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WHOLE No. 934.
BOSTON, SATURDAY, FEB. 3, 1877.
VOL. XXXVI. No, 22.
BY O. P. CRANCH,
Written for the Annual Dinner of the Harvard Musical Association, Jan. 22, 1877.
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducits Daphnin.-
Fill the cauldron-light the fire,
Let there be no crude distortion;
alone that the taste prevailed, and they scem Mix them well in due proportion,
to have recognized in some degree its importFill the Hall with Boston nobbies;
ance as a moral agent-an importance too litLight the gas, and clear the lobbies;
tle maintained and less understood. Of ancient Let there be no empty spaces;
Greek music a few fragments alone have come Band, and leader-take your places!
down to us, and we are not sure that we have Grave bassoons preluding stutter
properly interpreted these even-nevertheless Reedy pipes cadenzas utter
they form the basis of the church music of the
Some writers think that the opera has been
derived from the tragedies of classic times. Take your seats;--the concert's ready.
We see, in the recitative, a copy of the musical
declamations of these plays, and they consider We weird sisters at our station
a chorus of the modern opera exactly similar in Still intone our incantation : Double, double, toil and trouble!
function to the chorus of the ancient Greeks.
But ages before the rise of the opera, the full
understanding of the ancient tragedy as a theaMusic is its own rewarder;
tre-piece had been lost, the mode of putting it Art alone be your endeavor,
on the stage, the importance of the actor, and Art is Labor's joy forever!
the amount of musical aid given,-all these
were unknown. Far more likely is it that the Come then, elves and fairies tripping, Slowly gliding, swiftly skipping;
opera was a gradual development of those
strange mystery and morality-plays, which exSprites of grottoes, woods and monntains, Sunlit streams and moonlit fountains!
isted among all nations in the dark ages, the Come, ye thunder storm-Bestriders!
precise origin of which cannot be traced, as Come, ye wild Walpurgis-Riders !
they were probably the expression of the natuPowers of earth and air and ocean,
ral love of man for spectacle, for show, for Set the according strains in motion,
mimicry and impersonation. As ye may, come mingle, mingle,
The opera began in Florence towards the end Till our souls and senses tingle.
of the 16th century, some say with "Il Satiro" Come ye Masters and Enchanters!
of CAVALIERE (about 1590), others the Ye are wine, and we decanters;
“Dafne,” of J. Peri (1597). “Orfeo" was Of our best ye are the mixers,
the first opera published. This was by MontFill us up with life's elixirs !
EVERDE (1617, at the court of Mantua), a bold Come old Bach with fugues ascending,
adventure in the hitherto untrodden domain of Still beginning, never ending;
harmony. Peri and Cavaliere had their operas Come thou soul of great Beethoven
accompanied by orchestra, and both the orWith thy harmonies inwoven;*
chestral and vocal parts were by them increased Handel with thy sacred chorus,
by the introduction of preludes, interludes, and Cheerful Haydn, bover o'er us;
ensemble pieces for the singers. Monteverde Come, Mozart melodious, tender;
did more. He much improved the orchestra, Meadelssohn, of joy the sender;
introduced new instruments, and anticipated in Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, Weber
some degree the principles of instrumentation And all ye whose joyous labor
now adopted, that all the instruments in the Has with Music's blessings crowned us,
orchestra should not play at one time, but Scattering rich delights around us
should be brought in, in different combinations; Come, and tune our festive pleasure
their united force being reserved for some parTo a consecrated measuro.
ticular occasion. Ye who, led by Music, gather
The first public performance, in a regular Here in spite of wintry weather,
manner, of a musical piece was in 1637, when May Apollo grant, propitious,
"Andromeda," written by F. MARCELLO, was All success our friends may wish us.
put on the stage. Next year appeared "La May this good Association
Maga fulminata” and between 1641 and 1649 Keep an elevated station,
thirty different operas, by different composers, Friendly stand in each relation,
saw the light. The last of this series was the 'Scape the censures of the Nation'
"Orontea ” of M. CESTI, which was played at Or whatever other paper
Venice, and which lived forty years. This Holds aloft its critic-taper,
city took the lead in musical performances, and Now by all good sprites attended,
from 1637 on for three-quarters of a century, By harmonious powers befriended,
three hundred and fifty operas were given Go yo hence-in friendship blended.
there. The “Berenice" of D. FUSCHI, given Sisters-cease-the charm is ended!
at Padua in 1680, may be be taken among • I may state that this rhyme was written long before lar effects which then were produced on the
these as a specimen of the wonderful spectacuI had seen Dr. Holmes's poem in the Allantic.
stage. In this piece there were choruses of
100 virgips, of 100 soldiers, of 100 horsemen; The Rise of Opera
40 cornet players, 6 trumpeters, 6 drummers,
6 players on great flutes, 6 on octave flutes I.
helped to make what must have been but a din;
6 pages, 3 scrjeants, 6 cymbalists, 12 huntsIt is noteworthy that it was only after the men, 12 grooms, 16 coachmen, were among the decay of paintiug and sculpture that the art of actors; there was a triumphal car, drawn by music rose into full importance. But music four horses, 6 other cars, 6 coaches, 2 elephants, had in some form or other existed from the ear
2 lions; the scenery was splendid; at one time liest ages. Without doubt the Greeks and Ro- the stage was transformed into a stable, conmans had their musical era.
That of Rome taining 100 live horses, then again into a forended with Nero, himself a would-be-musician cst, with every beast, of chase, then into a and performer. The Greeks cultivated music grand allegorical representation, in which an thoroughly, and considered it an art of great enormous globe descended from the sky. digpity: but it was among the higher classes
A. STRADELLA, a Neapolitan, wrote oratori.
os and an opera, called “La forza dell'amor have copied Lulli's style in his overtures. Cer- this topic his attention in the third volume of his paterno, ” which was to be performed at Genoa, tain it is that Lulli made great improvements history. but the composer met with an untimely in the form and style of this part of the opera
Our object, now, is simply to give the opinions death there in 1670. CAVALLI may also be performance.
of different individuals concerning our present styled one of the fathers of the Italian opera. At his death, the operatic company was car.
musical status. Let us first learn what men abroad In his first work of this kind, “Giasmo," he ried on by COLASSE, DESTOUCHES, and Campea,
say of us, and then let us also hear the words of
one, who has, as introduced arias, and modulation, or change of assisted in the libretti by Fontenelle, Dauchet,
were, seen our musical stractore key to represent change of feeling. SCARLATTI La Fontaine. Of all this music little now re
grow, who has helped to build it, and who has,
since 1845, been identified with musical journal. (1650—1761) wrote about 112 operas. The li- mains, though it held its sway till the middle bretto was then formed to suit the music, and of the last century, when it was displaced by
The New York Tribune staff correspondent who consequently it was very dull and absurd.' Po- RAMEAU.. This great theorist and composer attended Wagner's festival
, at Bayrenth, had the etry and music must be allied; if not, they was born in 1683. He reached the age of fifty pleasure of meeting Liszt. Of course, the conferboth forget their high artistic aims. Scarlatti's before he composed his first opera, "Hippolite sation soon turned upon America and the progress son and grandson were also musicians and com et Aricie,” and gained possession of the French of musical art in our country. The reporter inposers. A. CALDERA passed his life in the im- stage. Nevertheless, when in 1752 an Italian formed Liszt of the fact, that the new "German perial service, and died at the seat of the em company came to Paris, it met with some suc School” was making rapid progress in these Unit pire in 1763, where also his last opera, “Achille cess, and made some sensation, playing “La ed States, and that special attention was being paid in Seno"
was performed. These were the serva padrona," of Pergolesi. This rival com to Liszt's and Wagner's works. When mention was principal composers of that day. It no longer pany caused a great paper war; Rousseau took | made of Thomas and his orchestra, it was found that became imperative that subjects should be cho up the cudgels for the Italian school, saying (We suspected Bo !) Dudley Buck's programme to
Liszt was well acquainted with Thomas's doings. sen from mythology; men and women came on the French language was so uomusical, that it the stage, and spoke as men and women: the was incapable of being used on the operatic after learning as to how the Symphony was per.
Liszt's Dante Symphony was also mentioned, and whole thing gradually became more rational stage-(he himself composed an opera, Le formed, Liszt expressed himseli gratified, saying, and more artistic, and those who helped more Devin du Village," a little, simple, melodious " but we are not so far advanced yet in Germany; you than others were Scarlatti and Caldera by abol. piece, which is still performed in France !). do more than we dare attempt. The explanatory, proisbing fugues, canons, and contrapuntal con The Chevalier de Murky's pamphlet was the gramme too The writer reports. that Liszt trivances, and Zeno and Metastasio by linking principal one on the other side. The King and showed his gratification with the fraukness of a with dramatic music true poetry.
Queen took sides, and openly espoused the dif- child. The Italian opera then was, according to com ferent schools. The partisans of the Italians The same reporter also met a number of musical mon ideas, a story told by numerous songs, set sat on one side of the theatre, and were called conductors, and found that they too had heard of to beautiful airs and intended to vindicate the “Coin de la Reine;" the French party sat on the Thomas, (and why should they not ?). He showed emotional against the merely scientific side of opposite side, and styled themselves “Coin du
them five or six programmes of Thomas's concerts in music, It was divided into opera seria, sacra, Roi.” The departure of this foreign company
Central Park Garden, and, says the reporter, "You and buffa. Of the sacra or the oratorio, we was celebrated by the performance of Rameau's
would have been surprised at the astonishment with
which they were read." “ And pray," said the have nothing to do here.
chef d'æuore, “Castor et Pollux." Rameau leader of an orchestra in an important city, "how Now to turn to Germany. Operas, it is said, was considered to have begun a new era in mu
often did Thomas give these concerts ? As often were performed in this country early in the sic, but his system is now thought false, and as once a week?' When he was informed that seventeenth century, but all traces of these his works are forgotten, even in France. these concerts were given every night, they all have been lost. About 1630, Martin Opitz Though the foreigners themselves had gone, agreed that in some respects America was far in translated the “Dafne” of Rinucci, and it they left many supporters in Paris, and for advance of Gerinany: was performed at Dresden. He was called the years sent over composers to settle them, so But then, just about the time when the Tribune Father of German drama. About twenty years that the rivalry became as it were a national report reached us, we also received a copy of the afterwards, the time of the Emperor Leopold, one, and continued fiercely. A native con
Vienna Theatre Journal, in which we found a report music and foreign artists were patronized at temporary composer of Rameau's, MENDEN written by Mr. Bonawitz, forinerly of Philadelphia, Court, and it was in 1678 that the first cpera VILLE, when he was going to bring out his
but now residing at the Austrian capital. lo this was publicly represented. This was Thiele's
"Titan et Aurore,” had to call in the support report, our musical status is also the subject under “ Adain and Eve," at Hamburg. About twen- and protection of the powerful Pompadour.
consideration, and from the differences of opinions, ty-eight years afterwards, KEISER composed His chief work was Dafbnis et Alcimadure;" | all mean it well with their country and the trath.
we may learn, at least, how men may differ and for for the same theatre. His day was splendid, it was written in the patois of Languedoc, a No matter what conclusions we may arrive at, after but short-lived; he wrote 118 operas, and kept dialect much fitted to music. DUNI (a success comparing these reports from abroad, it is to be an undisputed popularity for forty years. His ful rival to Pergolesi at Rome) now arrived to hoped, that these very different views of two inteloriginality was great, but the state of the Ger-support the Italian Theatre. His first work ligent men will cause us to study ourselves more man stage was not high and required the to Le peintre amoureux:"then, after some thoroughly tal reformation which Metastasio brought years, he wrote “L'ecole de la jeunesse,” We can only giva Bonawitz's ideas, the republi. with him when he came to pass all his life at of the first specimens of the Opera à ariettes." calion of the entire article would make ours too Vienna.
such as our own ballad-opera. The best writ- ' lengthy. He starts out by saying, that Boston is In France, the opera was also derived from er of this style was Favart (1710–1792), who | the principal musical city of these United States, Italy, through the works of Rinucci (1577). wrote many comic operas. It will be sufficient and that in a measure she deserves this honor. He About half a century afterwards Cardinal Maz- to mention the names merely of Ledaine, Mon- further says, that men have lived there for years, arin brought over an Italian company, wbo signy, and Philidor, as writers of these pretty
who meant it honestly with classic music, who played “ La finta pazza,”. of STROZZI, and a light operas, but GRETRY (1741–1792) de- spared no pains, nor considered any labor too great, musical theatre was established in Paris (1655). serves a larger notice. Leader of the Italian lates an instance which is worth repeating. Some
to make it known among the people. Bonawilz reBut French ballets were the fashion, and by school in France, he became, after an early thirty years ago, he says, a German, by the name these LULLI first made his name; and then, as and well-nigh quenching struggle, very popu- of Schmitt, made the first atteinpt at playing in • sisted by QUINAULT, he ventured on the opera, lar. Marmontel, Ledaine, D'Hele, an English: concert a Beethoven Symphony with an orchestra, which made his fame. · Proserpine," "Phaë- man, wrote for him.
“Lucile Le Huron, But the day following, he (Schmitt), was dismissed ton, " "Amadis," " Roland," are some of the
“Le tableau parlant,' ** Zémire et Azore," from his position as conductor. The cause was works for which Lulli got all the renown, and were his successful comic pieces; his tragedies this: In the rehearsal he took the tempi as slow as poor Quinault but little credit. Finally the of “Andomaque,” and “Céphale et Procris," his musicians then could stand them, and thus it friends quarrelled, and Quinault retired to did not take. “Zemire et Azore," and "Rich- came, that the first part of the oth Symphony was atone by à devout life for his past sins. Lulli's ard Ceur de Lion,” were afterwards success performed in Andantino time. In the concert, how. best opera is “Armide” (1686). It did not at fully adapted to the English stage. His works ever, he, the rash leader, dared to start in Allegretfirst meet with success, but later on, by one of were produced in regular succession down to to time, and, to his surprise, neither the musicians those capricious turns of popular favor, it rap the year 1797.
His last was
nor the audience liked the Symphony in that huridly became the The libretto of it
ried time, in consequence of which he was uncereWe shall now see that the French are indebted moniously dismissed. Bonawitz considers the fact
, was afterwards reset by Rameau, and again, for their present excellent school to the compo- that Bostonians worked themselves up to the Alle more recently still, Marthe le Rochois, one of sitions of Italians and Germans, J, S.
gro con brio, a sure indication of an earnest striv. these singular instances of success not being
Lond. Mus, Standard.
ing. The writer also mentions the fact, that Boston intoxicating, was Lulli's principal singer. . La
is the city in which Puritanism flourishes most, and Maupin also came out in Lulli's pieces. "Psy
that the musical performances, therefore, are main. che," and "Acis and Galatea,” were others of
ly of a religious character. (!) Bnt, nevertheless, his works. “Achille and Polyeuxes were at
he continues, there it was where Strauss and his his death finished by another. Though Lulli
(From Brainard's Musical World, Cleveland, Ohia) waltzes met with most remarkable results. Bodawas an Italian, he formed a style entirely for
witz now applies the knise, and says, that all Amer. himself. His airs were easy and natural, but lovers of art and country. Much has been said trace to be found of that love for music, which Bos
. Our musical progress is a subject of interest to all ican music life ends in Boston. Nowhere else is a his recitatives pleased his adopted countrymen about it, and men, naturally enough, do differ in tonians cherish for the art, Experiments with, and
Voltaire considered them inimitable. His music is very rare. Purcell did “not dis- our future progress; comparisons might be made their opinions. Much might be said in regard to attempts at the performance of classic music have
been made here and there, but they do not survive. dain to imitate the compositions of the favorite between us and other nationalities; but this is nut The concertist who provides a Symphonic part, or of Louis le Grand," and Handel is said to the object of this article. Mr. Ritter will give an overture in the first part of his programme, mast
offer potpourries and waltzes in the second as an he does err, on the side of patriotism, and if we dif. their education will allow them, shall have learned apology for such rashı attempts. The writer also fer with him as to what our status now is, we will the truth. Music is designed for the masses, it be. praises Thomas, and says, it is tortucate for Ameri. not be found to differ when it comes to expression longs to the masees, it is one of the principal means ca that this conductor, in order to sustain his or. of hopes for our future progress, and well wishes outside of Christianity, to refine the masses, and we chestra, is obliged to travel, else the little love for to our growth in all that will make a people good are glad that the gospel of inusic is preached by good mu sic which does exist, would have died out. and noble. And here we leave our Reporter. Thomas, in a manner that leaves nothing to wish It is to be deplored, he continues, that Americans Mr. Bonawitz says much that is true, and much for. Surely, it is better that the Gospel should be Jack that solid basis for a musical education, which in which we cannot agree with him. He is right, offered to the people in its most attractive and effecis necessary, in order to understand those composi. when he says, that Boston is our musical capital, tive form, rather than in a defective manner, forcing tions, which Thomas's orchestra performs, as well as and that for many years men have lived there who the people to spell it out for themselves. We fear to comprehend their object.
meant it honestly with art. He is also correct in that not many would take that trouble. Among a thousand music teachers, nine hundred saying that men, teachers with correct taste and We well remember what music and musical art and ninety-nine, he asserts, use nothing but dance earnest zeal, live in other cities. But when he as was in this country, only 22 years ago, and rejoice music with their pupils, or at farthest they use Go.serts, that musical life ends with Boston, when he to say, that the art has made gigantic steps in the ria, Ascher, etc. Clementi or Mozart is seldom charges that out of a thousand teachers, nine hun advance, without wishing thereby to imply, that heard, and, says the writer, with such culture there dred' and ninety-nine use but dance music, that we are the most musical people in the world. is talk of interest in, and comprehension of mu. those who aspire higher, will only rise to the use sic! of Goria's and Asher's music, that Mozart and Cle.
Purcell Bonawitz, however, makes a few noble excep-menti are not used, etc.,—then he is too severe on tions. He mentions names of teachers in larger cit. his country. We do not attribute this to a lack of (From the London Musical Times, Jan. 1.) ies, who mean it well with art. These few, howev. patriotism, but rather to those high art views which er, he claims, cannot stem the tide. Many years our friend Henry entertains, and with which he
The following is the substance of a paper read will yet have to pass, says B., until every large city measures everything, together with the fact, that before the Musical Association (London) on Monday will have its permanent orchestra.
while he lived in this country he had but limited the 4th ult. The musical illustrations performed So much of Bonawitz! In an article, entitled means of gathering information, although we know
were- Airs, “ Sweet tyranness;
» « When I am laid " Musical Malerialism," written by Mr.John S.Dwight, that he will deny this. We receive, pear in year in earth ;" Fugue, Ġ micor; Motett, “ Jehovah and published in his Journal of June 26, 1875, he, out, programmes of concerts and recitals given in also, touches upon the subject of our musical status conservatories, in seminaries, even in smaller towns, quam multi : " Song, “Nymphs ani Shepherds; ” It will, no doubt, be of interest to our readers to which prove that Mr. Bonawitz underrates our Scene from “ The Libertine: ”hear what a writer like Mr. Dwight has to say. progress. Doubtless there is a terrible amount of Once, he remarks, we loved fine music, now we seem ignorance prevailing among teachers of music, but A most pleasant and picturesque introduction to to care more about the way in which it is present we know, also, that there are teachers in smaller the Purcell family is to be found in Pepys' Diary, ed. Once we were thankful to get at the soul and towns, and we could name some of them, who have under date Feb. 21, 1659, where we find this entry:
· After dinner I back to Westminster Hall with him meaning of a noble composition, through whatever for years made honest efforts to raise their pupils to means of most inadequate performance, by slow de. a higher grade of music. As editor, we have am. (Mr. Crewe) in his coach. Here I met with Mr. grees, striving to meet the intention half way, thus ple opportunity of judging of the doings of teachers, Lock and Pursell, Masters of Musique, and with exercising our own brain, and spelling out as it and while by far the majority use poor music, the them to the Coffee House; into a room next the water were, the divine word from an obscure and faded proportions are not as alarming as Mr. Bunawitz by ourselves, where we spent an hour or two.
Here we had variety of brave Italian and Spanish copy with a perseverance pretty sure to be reward-gives them.
songs, and a canon for eight voices, which Mr. Lock ed with an undying love of the ideal treasure, when If Mr. Dwight is correct, then we are, in a senge,
had lately made, on these words, Domine Salvum fac we had once reached it. We of the past generation npon the downward course. In this we do not Regem, an adınirable thing.
Here out of the owe all our love of Beethoven to the repetition agree with him; we go further, and say, that as a
window it was a most pleasant sight to see the City year after year of-not indifferent, for they were people, we have not yet reached the zenith of our
from one end to the other with a glory about it. 80 hearty—but of quite imperfect performances. Nor musical growth. We do not know the editor of the high was the light of the bonfires, and so thick could the most technically perfect rendering of a Journal, but we regard highly what he has done for round the City, and the bells rang everywhere." Symphony by an ideal orchestra, say that of Thom. the cause of music, and would not dare to differ with as, add one iota to the love and feeling for it in him, except with the assurance of respect, which is which is reprinted in the new one now in course of
Lord Braybrooke's edition of Pepys has a noto which these persons bad grown up before. Nay, due to one, who has done as much for the refine- publication, to the effect that the two gentlemen many of them loved those Symphonies too well, ment and culture of his country as he has. not to be able to convict Thomas's renderings, in If we do read right, between the lines of his arti. Purcell, both celebrated composers ;” but this is an
named in the text were " Matthew Lock and Henry spite of all their wonderful precision, their search cle, we believe much of that feeling displays itself, undoubted error, to which I have called the attening accent, their euphonious blending of pure tone which pioneers cherish against modern improve tion of the learned Editor, the Rev. Mynors Bright. qualities, their light and shade, their exquisite ele. ments ; or in another comparison, we think we can
It certainly could not have been Henry Purcell the gance of finish,-of frequent perversions of the spir. 'read those objections, which old christians often
composer, for although we know that he commenced it, tempo and intention of their movements. A pho- make against the modern temple, with its fine pews his musical career at a very early age, he was only tograph, says Mr. Dwight, may be wonderfully fine and winduws. rich carpeting and pulpit, organ and
one year old at the dato Pepys inade the entry in as such, and yet produce the dear face as we never chandelier, simply because they themselves became his diary; and adinitting he might have had a very wish to see it. The writer evidently puts the whole converted, and worshipped God honestly, and sin. lovely voice even at that period, I cannot believe he in a nutshell when he says that in Music, as in all cerely in the old log church, and because they, fear would have been considered a desirable addition to arts, the moment the manner, the execution, comes that the love for truth, for God and religion, will be Mr. Pepys's musical party. As no mention is made to be thought of more account than the matter, than no longer as pure, as unselfish, and as humble as it of the Christian name of Purcell, we must conclude the composition, the ideal contents of the work
that Pepys met either the uncle, Thomas Purcell, or the rendering than the programme—and that we are Such feelings and suspicions are not always un: the father, Henry Purcell. guilty of this fault, Mr. D, plainly intinates.) that just. Modern civilization, is not always calculated The uncle was undoubtedly a musician of reputa: moment, he says, toe are making progress in the deca to strengthen men's characters, nor to refine their tion and ability. Various entries in official and dence of art
heart's emotions. Modern civilization is not favora- Court records testify to the nunierous apprintments Here we have three opinions, each differing from ble to art progress, says Wagner. Of course no one he held, such as Gentleman in Ordinary of the Voice the other. The first is, that we are pronounced to would suspect that Mr. Dwight would return to the and Lute to His Majesty, Composer to the Violins be in advance of Germany; the second that we are time, when Schmitt made his rash attempt at tak. to His Majesty, and Lay Vicar of Westminster Ab. yet like babes, and lack that basis of education, | ing the first part of the fifth Symphony in Allegret- bey. His compositions are now last, with the exwhich makes us a musical people; and the third, to time, but we can understand how, some thirty or ception of two chants in frequent use in our Cathethat we are degenerating. The first writer, of course, more years ago, the noble few, (and the enthusiastic drals. A year before his death, probably feeling had the advantage of showing programmes, and the lovers of music-Dwight among them.) diligently age or infirmities creeping on, he seems to have re. advantage of speaking to people who could judge searched for the truth in music, how they found it tired from active service, for he then executed a only by these. Concert programmes are, however, and cherished it, and how, for many years they power of attorney authorizing his son Matthew to only an evidence of what has been performed, and were the prime movers in all that was good in the receive all payments due from His Majesty's Treas. not of what has been comprehended or appreciated direction of musical advancement. They were the ury, Exchequer Coffers Office, “or any other place by the masses. Thomas's programmes are as near priests, who had entered the inner temple, and, no or office whatsomever.” On his death in 1682 he faultless as programmes can probably be made ; and doubt, they were sincere when they regarded them was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. that New Yorkers, as well as the thousands who selves as the servants elect of Apollo, and as the The power of attorney I have brought for inspecvisited his concerts in other cities, went to hear his keepers of the truth. [!!] We can also imagine the tion; it is interesting, on acconnt of the autograph music, does not prove that they comprehend it feelings of those priests, when they see in these signatures of Thomas Purcell and of his niece FranYet it shows an unmistakable desire on the part of latter days, how the masses rush into the Sanctuary, ces, the wife of the celebrated Purcell, and I am in. our people to be instructed, a determination to hear many of them acting and speaking, as if they had clined to think that Pepys inet Thomas Purcell, from the best, so as to form correct and pure taste. To be no regard for it, while still others fail to recognize the little circumstance that the son of the latter was anxious to learn, is the first step towards learning, the fact, that these men have for years guarded and named Matthew, possibly out of complinient to though we do not wish to say, ibat where there is garnished the temple, offering up incense silently Locke; but it may after all have been his brother, a desire to learn, there must necessarily be also suc and sacredly, while yet the masses without, wor- Henry Purcell, the father of the great Henry, for he cess in learning. Of course, no one would doubt shipped the golden calf. It cannot be denied, that also was a musician of reputation, a member of the Bonawitz's sincerity, nor would we question the there are many among the masses, that have of late Royal Band, a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, mas. truthfulness and sincerity of the Tribune reporter, pressed their way into the temple, who have neither ter of the chorister boys of Westininster Abbey, and when we say that the virtue of patriotism, which love for, nor conception of t:e truth itself-who are music copyist of the last-namned church, an appoint. We very much admire, often leads men to see their yet in darkness. It is, therefore, but natural, that ment of considerable importance at that time. He country as they wish it to be, just as he, whose these aged priests should tremble for the future. is generally accredited with the coinposition of one heart lacks those noble impulses, fails to see the But then there are, no doubt, also those who are chant still in use bearing the name of Purcell. He good of his fellow-citizens. We are glad to see the drinking in the word, and there is hope, that the died in 1664, and was buried in the cloisters of reporter of the able New York journal erriog, if | good work will continue, until the masses, as far as Westminster Abbey. His wife survived him five
years, and although we have no record of their re may have been as gross falsification as that by which Frances all his estate, real and personal, for ber
sole use, and also nominated her executrix. We spective ages, it is probable they were both young Lady Hawkins is vilified.” at the time of their deaths.
The late Richard Clarke cannot be considered cannot find evidence bere of anything but mutual We now come to the son, Henry Purcell, “ the blameless in this Purcell matter. He was an enthu. affection and confidence. Many of you can call to boast and pride of English inusicians,” who was born siastic and kind-hearted man, but wanting in dis mind how differently Shakespeare treated his wife in St. Anne's Lane, Old Pye Street, Westminster, crimination, and too ready to draw conclusions from in his will.* in 1658.
unproved and insufficient evidence. His volume of Purcell's widow made frequent public reference to Purcell was only six years old when deprived by Glee Poetry contains the words of Purcell's catch, the dear memory of her husband, and the following
Jack, thou'rt a toper." I will read the lines and extract from her last will is specially interesting, as death of his father's caro; but his uncle Thomas, of Clarke's comments thereon:
it shows how mindful she was of his wishes, and whom I have been speaking, bestowed on him all
also that Purcell himself did not cultivate convivial the loving devotion of a parent, and immediately “Jack, thou'rt a toper, let's have t'other quart;
society to the neglect of his family and their world.
Ring, we're so sober, 'twere a shame to part; placed him where his precocious genius would re
ly interests. Mrs. Purcell says: “ According to ceive nurture and cultivation. It was an early age None but a coward, bully'd by his wife
her husband's desire, she had given her dear son to commence life as a chorister-boy in the Chapel For coming late, fears a domestic strife;
Edward good education, and she also did give him Royal, but at that time and for long after children I'm free, and so are you, to call and knock.
all the books of music in general, the organ, the generally entered choirs at the age of six or seven. Boldly the watchman cries, past two o'clock."
double spinett, the single spinett, a silver tankard, When young Purcell joined the Chapel Royal estab.
Clarke informs as that the " Jack” apostrophized a silver watch, 2 pairs of gold buttons, a hair ring, lishment he had the advantage of instruction from a
toper” was Dr. John Blow, and goes on to a mourning ring of Dr. Busby's, a larum clock, Mr. most able master, Captain Cooke, a man who had
“ There is a tradition that Purcell's death was won laurels in the battle-field fighting for his king, occasioned by a severe cold, which he caught wait.
Edward Purcell's picture, handsome fornitore for and also in the more peaceful arena of music. He ing for admittance into his own house. It is said he for.”.
a room, and he was to be maintained until provided was composer, actor, and singer, and is frequently used to keep late hours. He appears to have spent mentioned by Pepys. On the death of Cooke, his inuch time with Tom Brown, who wrote the words domestic life, and will only add that his fellow-pa
I have now said sufficient respecting Purcell's pupil Pelham Humphrey—or Humphries-became of most of his catches. The wits of that day used pil, Dr. Todway, has borne written testimony to master of the boys; and he, a man of considerable to meet at Owen Swan's in Bartholomew Lane, and The studious habits of Purcell, and of his constant genius, must have done much to develope the pow. at Parcell's Head in Wych Street. His wife had endeavors to excel in every branch of his profes ers of the young prodigy under his charge. He given orders to the servants not to let him in if he sion. lived two years to carry on the work, and was such came home after midnight. Unfortunately his com.
(To be Continued.) ceeded by Blow, also a pupil of Cooke, who doubt. panions had got hold of this and kept him lata, as less did something toward educating Purcell, At usual, which was the cause of Tom Brown writing the age of eighteen Purcell, probably through Blow's the words of the above catch, which Purcell set to Unemployed Managers, Actors and interest, was appointed music-copvist to Westmin.
music before he went home. Being refused admitster Abbey, and four years later Blow resigned the tance at home, he sat down on the step of his own
Singers in New York post of organist in his favor, from which fact we can
door and fell asleep, and through the inclemency of The haunts of actors and musicians in this city imagine how highly he must have estimated the the night contracted a disorder of which he died. genius and ability of Purcell. Blow was himself a
are now unusually full of unemployed artists. Since remarkable musician and composer, and fifteen makes use of in the Orpheus Brittanicus, for the loss have not been so many professional people without
This but ill agrees with the expressions of grief she the “hard times " set in with the panic of 1873 there years afterwards, when Purcell died, he was re-ap- of her dear lamented husband.”
engagements as at the present time, and many ex. pointed organist of the Abbey. Blow must have possessed a most amiable and generous disposition, it would seem to be almost
impossible to attempt to These interesting particulars are so precise that cellent performers on both the lyric and dramatic
stage are verging on absolute want, At Moretti's, devoid of jealousy or mean envy, for, in addition to
controvert them, but fortunately they can be shown this instance of self-sacrifice on behalf of Purcell, he to be untrne from beginning to end. The words of
a cheap café in Fourteenth street, exhibiting the
marks of maccaroni all over it, there gathers from similarly resigned his post as master of the boys of the catch were not written by Tom Brown, and are St. Paul's Cathedral in favor of another remarkable of course not to be found in his works: moreover,
day to day a host of singers bearing distinguished
names, who can only unite in singing “ Waiting" pupil
, Jeremiah Clark. Purcell's triumphs rapidly instead of Brown having written most of the words and "Sweet By and By.” At the Belvedere House, Increased, and we soon find him occupying the dis- of Purcell's catches, it is tolerably certain that Par. in Irving place, there is a family
of prime denne tinguished post of Organist of the Chapel Royal cell never set a line of Brown's
poetry. and Composer in Ordinary to his Majesty. He
hoping that some manager will appear to demand
In the year 1768 Dr. Arne gave a concert at Dru. their sweetest notes. At the Albion Club, in Fif. wrote music for the Church, the Court, and the thea. tre, producing works for each in great number: and catches ; and for that concert he published is always a host of unemployed managers and act
ry Lane Theatre, the programme consisting of glees teenth street, and at the Union Place Hotel, there But, alas ! his sunshine was all too short, for at the book of the words, which I have here. In it we early age of thirty-seven (a period whlch has proved find Purcell's “ Jack, thou’rt a toper,” with the fol
ors. It is impossible to turn one of the angles in fatal to more than one great musical genius) he lowing note: “ The words of this last catch are said be tossed against an equally idle " leading man;
Union square without jostling an idle tenor, only to ceased from his labors, and was borne to an honored to be written by Purcell, wherein, it is obvious, that and in crossing Broadway there is more danger of grave in Westminster Abbey, beneath the organ he meant no elegance with regard to the poetry, being run down by an aimless" heavy" than : which had so often resounded to his divine harmo- but made it intirely subservient to his extream pret. maddening stage,
“Old men" and "juveniles, ny. This was in the year 1695. I must now re
“old women," and "walking ladies," baritones and trace my steps to speak of Purcell's married life, ty design in the music.”
"Jack, thou'rt a toper" is to be found in Purcell's bassos, sopranos and contraltos, crowd the thor He took to himself a wife when twenty-two or twen
opera ty-three years of age, about the time he succeeded he died. The libretto was an adaptation from the hope that anything will turn up to relieve their dis
“Bonduca," composed by him the year before oughfares, meeting their old-time managers without to the organistship of Westminster, and had six play of the same name by Beaumont and Fletcher, children, four of whom died young. I have already but the alterations and additions were made anony. tists, and one of these, jast returned from the
tresses. The managers are as badly off as the arreferred to the probability that
Purcell's parents nously ; it is therefore, highly probable that Arne road.” declared the other day that it would be imwere short-lived. Coupling these significant facts is correct in assigning the words and the music of possible to succeed with a travelling comvang, eren together—the brief lives of father, mother, son, and that particular catch, “ Jack, thou’rt a toper," to if the actors were willing to work without pay. grandchildren-We have presumptive evidence of Purcell.
The theatrical and musical business has not been 30 hereditary delicacy of constitution. Purcell's wife Frances survived him eleven years, and, dying in with Tom Brown. In the year 1693, about seven.
Now let us deal with Purcell's alleged intimacy bad in many years. Most of our theatres are emp. 1706, she found a quiet resting-place by his side in teen or eighteen months before Purcell died, Brown chestra, the Philharmonic and oratorio societies,
ty. With the exception of Theodore Thomas's or. the old Abbey.
wrote and printed some very complimentary verses the Essipoff concerts and a week's musical festival I suppose must of yon are familiar with the asper. addressed to the great musician, which he headed given by Mr. James Morrissey at the Academy of sions which have been cast on the memory of Pur: thus: “Lines addressed to his unknown friend, Mr. Music, there has been no music in New York this cell's wife—the idle tale which attributes, with such Henry Purcell." These were reprinted after Pur.
The travelling opera companies, with the particularity of detail, harsh and unfeeling conduct, cell's death without note or addition, and we may, exception of the Kellogg troupe, have disbanded, resulting at last in the premature and untimely therefore, reasonably conclude that Purcell and and nearly all the dramatic companies on the road death of Purcell.
Brown never beacme acquainted. Brown's lines are have fallen to pieces. The members of these unforIt is always easy to promulgate a scandal, but too long to quute in extenso, and the following must tunate combinations have found their way to the very difficult to trace its origin, and ofttimes still suffice :
metropolis to swell the army of the unemployed, more difficult to refute it. In this case, I have lit
and Chicago is as full of idle actors as New York. tle doubt, the whole story is a base and wicked in
“What praises, Purcell, to thy skill are due,
In every direction the outlook is a gloomy one, and vention ; but, reflecting as it does on the memory
Who hast to Judan's monarch been so true!
the worst feature of the prospect is that nobody can of both Purcell and his wife, I propose briefly to
By thee he moves our hearts, by thee he reigns, tell when the clouds will break.
By theo shakes off his old inglorious chains, state my reasons for the opinion I have formed. Sir John Hawkins, the musical historian, printed
And sees new honors done to his immortal strains. the narrativo, and although he doubted its authen
In thy perforinance we with wonder find
During the war it used to be said that it was in. ticity, and suggested that Purcell might have died
Corelli's genius to Bassani join'd.
possible to shake a stick at a dog without striking of decline, yet he added some grave reflections on
Thus I, unknown, my gratitude express,
a brigadier general. Now it is impossible to trar. Purcell's presumed habits of dissipation, and of the
And conscious gratitude could do no less.
erse half a block in Broadway without encountering bad company he associated with, particularly the
This tribute from each British muse is due;
half a dozen theatrical and operatic managers with notorious Tom Brown. On Hawkins, therefore,
The whole poetick tribe's oblig'd to you.
Subsequent to the reading of this paper, a friend dirests a large share of responsibility for perpetuating
For where the author's scanty words have fail'd,
rected my attention to Knight's able remarks on Sbakes. the slander. Miss Hawkins, his daughter, indig. Thy happler graces, Purcell, have prevail'a.
peare's will, satisfactorily proving that Shakespeare's nant at soine idle stories in circulation respecting
And surely none but you, with equal ease,
widow was well provided for, and that the special beher mother's treatment of Sir John, wrote thus : Could add to David, and make D'Urfey please."
quest to ber, which has commonly been regarded as a
slight, was, on the contrary, an additional indication of " Mrs. Purcell, I should conjecture, had other modes Purcell, in his last will and testament, signed on
favor and regard. I am glad to have this opportunity of of attracting Mr. Purcell, yet perhaps the whole story | the day of his death, bequeathed to bis loving wife
expressing my regret for the injustice done to the memory of Shakespeare,
IDLE MANAGERS IN NEW YORK.
nothing to do but view the beauties of that splendia forced idleness followed only too quickly, until now stop to the full organ can be set on any pedal. The thoronghfare. Even our best known operatic man. the prospects of an engagement,
feven for the best reeds and mixtures of the great organ are praced ip agers are idle. Max Maretzek, to whom New York singers, are far in the dim and misty!future. There the swell-box, thereby greatly adding to the cresowes much for good opera, is compelled to teach to is no sign of revival in the present, and the danger cendo effects. The greatest care has been taken in eke out a livelihood, but he is looking younger and is that for some years at least music in this country the matter of the voicing, the aim being to combino fresher than in his halcyon days. Maurice Stra- will cease to be a profession.-N. Y. Herald. in one instrument all the finest effects of the differ. kosch is busying himself with his colossal opera
ent European organs. For instance, the English bouse, but he has no immediate operatic projects. Max Strakosch has just returned from an unfortun.
diapasons, the French reeds, the German gambas The Organ at Trinity Church,
and Autes, etc., in some cases slightly modified, in ate campaign in the West, and is waiting for better
order that there shall be a perfect blending of the times to begin again. These brothers are excellent
full organ, as well as distinct character of tone for examples of men who made money by good managé.
This organ is manufactured by Mr. Hilborne L. each stop. The mixture stops have also been careful. ment and lost it by bad. Among the idle are Úr. Roosevelt, of 40 West Eighteenth street, New York. ly etudied in order that they may add a certain bril
. Carlberg, who lost his all with the Flying Dutch. It is of three manuals, compass CC to 4,58 notes : liancy, without being too prominent (as is often the man ; De Vivo, just back from the antipodes, with pedals compass, CCC to F, 30 notes, and the follow
case). Ample passage ways traverse the instru"nothing to do," and James Morrissey, who lost so ing is the scheme:
ment in different directions, rendering all parts easy largely and so patiently in his Academy of Music
The pedal venture that he is likely to wait a long time before
wind-chests are the invention of Mr. Thomas Win. he again tempts fortune with a colossal concert. As
ans of Baltimore, and were first used in the organ a matter of course, none of these people are abso.
built for him by Mr. Roosevelt, which is at his villa lutely idle, bnt it is dull work trimming their sails
in Newport, R. I.-Traveller. 1-Open to catch the first favorable breeze. Leonard Gro
7-Wald Flute, wood ver has been in the city for some time with a head 2-Open Diapason, 8-Principal, metal. 4 58 full of projects, but none of them seem to be destined
9-Twelfth, metal.. 3 58
3-Open Diapason, 10-Fifteenth, metal. 2 58 to a Minerva-like birth. George H. Tyler, whose
"The Flying Dutchman" in New
English metal.. 8 58 11-Mixture, 4 ranks, Humpty Dumpty troupe collapsed the other day, is 4-Violon Open,metal 8 58
York. also here looking for orders, and has, it is said, de- 5-Doppel Flute, 12-Truinpet, metal..16 58 signs upon an uptown theatre, where some of the 6-Melodia, wood...: 8 58 ! 14 --Clarion, metal... 4 58
8 58 13-Truin pet, metal.. 8 53
(From the Tribune, Jan. 27.) daring people are smashed to "smithereens." When
Wagner's “Flying Dutchman," which Miss Kellogs
SWELL ORGAN. tiines are better all these people will be busy again,
presented in an English dress last night, is something but for the present the idle managers present even 1-Bourdon, wood... 16 68 7-Principal, metal. 4 58 very unlike the “music-drama" of the composer's later a more doleful appearance than the idle artists. 2-Open Diapason,
8-Cornet, metal.... 2 90 years. Its form does not differ materially from that of
3-Salicional, metal.. 8 58
arias and concerted piecos. It is rich in separate numThe number of silent singers in New York at this 5-Stop Diapason, 11-Oboe, metal.
bers which even a public pampered exclusively with the
wood and metal 8 58 12–Vox Humana, time is larger than ever was known before. Mme.
tunes of " Martha” and “The Bohemian Girl” might Harmonic,
metal........ Pappenheim and Mme. Palmieri made a little mon. wood and metal 4 59
recognize as melodious. It came into the world before ey early in the season, but, although both of them
Wagner had developed the peculiar theories which make
CHOIR ORGAN. are good singers, there is no prospect that either of
his best title to fame, and it is keenly relished by the
6-Violana, wood and them will be hired this winter. Mme. Gulager and 1-Open Diapason,
old school of musicians, to whom "Tristan" and "Tann. .
4 58 Mme. Brignoli are both anxious for an appearance,
Flute, 7-Rohr Flute, wood. 4 58
häuser are a terror and an abomination. Nevertheless bnt there is no indication that either will find an wood..
8 588-Piccolo, metal.... 2 58 to tho devoted followers of Wagner it is equally a work opportunity to be heard. At the Belvedere House 3-Gamba, metal...: 8 58 9-Clarionette, metal. 8 68
of deep interest. They trace in it the germ of nearly all 4-Dulciana, metal.. 8 58 are any number of really endowed ladies, including 6-Stop Diapason,
his later ideas. They find here his first protest against suc.l' artists as Anna Drasdil, Antoinette Henne,
wood and metal 8 68
the frivolities and absurdities of the stage, bis first de. Henrietta Beebe and Clara Perl, who are sufferers
mand for freedom in poetic expression, his first demonon account of the unusual stagnation. Miss Emma
stration of the peculiar adaptability of legendary sub1-Contra Bourdon, 4-Bourdon, wood...16 30 Thursby is fortunate in holding the leading position wood..
.32 30 5–Violoncello, metal 8 30 jects for lyric purposes, and the first manifestation of in the Tabernacle in Thirty-fourth street in these 2-Open Diapason, 6-Flute, wood... 8 30 hie extraordinary power of blending verse, action, and hard times. Miss Gertrude Corbett, who obtained
.16 30 7-Principal, metal.. 4 30 music in one harmonious and eloquent whole. In “ The an appearance as Norma last year, is still studying, 3-Dulciana, metal...16 30 18–Trombone, wood..16 30 Flying Dutchman " he did not free himself entirely from but without present prospects of exhibiting the re
the trammels of his predecessors; he did not discover Swell to Great.
Great to Pedal. sults of her studies. Then there is the latest Amer.
the full capabilities of the reform he therein began; he ican singer, with the stamp of European success,
did not rise to the grand elevation attained in such creMiss Emma Abbott, to whom the times afford little
ations as “. Lohengrin" and the Trilogy; but he gave us real encouragement. In addition to the above array
scenes of a romantic beauty which hardly anybody but of prime donne, we have for tenors, baritones and
he himself [?] has surpassed, and he suffused the whole bassos, Signor Brignoli, still the silver-voiced after
work with the glow of genuine and hralthy sentiment. 80 many campaigns; Mr. Charles Fritch, a fine Great Forte or Full Organ. Bwell Forte.
The central point of the opera is the gloomy and pathetGerman singer, wno also does the Italian and Eng.
ic figure of the Dutch captain, who sails for ages over lish; Mr. William Castle, long a New York favorite
Reversible Pedal for Great to Pedal.
tossing seas, driven onward by the curse until he shall in English opera ; Signor Palmieri, Signor Taglia
Balance 8well Pedal.
find a faithful woman to share bis fate and so to bring pietra, Mr. George Simpson, of Brooklyn; Mr. Tom Karl, Mr. Romaine, Jacob Muller, Mr. Sohst, Herr
The Pneumatic Lever is applied to the Great Organ.
him rest. The melancholy character of the story tinges Swell
even the lightest portions of the music. The resounding Blum, Signor Reyna and Alberto Lawrence. In
curse is heard again and again from overture to Anale. this bundle of artists there are singers enough to
Pedal form two or three opera companies, and yet, even
Draw Stop AC
Above the whole hangs an atmosphere of storm. The tion.
work indeed came out of the midst of tempest, for Wag. with the best of them, no manager has the cour.
ner tells us that he imagined it while he was dashed age to risk one short season at the Academy of This instrument will stand in an organ chamber about in furious gales of the North Sea. But with the Music.
on one side of the chancel, one set of front pipes be music of the angry ocean mingles a strain of the gentlest
and sweetest fancy; beside the dark figure of Vanderkeys are in the transept on the level of the gallery. decken stands Senta, simple, trusting, innocent, the ideal In singular contrast with all this dullness is the The organ may be said to be five stories high. The
of unselfish love. We have sometimes thought that of activity of only three or four years ago. Up to the first in the basement being occupied by the bellows, all the wonderful types of female character with which present year a season without opera would have levers and hydraulic engines (which supply the Wagner has enriched the stage-Elsa, Elizabeth, Isolde, been considered a calamity to be averted at every wind); the second floor
is occupied by the two Brunnhilde, and the rest-Senta, though neither the hazard. Not only was the Academy of Music bril- large bellows and a portion of the pedal organ; the liant with grand opera, but the minor theatres were third floor contains the great and swell organs and greatest nor the most carefully elaborated, is the most all musical to the echo. Tostée came and went, and the remainder of the pedal organ; the fourth floor sympathetic and most charming. He bas told us himself
what he meant her to be,-a modest, unaffected village other stellar attractions in opéra bouffe followed contains the choir organ; the fifth contains the echo until Aimée almost succeeded in establishing her organ, which is placed over the ceiling of the church, girl, who has mused over the story of the Phantom Ship self a permanent New York favorite. The question and connected to the main body of the organ by until it has taken possession of all her heart—not turne which had been agitating 18—" Are we a musical electricity. This device was first used in the cele her head with sentimental dreams, but Alled her bosom people ? " – seemed answered in the affirmative. brated Roosevelt organ in Chickering Hall, New
with divine compassion. So her fate is the logical end Rubinstein came and gained a great triumph, and York. The echo organ contains the Vox Humans of a process traceable in all her thoughts, and the slight Von Bülow was tempted to come after him." Offen. stop, the measurements of which were taken by the thread of events woven into the clear and direct stobach nearly believed that New York was almost builder from the famous one in Freiburg, Switzer- ty of the libretto leads straight to the final cataslike Paris, and came in during our Centennial for a land. Its imitation of a choir singing in the dis- tropbe. season of mutual felicitations. The only wonder is tance is quite remarkable. The construction of the
The three acts into which the drama is divided are
each way that Verdi has not been here. Suddenly, however, wind chests is novel, compressed air being employed the first we have the howling winds and dashing waves, all this brilliancy was extinguished, and musical art to a certain extent in the place of mechanical ac and the dark form of the accursed sailor in his pitiful pot only languished, but died. Eminent artists who tion. Each pipe has a separate valve, which mate-yearning for rest is thrown into bold relief. His monohad learned to regard New York
as their home, and rially assists in the voicing and tuning of the in, logunerThe Time has come," is in Wagner's noblest the scene of certain and long-to-be-continued tri- strument, and owing to the peculiar construction of the music of the sailors is all striking and original; and umphs, found themselves compelled to sing to empty wind-chests they are not liable to stick or "cypher.” in the midst of these sterner measures comes the exquibenches, while managers like the Strakosch broth. The combinations on the combination pedals can be breath of spring amid blasts of Winter. The second ers were in despair over an empty treasury. En changed by the organist at any time. From one act, beginning with the familiar spinning chorus, has