the war-hatchet, and ever evinced the strongest sleep in the day, if the image be not too large—a respect for them. And when the colony of Pennsylpoor compliment to a god, that he needs rest! If a vania was pressed for provisions, and none could be priest want to be orthodox, he must spend at least obtained from other settlements—and which scarcity four hours a-day in his religious ceremonies; but they arose from the increasing number of inhabitants not are not generally very particular on this point, and having time to raise the necessary food—the Indians get through them as fast as they can. Their conduct cheerfully came forward, and assisted the colony by sometimes reminded me of the monks whom Luther the fruits of their labours in hunting.,

Daily Bread.

his dwelling, it reminds him of the day when “he
shall be a pillar in the house of our God, and go no

more out."-MI*Cheyne.
FRIDAY.
* Lovest thou me?"-JOHN xxi, 16.

MONDAY.
'Tis a point I long to know,

Ask, and it shall be given you."—Matt. vii. 7.
Oft it causes anxious thought-

Come, my soul, thy suit prepare,
Do I love the Lord, or no?

Jesus lives to answer prayer ;
Am I his, or am I not?

He himself bas bid you pray.
Lord, decide the doubtful case,
Thou who art thy people's sun;

Therefore will not say you Nay.
Shine upon thy work of grace,

Our prayers and God's mercies are like two buckets
If it be indeed begun.

in a well : while the one ascends, the other descends; Let me love thee more and more,

so, while our prayers ascend to God in heaven, his If I love at all, I pray; If I have not loved before,

blessings and mercies descend to us upon the earth. Help me to begin to-day.

-Hopkins.

TUESDAY. They that love Christ, love to think of him, love to hear of him, love to read of him-love to speak of

" Lord, teach us to pray."—Luke xi. 1. him, for him, to him. They love his presence, his

Lord, teach us how to pray aright,

With reverence and with sear; yoke, his name. His will is their will--his dishonour

Though dust and ashes in thy sight, is their affliction-his cause is their care—his people

We may-we must draw near. are their companions,-his day is their delight, -his

We perish if we cease from prayer ; Word is their guide, his glory is their end. They

Oh! grant us power to pray; had rather ten thousand times suffer for Christ, than

And when to meet thee we prepare, that he should suffer by them.-Muson.

Lord, meet us by the way.

When God pours out his Spirit upon man, then SATURDAY.

will man pour out his heart before God.-Mason., “Grow in grace." —2 Pet. iii. 18. .

WEDNESDAY.
How many years hast thou, my heart,
Acted the barren fig tree's part-

“ Watch thou in all things.”—2 Tim. iv. 5.
Leafy, and fresh, and fair,

The praying Spirit breathe, Enjoying heavenly dews of grace,

The watching power impart;
And sunny smiles from God's own face-

From all entanglements beneath
But where the fruit? ah! where?

Call off my grovelling heart.
Learn, O my soul, what God demands

Suffered no more to rove
Is not a faith like barren sands,

O'er all the earth abroad,
But fruit of heavenly hue;

Arrest the prisoner of thy love,
By this we prove that Christ we know,

And shut me up in God. If in his holy steps we go

The Saviour joined watching to prayer; and what Faith works by love, if true, It is some hope of goodness not to grow worse; it

he has joined together let no man put asunder. In

vain I invoke God if I am careless; and expose myis part of badness not to grow better. I will take

self needlessly in dangerous places and company; and heed of quenching the spark, and strive to kindle a

leave without a sentinel my senses, and appetites, and fire. If I have the goodness I should, it is not too much-why should I make it less? If I keep the

passions; and keep not my heart with all diligence; goodness I have, it is not enough,--why do I not seek

and use not all the means of preservation which are to make it more? He never was so good as he should placed within my reach. Prayer without watching be, that doth not strive to be better than he is; he

is hypocrisy; and watching without prayer is prenever will be better than he is, that doth bear to

sumption.-Jay.

THURSDAY. be worse than he was.- Warwick.

“ Cleanse thou me from secret faults."-Ps. xix. 12. SABBATHI.

Dear Lord! accept a sinful heart,

Which of itself complains, “Remember the Sobbath-day, to keep it holy.”—

And mourns, with much and frequent smart,
Exod. xx. 18.

The evil it contains. •
May I throughout this day of thine

There fiery seeds of anger lurk,
Be in thy Spirit, Lord ;

Which often hurt my frame,
Spirit of humble fear divine,

And wait but for the tempter's work
That trembles at thy Word;

To fan them into flame.
Spirit of faith, my heart to raise,

Oh ! cleanse me in a Saviour's blood,
And fix on things above;

Transform me by thy power,
Spirit of sacrifice and praise,

And make me thy beloved abode,
Of holiness and love.

And let ine rove no more, When a believer lays aside his pen or loom, brushes Is there, in the best, a strong proneness to sin? aside his worldly cares, leaving them behind him with What cause have we, then, to long and breathe after his week-day clothes, and comes up to the house of heaven! for not till then shall we be free from it. God, it is like the morning of the resurrection—the Indwelling sin hath taken a lease of our souls, and day when we shall come out of great tribulation into holds them by our own lives: it will be in us to the the presence of God and the Lamb. When he sits last gasp, and as the heart is the last that dies, so also under the preached Word, and hears the voice of the is that corruption that lodgeth in it. But yet die it shepherd leading and feeding his soul, it reminds him must, and die it shall; and this is the comfort of a of the day when the Lamb that is in the midst of the child of God, that though he brought sin with him throne shall feed him and lead him to living fountains into the world, yet he shall not carry it with him out of waters. When he joins in the psalm of praise, it of the world. As death came in by sin, so also shall reminds him of the day when his hands shall strike sin itself be destroyed by death.-llopkins. the harp of God

" Where congregations ne'er break up,
And Sabbaths have no end."

Edinburgh: Printed and Published by John JOANSTONE, When he retires, and meets with God in secret in

Hunter Square. London: R. GROOMBRIDGE & Sons.

Glasgow : J. R. M Nair & Co.; and to be had by order his closet, or, like Isaac, in some favourite spot near of all Booksellers throughout the Kingdom.

THE CHRISTIAN TREASURY.

13

ON THE EQUITY AND BENIGNITY OF THE DIVINE LAW.

BY JOHN BROWN, D.D., EDINBURGH.

Tuz object of the following remarks is to prove in its SANCTION; and it is my object to show, and illustrate the general principle, that the law that in all these, however rebel man may atof God, which opposes man's natural inclina- tempt to persuade himself to the contrary, the tions, and which secures that he shall be pu- law is "holy," faultless, excellent, being both nished for following these inclinations, is a most “ JUST and GOOD." righteous and benignant appointment. “The I. First, then, the PRINCIPLES of the law are law is not sin.” There is nothing wrong with just and good. The principles of the divine law the law. It is a faultless institution_“ It is are three; first, That the will of God should be holy,"—perfect-everything that it ought to be man's rule'; secondly, That if man violate this “just and good.”

rule, he should be punished; and, thirdly, That A law that is inconsistent with truth and the punishment should be such as appears to right, that infringes the rights of any being, is the Lawgiver adequate to the offence. Now, all not a holy law-it is an unjust law. A law the these principles are just and good. Is it not native tendency of which, is not to prevent or just and right, that the will of the Being who is remove, but to create and increase misery, is infinite in knowledge, in wisdom, and in moral not a holy law-it is a mischievous law; but a excellence, should be the governing rule of all law which unites in it the character of righ- intelligent beings, especially as he is the Createousness and benignity, which is at once tor and they the creatures, entirely dependent " just and good”—that is a “boly" or faultless on him for all they are and all they have! Is law.

it not right, so far as he is concerned ? Does That this is the character of the divine law, he not deserve this honour : And is it not is the proposition which I mean to demonstrate; right in reference to them! What right of and, in doing so, I do not at all feel as if I were their's does it invade? How can they have a undertaking an unnecessary work-wasting my right to govern themselves apart from, or in labour, spending my strength for nought, in opposition to, his will? And is it not obviously proving what no one denies; for though few as good as right? What can so directly tend to, will make the denial in so many words, the what can so completely secure, the greatest posgreat body of mankind-all men, indeed, until sible happiness, as the execution of the will of they are taught of the Spirit-cherish doubts of Him whose nature as well as whose name is the righteousness and benignity of the divine love? Just in the degree in which any will is law; and, under the shelter of these doubts, try concerned in the production of events, unreguto shield themselves from the conviction that lated by, unsubjected to his will, must there be they are unprovoked and utterly inexcusable happiness prevented or misery induced. offenders in every instance in which they have Then, is it not right that the violation of the violated that law, that every sin is equally righteous, benignant will of God, should be foolish and wicked, and that it possesses both punished? Would it not shock all our ideas these qualities in a degree to which we can set no of right, that he who regards, and he who dislimits. Till these “refuges of lies” are entirely regards the law and the Lawgiver, should stand swept away-till the sinner's mouth is entirely on the same level : The justice of this prinstopped, and he is constrained to bring in him-ciple is universally practically acknowledged; self guilty before God—till he is made to see for all human laws are sanctioned by penalties. that, in the quarrel between him and God, he and is uot this good as well as right? Is not has been uniformly and entirely in the wrong, the threatened punishment fiied io deter all and God uniformly and entirely in the right, from violating the law?-and is not the inflicted he never will, he never can, be made to per- punishment fitted to furnish those who have ceive the value and excellence of the Christian not offended with an additional motive to keep salvation, or gladly and gratefully to receive the law, the breaking of which, they see, leads what is freely given him of God, but which can to such painful consequences ! never be obtained in any other way-pardon, And, then, as to the third principle. Is it peace, holiness, hope," the salvation which is not right that the punishment should be apin Christ with eternal glory.”

pointed by God? He is the Supreme Sovereign, The law is a revelation of the will of God, and, properly, too, a disinterested Person. His for the regulation of man as an intelligent and essential happiness and glory are not, cannot active being, with this proviso, that if man be, affected by the sin of man. He is ipfinite refuse to regulate himself by this revelation, in wisdom, and knows exactly what is the dehe exposes himself to such punishment as is gree and form of punishment which will best adequate to the offence in the estimation of

serve the great end in view—the exhibition of the Lawgiver. The law thus defined may be his own moral excellence in the order and hapviewed in its PRINCIPLES, in its PRECEPTS, and piness of intelligent being; and his essential

2.

March 7, 1845.

benignity secures that no unnecessary suffering imperfection in obedience, there is a non-fulfilshall be produced.

ling of the law—that is, there is disobedience; It is obviously good, too, as well as right, that and what kind of a law would that be which this prerogative of sovereignty should belong to, makes provision for being satisfied with disobeand be exercised by, God. In what hands in the dience? And as to the second, though it is not universe could such a power be safe but in his, right for human laws to interfere with internal whose infinite power is not only regulated by principles, for two reasons—that they cannot infinite wisdom, but by infinite righteousness; afford the means of obedience, and they cannot and in all its operations influenced by infinite certainly discover disobedience, so as to punish benignity? That the fundamental principles it-yet, for the same reasons substantially, viz., of the divine law are just and good, is so evi- that God can furnish the means of guiding the dent, that it may seem to require an apology internal principles, and can discover when these to have made even these few observations, means are honestly applied, it is right that the for the purpose less of demonstrating the fact, divine law should regulate conviction and disthan of showing that it needs no demonstration. positions, as well as actions. Indeed, it would

II. I go on to remark, in the second place, not be right were not God, who is a Spirit, rethat the PRECEPTS of the law are just and good. quiring worship in spirit and in truth. For Now, what are the precepts of the divine law ? HM to be satisfied with mere external services They are very numerous, for the law is very would be obviously incongruity. broad, and reaches to every part of man's na That the preceptive part of the law of God ture-regulating his opinions, liis dispositions, is good, calculated to produce happiness, may his actions, in all the variety of relation and be very easily made plain to the mind of every circumstances in which he can be placed. But reflecting person. Yes, we may truly say, with numerous as are its requisitions, we have a regard to all the ordinances and commandcomplete summary of them in the following ments of the divine law : “ The Lord hath very comprehensive words: “Thou shalt love commanded us to do all these statutes for our the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and soul, and good always.” To love, fear, and trust God in strength, and mind. This is the first and great the manner the law requires, lays a deep founcommandment; and the second is like unto it, dation for true, permanent happiness. Without Thou shelt love thy neighbour as thyself.” obeying these commands, man cannot be happy.

Now, are not both these commandments right? In the degree in which he obeys them he is Would there not be an obvious violation of right happy, and he makes others happy. Is it not if they were otherwise than they are? Is it not evident, that to pay a strict regard to the laws right to love, to love supremely, Ilim who is of truth, justice, and benevolence, is the shortest supremely lovely, who is infinitely kind—to fear road to happiness ? Is not by far the greater supremely Him who is supremely venerable, part of the misery of man the direct effect of possessed, as He is, of infinite power, wisdom, violating God's law ! Are not all the comand righteousness-to trust entirely Hinn who manded affections pleasurable? Are not all is supremely trustworthy? And could He, with the forbidden, malignant passions, painful? Is out injustice to himself, have demanded less of not a benevolent man generally a happpy man? us? Would it not have been incongruous and is not a malignani man always a miserable one? monstrous for Him to have enjoined less than Would the world have been happier had God the love of the who heart, and soul, and permitted or enjoined gluttony and drunkenstrength, and mind? And as to the second ness, instead of temperance; and if, instead of great commandment, which is like the first, is checking natural appetite, had given it loose it not right also? Does not its rectitude stand reins? Fleshly lusts war against the soul, and out in strong relief, when we contemplate it in the body too, and the abstiñence from them the form our great Master exhibited it: “What which the law of God requires, is necessary for soever ye would that men should do to you, do the comfort of the life that now is, as well as to ye even so to them?” Would the law have been the happiness of that which is to come. Aman right if it had required anything else, anything entirely conformed to the law of God, would less, than this?

be as happy as it is possible to be out of heaven. There seems no gainsaying these statements. And what a delightful scene would society preYet there are two things in reference to the sent, if the laws of piety, truth, justice, and preceptive part of the divine law, that many benevolence, were universally practised ! “Vioare disposed to think scarcely consistent with lence would no more be heard in our land, what is right-what is reasonable in the whole wasting nor destruction within our borders.” circumstances of the case. The first is, the There would be universal, permanent peace demand of absolute perfection in the perfor- among nations, and mankind would attain to mance of every duty; the other, the extending a height of civilization, a measure of happiness, the preceptive part of the law to the inward which the most sanguine philosophical philanprinciple, as well as to the external actions. thropist has never dared to anticipate. But, with regard to the first, who does not see III. It only remains, now, that I endeavour that for a law to permit imperfection, is to shortly to show, thirdly, that the sanctions of destroy itself? In the degree in which there is the law of God are just and good. The divine

ON TIIE EQUITY AND BENIGNITY OF THE DIVINE LAW.

15

law is not a mere injunction of duty; it in- will continue for ever to sin; and, on that cludes in it a provision that, if this injunction ground, it must be just that they should for be neglected or disobeyed, the transgressor ever continue to suffer. shall be visited with adequate punishment. The goodness of the penal sanction of the This is ordinarily termed the penal sanction of divine law may seem less susceptible of satisthe law. We have already seen, in our re- factory proof than its justice. Yet we believe inarks on the first department of our subject, it to be capable of being shown, beyond the that it is just and right that the divine law possibility of rational contradiction, that this should be thus sanctioned. My object at pre- awful appointment is not only consistent with, sent is to show that the sanction adopted is a but illustrative of, the divine benignity; not, just and good one.

certainly, of his permanent benignant regards to The sanction of the law is stated in such those who have abused so much goodness, and passages of Scripture as these: “ The soul that drawn from the reluctant hand of Jehovah sinneth shall die;"_“ The wages of sin is the thunderbolts of his wrath-all proofs of death ;"_“ Cursed is every one that continueth | love to them (and they were neither few nor not in all things written in the book of the law, small) are past—but of his benignant regards to do them.” And they who are finally con to the great body of intelligent moral beings demned for disobedience, are doomed to the in the universe. In punishing irreclaimable “ everlasting fire prepared for the devil and offenders, a wise and benevolent government his angels;" and are said to “ go away into discovers its benignant regards to its subjects everlasting punishment.” Every sinner ex- generally; not to punish such offenders adepases himself to the displeasure of God, to be quately would, in a variety of ways, be inmanifested in the manner which seems fit to justice and unkindness to their fellow-subjects. his wisdom and justice; and, unless pardon is The manifestation of the true character of the obtained " through the redemption that is in Supreme Legislator and Judge of all worlds, is Christ Jesus," this displeasure will continue to the ultimate end of the universe ; and it is the be manifested during the whole eternity of the grand means, too, of securing the order, and transgressor's being.

holiness, and happiness, of the intelligent part Doubts have often been thrown out as to of it. This manifestation is made by approthe justice and goodness of this arrangement; priate works. By works indicative of design, and, on this ground, some have been rash enough he shows his wisdom; by deeds of power, he to call in question, and even to deny, a doc- shows his omnipotence; by wonderful works of trine very clearly stated in Holy Writ- the kindness, he shows his benignity; by awful judgeternity of future punishment. With what ments on the workers of iniquity, he manifests justice such doubts are cherished will appear his holiness and righteousness. All these works from the following remarks :-Few will deny are intended, and fitted to produce in the that sin deserves punishment; and as to the minds of intelligent beings, such impressions degree in which sin is to be punished, assuredly of the all-perfect character of Jehovah, as go the sinner is not the most qualified judge. to form, in rational beings, that character Sin-any sin, every sin--includes in it an which is necessary to their permanent happiamount of moral evil, and, therefore, of crimi. That man gives clearer evidence of arrodal desert, which no human mind can fully gance than of penetration, who, after reflecting estimate. There is in it unnatural conduct on these statements, denies that the penal sanctowards a father--ingratitude towards a bene- tion of the law is not only consistent with, but factor-rebellious conduct towards a sovereign ; illustrative of, benignity as well as righteousand all these heightened inconceivably by the ness. The effect which such a manifestation of infinite excellence and the innumerable and in the holiness and righteousness of God is calcuappreciable benefits of Him who wears all these lated to produce on holy intelligences, is strikcharacters. He who reflects on this will be ingly illustrated in the Apocalypse, where the cautious how he asserts that sin cannot deserve smoke from the ruins of the mystical Babylon, unending punishment.

rising up for ever and ever, is represented as It is also worthy of his consideration, how far giving new energy to “ that undisturbed song soffering can remove blameworthiness; and he of pure concert, aye sung before the sapphirewould do well to ask himself if the statement coloured throne, to Him who sits thereon, with does not seem agreeable to right and reason, saintly shout and solemn jubilee.”* “And after that while just desert of punishment remains, these things I heard a great voice of much there can be no injustice in inflicting the de- people in heaven, saying, Alleluia ; Salvation, served punishment? When a sinner can stand and glory, and honour, and power, unto the up before the Eternal Judge and say, I have Lord our God: for true and righteous are his suffered so much and so long, that I am be- judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, coine perfectly innocent, he may, on the ground | 'which did corrupt the earth with her fornicaof justice, plead that his sufferings should ter- tion, and hath avenged the blood of his serminate; but not till then.* Besides, there is vants at her hand. And again they said, reason to believe that the finally condemned Alleluia. And her smoke rose up for ever and

• Smalley,

ness.

• Milton,

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