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New Music for March .
DWIGHT'S JOURNAL OF MUSIC,
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He is risen! Anthem.
each 40 Christ the Lord is risen.
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quirements of our American churches, and may confident High SCHOOL CHOIR. For High Schools, Acad. ly be recommanded to their notice.
emies and Seminaries. By L. O. EMERDecker Brothers' Grand, Square, and
ALSO, BY THE SAME AUTHOR,
SON and W. S. TILDEN.
Price $1.00, or $9.00 per dozen.
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Gems of English Song.
Dictionary of Musical Information.
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The latest book of Ditson & Co's HOME MUSI-
Containing all of the old songs, and a great CAL LIBRARY, and does not suffer in comparison deal more.” That is, the number of “stock with any other. A large number of extra good
pieces” usually heard in the well-known ancient songs have, during the last year or two, come PRICE $1.25.
concerts is quite limited. Dr. Tourjee has un into popular notice and approval. The best of earthed a number more, and all are true antiques these, with a half dozen of classics, (omitted in and worthy of performance.
other books), form this first-class collection. The poetry of Ossian is music in itself, and, when intensified by union with the harmonies celebrations, this will be a most convenient book music size.
As the year 1876 will be great for memorial There are about 75 songs. Pages full sheet of a German composer, nothing is more likely to from which to extract appropriate music. be effective and spirit stirring. As to the story: “Fingal, King of Morven, makes war on Cara
The X Piano Taboret, cul of Lochlin, and with the hero marches his
New and Beautiful Instrument. beloved Comala, in the guise of a warrior. He persuades her to rest safely on the edge of the battle, where, distracted by the various cries,
An exquisite combination, adding to the capac-
instrument, the PİANO-HARP, the tones of BY JOHN W. MOORE.
which are produced by steel tongues or bars,
rigidly set in steel plates affixed to a sounding
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quality, very beautiful in combination or alterWhile there is no question of the value of the nation with the organ tones. The organ may
PATENTED APRIL 4th, 1871. great Encyclopedia, which is a standard work, be used alone, and is in every respect as complete there seemed to be needed a smaller, more con- and perfect an organ as without the PIANO
Manufactured by L. Postawka & Co. cise and less expensive work, fitted for more HARP, or may be used with the PIANO-HARP; general distribution. The "Dictionary” very the latter may be used separately or in combina Factory at Osborn's Planing MRI, State St., completely supplies this want. It contains brief tion with any or all the stops of the organ, to
Cambridgeport, Mass. but sufficient notices of at least 2000 noted sing- which it adds greatly in vivacity, life and variety;
For Sale by all First-Class Pianoforte and Furniture ers, players and composers, also descriptions of adapting it to a much wider range of music. musical instruments, definitions in musical the Upon its invention and introduction, about a
“We think the Stool one of the best ever offered to the ory, and all sorts of odds and ends of interesting year since, this new instrument was received pablic.
STEINWAY & SONS, New York." musical information. There is also a table of with so much favor, that the demand greatly “Mr. Postawka's Adjustable Taboret is a long felt want musical terms, and a very complete list of all the exceeded the manufacturers’ utmost ability to supplied. We consider it the best of the kind.
O. DITSON & CO, Boston, Mass." musical works published in the United States, supply; so that they have had no occasion to the first date of issue being A.D. 1640.
advertise it extensively. Having now perfected
JOHN C. HAYNES.
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New York Branch of Oliver Ditson & Co. from the time of Tubal Cain to A.D. 1854, and in the present Appendix brings together musical
EDW. SCHUBERTII & CO. information that has accumulated since the publication of the larger book.
IMPORTERS AND PUBLISHERS OF MUSIC, A very convenient book for reference. Full of bright, sweet, pure, shining songs, of
No. 23 UNION SQUARE, wbich there can never be too many.
1795 J. E. DITSON & Co., Don't get a new book before examining this.
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used that very useful and popular bouk, will nish their publications to Western Dealers, at ELECTROTYPED,
need no urging to adopt a new work by the net Boston Prices. N. E. Cor. Chestnut and Fifth Streets, same authors.
F In addition to the publications of Messrs.
0. Ditson & Co., we keep on hand and furnish OLIVER DIISON & CO., CAAS. H. DITSON & CO., ial Music and Music Books publislied in Ameri
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BY I. S. AND W. 0. PERKINS.
THE HIGH SCHOOL CHOIR.
High Schools Academies, &c.,
WHOLE No. 910.
BOSTON, SATURDAY, MAR. 4, 1876.
VOL. XXXV. No, 24.
Bach's Magnificat, described by Robert intervene to guide, to guard against wanton, i parts lies in the close and intimate relation of Franz arbitrary digressions.
cach single part to the whole;-accordingly (For the benefit of those who listened to the first per
After a modulation into the Dominant, the the understanding must keep in view, in the formance of this great work in Boston, in the Thomas prelude, concentrating its esssential matter first line, the development of the whole, and Concert of this week, we reproduce the principal por- closely, returns to the Tonic, in which it makes seek through this to orient itself in regard to tions of the appreciative analysis by Robert Franz, which we translated in this Journal in the summer of 1867.]
now a full close. The chorus voices, 1st and the particulars. Even for the musician, with 2nd Soprani, Alti, Tenors and Basses, two by the most searching study, entering into the
two and without instrumental accompaniment, smallest details, it will never do to leave this 1. The first number, a chorus in D major, now sieze upon a portion of the main motive, out of sight, unless he would run the risk of 3-4 measure, treats the words: “ Magnificat an
which is presently resumed again in full form misunderstanding Bach. ima mea Dominum” (My soul doth magnify the by the orchestia, repeating note for note the Now here our first Chorus, in spite of the Lord). In an extended prelude the master ex first half of the prelude. We have alrcady richest fullness and variety, unfolds itself espounds the materials (themes or motives) on spoken of the remarkably independent and sentially in the most simple forms. As a first which the piece is founded, and which are af- polyphonic conduct of the instrumental intro- change the Dominant is introduced, from which terwards brought into more full and conscious duction; and yet it has been possible for Bach the chorus in its further course takes a side dipresence by the vocal setting. The orchestra, to go still further and to write into this com- rection to the parallel key (or relative minor). rich and brilliant for that day, embraces the plex score an almost wholly new vocal setting Froin this the modulation swerves unconstrainstringed quartet, two flutes, two oboes, three of five parts! If the great master, with his in- edly back toward the Tonic, touches the Subtrumpets, tympani, and, as in most of Bach's exhaustible wealth, were not at the same time dominant iv passing, and finally makes a full church works, the Organ. Each and every an equally unapproachable model of the noblest close in the Tonic. Ornate melodic cadences part is kept extremely individual and inile- simplicity, such audacity could hardly have mark the end points of the principal keys and pendent in its movement, and they group them come off unpunished. But now how is it pos- give a tender lyric breath to the grand, majesselves in three distinct choirs: the string quar-sible to our car, to catch such a multiplicity of tic forms. After the vocal setting has come to tet, the wind instruments of woud, the brass parts, to comprehend and feel as a.
.unity all an end, the orchestra comes forward again instruments with drums. The Organ, from these different turns and passages, as they go with an independent post-lude, which is taken which it is well known that Bach used to con- swiftly whirling by?
from the second half of the prelude. We see duct the church music, must certainly have We do not deem it indispensable, with Bach, how simply and with what comprehensive ovserved very distinct purposes: here supporting, to follow the web of parts in all the details. ersight Bach knew how to lay out the fundathere predominant, here softening and blend. As in a Gothic cathedral the numberless par- mental relations of his plan! Dazzling splening, there mediating, it was in the hand of the ticulars and minute embellishments only serve
dor and jubilant joy, as of each meeting each master the instrument par excellence through to give life and motion to the great whole, but in the most graceful interwinings of tones, are which he understood how to make his personal not to draw the attention of the beholder away the leading attributes of this first number. influence avai.. It cannot be enough lamented, from that, precisely so it should be with the Keeping expectation on the stretch, it admirathat Bach in the scores of his church music has polyphony of Bach. Bach's harmonies unfold bly prepares you for the following, and is like left us no organ part fully written out; with themselves, for the most part, in great, broud the festively decorated entrance to the temple, that we should not only have the works in proportions—the fundamental basses show this in which songs of thanksgiving and praise their completeness, but it would reveal to us clearly enough;-these great groups he evi- resound to the might and mercy of the Lord. new forms of expression, of whose depth and dentis resolves by a melodiously flowing car
2. The next sentence brings a Solo (D major, significance we can scarcely form a weak con- riage of the parts into smaller groups, „giving back as individual feeling the same emotions,
3–8 measure), which in a lovely manner flashes ception. No one certainly, who knows with rise to a multitude of secondary harmonies, to which the chorus has lent a broad and what unheard of mastery Bach treated this busily thronging this way and that way. Now weighty expression. The voice part, a Second instrument, will find this assertion extrava- whoever seeks to follow this fleeting, transito- Soprano, treats the words of the text: “Et exgant,
(And ry essence, will soon be wrecked, because be- uliavit spiritus meus in Deo salutari meo By the three instrumental groups just men fore one form has completed its whole outline, and is accompanied by the string quartet, here
my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour), tioned, and in the most unconstrained manner, another is already pressing to the foreground, and there interrupted by the Organ. A gently are now developed just so many motives, which to give way as quickly to a third, so that all soaring motive, seconded in easy play by an dispute the course of the opening number be that is single and particular seems to elude the intervening buss figure, which afterwards, as
the whole goes on expanding, imparts itself tween them. The soaring and elastic leading car. The true significance of the detail, as
ornamentally to the first violin, controls almost motive enters first in the oboes; with it is coup- well as of the whole, is lost by 80 listening to exclusively the development of this mild and led without more delay an accompanying mo
Bach. One must, much rather, seize upon tender Arioso. Here all so rounds itself to the tire, brought in by the three trumpets; out of those great proportions, seek to image them in- most beautiful symmetry of forms, that the last
half of each musical sentence seems to flow from this again there is at last developed a short wardly in bis own mind, and from this firm the first half of itself. Such a bright, child. side motive, which plays an extremely active basis learn to look with a sure insight into that like joy, which runs along so wholly unobpart in the subsequent working up. Bach is in seemingly confused, but really most richly ar- structed and untroubled, could only spring the habit of so inventing his themes, that they tistic, organically developed complication of from the absolutė purity of a virgin heart. shall admit of the most various transpositions single parts. Then will those particulars in 3. Quite different is the character of the and inversions ; hence they are written accord which the centre of gravity in every passage number which now follows, an Aria for the ing to the rules of double, triple, quadruple lies, those which have the decisive word to say,
First Soprano (B minor, 4-4 measure), to which
a Chorus is appended in the most immediate and quintuple Counterpoint. Especially does those which are the principal supporters of connection. The solo part is built upon the there reside in them a certain rhythmic, melod- the artistic design, stand forth of themselves words: “Quia resperit humilitatem ancillæ suæ: ie and harmonic spring-power, which uplifts without difficulty; while that which is only in
ecce enim ex hoc beatam me dicent"—the chorus, you at the outset with the exciting feeling that tended to be subsidiary, and to round off the (For he hath regarded the low estate of his
on their continuation: omnes generationes.” here all will work itself out, of itself, through musical form in point of style, will cease to ex- handmaiden, for, behold, from thenceforth all the intrinsic vitality of the ideas, the themes, ercise any disturbing and bewildering effect. generations shall call me blessed). Plain and and that the ordering master hand will only The secret of Bach's manner of leading on the simple as the style seems in which the air is
outwardly dispose of-the song is only ac and flont above it like the smoke of a thank expressed in a masterly manner; the hungry ones companied hy an Oboe d'amore and the Organ- offering.
(“esurientes") have as it were a cornucopia of its depth of feeling is most touching. Bach
blessings poured upon them, while the rich (" divi. conceives the text words not only within the 6. The next number of the Magnificat brings
tes ") come out empty with a barren figure. The situation in which they present themselves;
course of the whole aria completes itself so naturally us a Duet between the Alto and the Tenor, in and qui tly, the direct intervention of the Highest his musical conception evidently reaches far E minor. 12-8 measure, to the woris: “ Et in the fate of mortals has so many heart-winning beyond. In Mary he perceives not only the miserscordin a progenie in progenies timentihus traits, that one is almost forced to complain that humble, lowly maid, to whom the Saviour of
eum” (And his mercy is on them that fear him the beautiful number should glide past so swiftly. the world has just been announced and who in from generation to generation). Here again blissful peace enjoys the consciousness of this Bach shows himself a deep interpreter of the upon you immediately. Bach follows it up with a
10. The charm of the last piece is one that seizes great boon-le rather, with a prophet's eye, words of the text, with a fine knowledge of the conception, full of deep significance, which transsees in her that mother of God. whose Son is to human heart. The tender mercy of the Lord ports you into remote times into another world, a bear and to atone for the sins of the world un
in its effect on those who fear him is musically movement which may well be regarded as forming der a servile form. How else shall we explain delineated in masterly outlines. The voices the very central point and kernel of the whole the uneasy, fearful, plaintive tone that like a
are supported by the string quartet--the vio. The primeval melody of the Magnificat, which the dark veil settles down over all the still repose lins and viola muted, the former doubled by Church used also for the Benedictio, - its origin dates and devotion? And still more is this mystical
the flutes. In this duplication the violins and back into the 7th century-appears now in the conception of Bach confirmed, when we take Autes exchange their brilliant and softer tone- oboes as canto fermo, with three female voices (two into view the character of the chorus that falls colors, as if Bach meant to indicate the at once
sopranos and an alto) mysteriously playing about in so swiftly, in F-sharp minor, 44 time. In elevating and soothing influence of the divine cordatus misericordiæe” (He hath holpen his servant
it, to the words : “ Suscepit Israel puerum saim, rewild, cager haste the voice-parts rush in at the close of the solo piece and, as if driven by de mercy on the heart that turns toward it. At lerael, in remembrance of his mercy). In gentle monic forces, tower to such a colossal height of the words: 5 timentibus eum," the instruments strokes the violoncello marks the fundamental bar. expression, that it is easy enough to imagine to the Organ.
are mostly silent and leave the accompaniment monies, rather hinting than actual executing them.
The concluding turn of the The canto fermo floats mildly gleaming, like a star, that the master seeks to bring before us here a
over the voice parts, lifting them as by a soft atworld-convulsion of the most unexampled kind voice parts is startlingly effective through the
astonishing boldness of the modulation. traction to itself. The vocal setting, on its part, and from its remotest starting point. Perhaps
7. The following Chorus forms a grand con
heaves and fluctuates towards it in lovely imitathere floated over his deep soul in the moment
tions, the several voices taking up the thread and of creation the words of Christ: "Think not trast to this mild Duet. Its far reaching, pow. passing it on to one another in artful involution. that I am come to send peace on earth: I came erful main theme, majestically entering in a
All seems to draw life and motion from the primeval not to send peace, but a sword.”
compass of an octave and a half, first brings soun is. For the two lines of the Choral the mas. The extremely energetic theme is first scized strength). Against this " potentia,” spreading is, to the first line the voices sing the the words: “ Fecit potentiam" (He hath showed
ter uses two portions of accompanying matter: that by the Bass, around which the second Soprano, itself in all directions, infinitely mobile, Bach rael prerum sunm." and to the second line the “re.
suscepit Is. Alto and Tenor start off with a whirling motion. offsets a motive on the words: « in brachio suo" cordatus misericordice." Both divisions of the text, Then follow the further entrances of the theme, which constantly draws after it a powerful, (with his arm), which seems to embody an op- again, find their peculiar musical treatment. The
suscept Israel puemim. silium
is emwildly excited figure; they succeed each other posite and yet kindred element, + compresset motive to
The ployed directly and in the inverted form, a mode of in half measures blow on blow. A far reaching main' theme, entering first in the Tenor, is at force, self-poised vet tensely strained.
representation which answers characteristically sequence crowds it tone by tone upward, till it tended from the outset by smart rhythmical enough to the helping hand of the Lord; the at last finds a momentary point of rest in the blows of the other
voice parts, with which the recordatus misericordiæ,” on the contrary, develops parallel key, A major. But without rest or
orchestra—but without trumpets and drums- itself without the use of snch artistic means, and so peace the heaving masses roar along in a new
all the more effectually glorifies the eternal mercy onslaught, which shapes itself, if possible, in joins in imitative beats. Then the Alto takes
and compassion. it, while the Tenor develops the counter-mo
in hurrying toward another
key of the tive: in brachio suo,” and the other vocal and ments sometimes cut across each other, yet these Dominant, C-sharp minor. Thus far an an
orchestral parts continue their strong rhythmic momentary hardnesses are always mitigated by the
cal movement. The theme is now handed over independent individual movement of each part, and grily murmuring bass figure has roared below
to the Second Soprano, then to the Bass, after- rather serve to lend to the whole piece a certain ex. the voices, irresistibly (in obedience to that sewards to the First Soprano and finally to the traordinary and mystical stamp.
And this may quence) working its way up out of the dark
orchestra. depths. Suddenly the Halt! is given to the
The voices, however, which have have been precisely Bach's intention. The union of Basso Continuo : sharp and heavy orchestral already executed it
, leave that rhythmical figure just those words, which describe the redeeming
more and more to the orchestra and take an ev mercy of the Lord towards his servant Israel, with strokes, marking the Dominant Chord of F. sharp minor on the first and third quarter of forms, so that shortly before the entrance of er freer attitude in the richest contrapuntal | the venerable tones of the old Magnificat or (in the
sense of the Church) the still more significant Benethe measure with full force, follow, and so form a sort of Organ point, above and within the main motive in the orchestra they are all dictio, is surely not an accidental one and points to
such a conception. If now we direct attention to which now the main theme is heard in the most engaged in fully independent motion. Mean
the contrast of this number to the Chorus: “Omnes fabulous contractions. Imitations in five-part duced themselves on the word: " dispersit” ianity is first presented in its world-disturbing and
while two new accessory motives have intro-generationes." if we point ont how in the two ChristCanon, in unison and in the octave, in swift (he hath scattered), symbolizing it in pictorial then in its world-redeeming aspect, we thereby gain succession on the quarter beats, press onward to a strange, uncomfortable hold (fermata), this wonderful structure in rhythms proper to rable grentness in the clearest light.
forms. The Continuo, for its part, supports a new point of view, which shows Bach's immeasu. which forins in a certain sense the decisive cri- itself, and admirably corresponding to the The form and substance of the piece just analyzed sis of our stormy chorus. For after this the character of the whole. At last one of the nc- have reminded us repeatedly of those imperishable voices, swiftly hastening to the conclusion, cessory motives of the dispersit” remains words of Luther, which have such convincing efti. move with almost homophonous uniformity, as if blended into steadfast unity-the purifica- \ in a shrill chord broken short off, the word alone upon the field and suddenly forces out, cacy because they proceeded from the deepest in.
sight. He says: tion process, although after violent conflicts, is that completes its sense, “superbos” (the lished by Art, there we first see and recognize with
* Where the natural Musica is sharpened and pol. fulfilled in them!
proud). 5. To the wild unrest of the number just de
wonder the great and perfect wisdom of God in this scribed there now succeeds, in splendid con
wondrous work of his called Music, in wbich this trast, a Bass Solo (in A major, 44 measure), F-sharp minor, 3-4 measure, which in its essen
8. The chorus is succeeded by a Tinor Solo, in above all is strange and wonderfril: that one voice with the words: “Quia fecit mihi magna, qui tial features shows a kindred feeling
sings the mere tune, along with which three, four It treats the
or five other parts are sung. which as it were with potens est, et sanctum nomen ejus”. (For He that text : : Deposuit potentes de sede, el exaltavit humiles.” jubilation playing and springing around the said is mighty hath done to me great things, and (He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and mere melody, in all sorts of ways and sound, do holy is his name). Here all breathes warm and exalted them of low degree). Here too Bach has marvellously embellish and adorn the same, and heart-felt thankfulness for the great things not allowed the obvious antitheses to escape him, lead off as it were a heavenly dance, meeting each which the Lord hath done to us; all praise and has known how to present them energetically other friendlily and fondly hugging and embrachis holy name. The economy of this Aria is and characteristically enough.
ing." really admirable and could hardly be surpassed. 9. The following number, an Alto Solo, in E Powerfully confirming what precedes, there now A characteristic and expressive motive of the major, 4-4 measure, again, is in strorg contrast. sets in a Chorus, in D major, alla breve, to the basso continuo, forining four measures, repeats Two flutes, the Continuo and the organ falling in words: “ Sicut loentus est ad patres nostros, Abraham itself continually in the most different posi- occasionally, acconpany the melody to the words: et semini ejus in secula” (As he spake to our fathers, tions and intervals through the whole move
“ Esurientes implevit bonis et divites dimisit inanes to Abraham, and to his seed forever). Suitably to ment. First it diverges to the Dominant key, he hath filled the hungry with good things, and its contents, this text is used for a vocal fugue, enfrom which, by a gentle transition, it reaches
the rich he hath sent away empty). The Aria has ergetically supported by the Basso Continuo and the the parallel key, F-sharp minor. Then we are
that expression of mildness and reposc, which stirs Organ. That Bach is the unrivalled master in the led into the Mediant, from which the Tonic
our soul so beautifully, without wearying by mr. | fugue form, is universally agreed. And so here too
notony. The Antes move mostly in sixths and he solves his problem with a playful ease and persprings again as if new-born. The voice part thirds, holding fast to an extremely peculiar fect skill. To the marrowy main theme: "sicut lotakes its material partly from this theme; I rhytbm, and only now and then are offtet against cutus est ad patres nostros" are one by one added ya. partly it moves, calmly and full of dignity, in each other in ingenious play. The words:" im. rivne secondary motives, the first with the words: ires and independent figures, which mount 'plerit bonie," and then again;
« dimisit inanes” are “ Abraham et semini ejus,” the second with: "sicut
locutus est," and the third with: "in secula," which how he gives the local color and feeling of the sur. times uses it, a very cheap trick. But a still inore all unite together at the last entrance but one of the roundings; on the ship-in the palace gardens on seriou; drawback to our allegiance is the puerility, theme in the bass. The significant harmony of the summer night in the castle where the horn of to English ideas, of much of Wagner's dramas, word and tone needs scarcely to be mentioned. the Breton herdsman heard outside gives the first which illustrate only too well that peculiar childish
Bach's fugues are conmonly written in a Coun indicatiou that we are on new ground; and the art element in the German mind, the presence of which terpoint of as many kinds as there are voice parts with which he excites the expectation of the spec. to a certain extent even in Goethe formed, perhaps, employed. By an apt inyersion of these the mas. tator by one device after another, while withhold. the one national weakness of that otherwise most ter with the simplest means often reaches the great ing the climax of the scene. Yet when we regard cosmopolitan genius. When “Lohengrin” was est effects. In general he works out his main the work from a musical point of view, we are full of produced in London last year, probably a good theme in three, four or five parts, and gives to each misgivings. Points there are which at once assert many besides ourselves may have wondered wheth. single part a character as independent and as indi- themselves, no doubt; such as the prelude and scen er it was possible in any country but Germany that vidual as possible: this material, almost exclusive. ic music of the second act: the ecstatic rush of the such a mere fairy extravaganza should be made the ly, is discussed throughout the further course of the violins in a phrase which becomes a prominent feat- subject of such solemn and elephantine moralizing movement. Accordingly one might believe that ure of the great scene between the lovers, entering as has been expended upon what is supposed to be here, after all, the mechanical prevailed rather than first at the words. “ O Wonne der Seele;” the short
the morale of this opera. The case is certainly not the organic. Up to a certain point this may be ad. I low “ Ha !" upon a high note, amid the dead silence bettered when we come to the “Ring des Nibelun. mitted; but then we must not overlook the way in of everything else, with which Isolde recognizes gen;" aud as we light on the passage where Fricka which Rach knows how to invent his themes: he that her lover is dead; the opening and close of the (the Juno of the mythus) shakes her sleeping spouse breathes into them such an elastic energy, that in final dirge; and others which have been and might at daybreak, and says, “wake up, man, and bestir all positions and relations they appear always fresh be adduced. But without repeating what we have yourself !” or where Alberic changes himself first and new
already said as to the place of rhythm in music, the into a ser pent and then into a frug, and his windings Towards the end our fugue moulds itself some. vocal portions seem for the most part to be written in the one case and jumpings in the other are gro. what freely, and thus admirably prepares the char. with an absolute and determined ignoring of the tesquely illustrated by the band; when we see the acter of the concluding number.
fact that certain intervals are more natural to the pages on pages of elaborate scoring in accompani. 12. With the “ Sicut locutus est” Mary's song of voice and the ear than others. Even the sailor and ment to the movements of creatures whose efforts at praise is properly ended. But for a more definite the herdsman cannot be allowed to sing and pipe speech extend little beyond “ Heia !” “ Wallaha!" rounding off of the Magnificat, the verse:
“ Gloria naturally; they sing and pipe in Wagnerian inter or “Ho-jo-to-ho!” when we hear of the special conPatri, gloria Filio, gloria Spiritui Sanclo! Sicut eral vals. Wagner speaks in one place, and speaks elo trivances by which the stage will be filled with difin principio, et nunc, et semper, et in secula soculorum, quently, of the wonderful power of music "which, ferent colored mists at pleasure, or read the stageAmen,” is added, once more summing up the whole by means of the firm precision of melodic expres direction in the scene of the fight between the hero in a grand, broad feeling.
sion, lifts even the gifted singer so high above the and Fafner in the form of a dragon, in " Siegfried ” This concluding piece is divided in its nutward level of his personal performances.” But even the -“ The machine, which represents the dragon, is structure into two main parts, the first taking the
most gifted singer will look in vain for this “preci- during the fight brought somewhat nearer the forewords “ Gloria Patri," etc., and the second the “Si. sion of melody," except in a few isolated sentences. ground, to a point where a new trap-door (Versen. cut erat in principio, (As it was in the beginning), The voice is dragged through such tortuous and un kung) opens under it, through which the player of etc. The five choras parts, accompanied by the or.
natural paths that the really free expression of feel. the part of Fafner sings through a speaking-trumchestra, with the exception of the trumpets and ing on the part of the singer seems often almost in- pet"-we may, perhaps, be pardoned if we find the drums, wbich only come in at the “ gloria xpiritui compatible with the strain on the ear, and the at. sentence about the highest and most significantly Sancto," and the organ, break out at first in a short, tention necessary to keep in correct relation with beautiful that the human mind can adore" recurenergetic exclamation : “ Gloria !” Thereupon the the labyrinth of orchestral accompaniments, in re ring rather oddly to us, or if we even feel some Organ, tasto solo, holds out the deep A as organ-gard to which the singer is, as before observed, on doubts about the raising of music to its highest inpoint, upon which now an unprecedented tone-pictly, an instrument among the other instruments. tellectual province by associating it with the ordiure builds itself up. The Bass, followed by the oth Without forgetting the stricture which Gluck passed nary“ business" of a Christmas pantomime. These er voice parts at intervals of half a measure, unrolls upon those who judged of his operas apart from daring decorators exactly challenge the sarcasm of without further accompaniment a strongly soaring their effect on the stage, we cannot bút think that Pope :triplet figure, which, after traversing three bars, the uncertainty and confusion of tonal relation in
“ Knights, squires, and steeds must enter on the stage. plunges into the “gloria Patri," flashing as with the vocal melodies, as well as in the harmonic con
So vast a throng the stage can ne'er contain. soper-earthly splendor, when the orchestra again struction of the orchestral part, implies not merely
Then build a new, or act it on the plain. falls in with all its might, resuming that loud excla- an indifference to scientific method (which is debatemation. These sweeping onsets are repeated on the able ground), but an ignoring of the physical basis For it is not only as a new exponent of musical
His theory organ-point E, only reversing the order in which of music, which rests on demonstrable facts, and by drama that Wagner comes before us. the voices enter, to the “gloria Filio," and then which its æsthetic form must necessarily, within aims at much more than placing this one form of again upon the organ-point B, but with a new mo certain limits, be determined. That Wagner, in his musical production on a new basis. His position tive, to the “gloria Spiritui sancto.”—The voices attempt to give to musical drama the unrestrained amounts to nothing less than this; that purely inin the eager rush of their ascent to the triune God freedom of spoken drama, has overstepped these strumental music is practically dead; that it has seem to tumble over one another, unt:1 the need of limits, must, we think, be the ultimate conclusion run its course and said all that it has to say; has community again unites them upon far-resounding based on such a work as “Tristan.” Nor do wo been weighed in the balance and found wanting : five-siz chords; they seem to wish to take heaven believe that the brilliant and powerful points in the and that the highest mission and true end and object
of music is only realized when it is the exponent of by storm, but to sink upon their knees, not crushed, work can ever, with any but a very partial audi. but jubilant, before the eternal splendor. And here ence, adequately atone for the tedium inseparable poetry, and that this is the climax towards which right clearly Music shows the power peculiar to it from a method which allows so little relief and con inusic has been consistently progressing; and Beet. self alone, of representing highest transcendental trast of manner and effect, and which, discarding hoven, the great poet of instrumental music, is
claimed as the inaugurator of this new era. moods in full reality; the expressive faculty of oth the resources of amplification and extension of muer arts is very far from reaching it in this direc- sical form, and emphasizing every detail of the
A few pages are devoted by the Edinburgh re. tion. words, keeps the musical expression, so to speak, at
viewer to the demolition of the ridiculous argument, After this introduction follows the second half of a white heat throughout, and never allows the listhe chorus, with the words: “Sicut eral in principio, tener a moment's repose. Nevertheless, we are of of which we have heard much, that because Beetet nunc, el semper et in secula seculorum, Amen." opinion that an adequate performance of “Tristan hoven introduced poetry and voice-music into his Bach here turns back to the opening number of the und Isolde”. ought to be given in London at an early ninth (choral) symphony, the great master had work, letting its leading motive float before us once date, and this unique experiment in musical drama
abandoned the idea of purely instrumental music." more in a condensed form. The satisfactory round. | be subjected to a fair test. ing off thus given to the whole work is worthily in
On this point the writer says :
Next the writer skctches the chief leatures of the keeping with the preceding traits of perfect beauty.
There is not a tittle of evidence to render it im. Ring des Nibelungen,” in which he finds many probable that his “Tenth Symphony,” had he lived beauties. But he goes on to remark:
to write it, would not have been as purely an inThe “Edinburgh Review" on Wagner.
On the other hand, one cannot but be struck, in strumental work as any of the first eight. Had he (Concluded from Page 180.)
reading these scores, as we were in hearing "Lo-died just after writing the “ Pastoral Symphony,” it The writer goes into a detailed description of hengrin,” at the sometimes almost absurd dispro- might equally have been urged that he had adopt
portion between the orchestral effect and the poem ed what is now called “programme music" as the “Tristan and Isolde," quoting from the libretto; as
and action. The rush of the band, with the whole true end of the art; but his two next symphonies to this latt
added power of more brass instruments than we (the first of them a much greater and more recon. The libretto of an opera has seldom much claim to have time tu count up, to emphasize with an over. dite work than the “ Pastorale ") are without note, literary merit; but of all the doggerel we ever met | powering fortissimo some word or gesture which hint, or comment of any kind. About the middle with " to be said or sung” on the stage, Herr Wag: seems totally unworthy of such tremendous empha- of his career he wrote a pianoforte fantasia with cho. ner's verses appear to us to be the worst. Childish sis, almost provokes a smile at times at the dispro-rus, but so far from subsequently confining himself jingle and tasteless alliteration take the place of portion between cause and effect. Big scores do not to this form, he never repeated it, and his most rhythm and poetry; and whatever he may have necessarily make great music either. Meyerbeer elaborate works for pianoforte solo were written done with the art of Mozart and Beethoven, he has has not thrown Gluck into the shade, nor has Spon. | long after. We are asked to regard these accidents certainly prostituted the language of Schiller and | tini superseded Mozart, We cannot ignore the fact, as essentials, because it suits the theory of Wag. Goethe. But it would be cruel to judge such trash again, that we meet in Wagner's scores with a con. ner's disciples; while the fact is ignored that Beetby any known literary standard.
stant recurrence of certain resources of effect, re thoven's very last great pianoforte sunata concludes Yet the prere pernsal of the work shows a certain peated to an extent which amounts to mannerism. with a set oi variations as brilliantly and symniet
and intensity in the general treatment of the One of these, the incessant reiteration, namely, of a rically elaborated, as purely music for the sake of legend, so wild and exciting in itself, so tull in one particular orchestral phrase or figure, till it mechan music, as anything that Mozart (or even Bach) ever sense of human interest. We cannot but remark in | ically takes the ear by storm, seems to us to be lit. wrote. Nor can the view which regards the finale particular the genius for dramatic effect displayed tle more than a trick played on the physical sus of the “ Choral Symphony” as the roof and crown in the manner in which Wagner opens each act: 1 ceptibilities of the audience, and, as Wagner some of the composer's works be accepted by a sound and