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WHOLE No. 909.
BOSTON, SATURDAY, FEB. 19, 1876.
VOL. XXXV. No, 23.
Dr. Samuel G. Howe.
I watched the mountain summits white
Before the deepening shades of night. Wher from the waning face of day
The last faint shadow of a flush Behind the mountains died away,
There fell a momentary hush.
Then suddenly a thrill of awe
Rang through the silent valemfor lo! That spectral mountain-chain I saw
Lit with a preternatural glow; As if, bebind that wall of snow,
The sunken sun were shining through,
One more last heavenly adieu !
Their look and voice can e'er forget ?
On the soul's vision ever set ?
Of noble lives from mortal eyes,
They sank in higher heavens to rise !
Time's pilgrims in this earthly land, Transpierced by that undying glow,
How bright those shadowy mountains stand! The boundary hills are they that rise
And, looking on our earthly night, Veil and reveal to mortal eyes
The land of everlasting light.
A cloud of witnesses for God
Which their ascending spirits trod.
Arrayed in raiment white as enow; Transfiguring all this evening land
With a prophetic morning glow. Such bright and blessed visions cheer
Our hearts, who here love's tribute pay;
Red omens of a heavenly day!
Like evening starlight on the vale !
And say, Farewell! Farewell and Hail ! We feel a void which none can fill
But He who filled that soul with light; In Him we know it lives, and still
Shall work e'en here with kiodling might. “The spirit of the Lord "-90 spake
His genins—" hath anointed me With power the prison doors to break,
Aod set the darkened captives free. So speaks the record of a life
Whose breath was freedom, love and truth; That kept in manhood's toil and strife
The freshness and the fire of youth. True follower of the Son of Man,
The Captain of Salvation-he
Battling for light and liberty.
Where Genius 'works with Goodness_where
Peace hath her victories—with zest
tle-painting is always a ticklish and unworthy Of tireless love, he labored there.
piece of business."
Beethoven had a share in two other occasionHe gave-with what a keen delight!
al pieces celebrating the War of Deliverance. Eves to the fingers of the blind.
The first was the music to Dunker's patriotic To feel their way with inner light
drama of Leonore Prochaska (martial chorus, Along the sunny hills of mind.
romance, and melodramatic pieces, unpubAnd as a pilgrim of the night,
lished). He scored, also, the “Funeral March" Groping his darksome way forlorn,
from the A flat major Sonata, Op. 26, to be Shows on his kindling cheeks the light
played during the performance of the same Reflected from the breaking morn
drama. His other important labor was the
Cantata; Der glorreiche Augenblick (The glorious So, as along the raised highway
Moment), by Professor A. Weissenbach, of Their eager fingers burried on,
Salzburg. This occasional piece (not pubHow o'er each sightless face the ray
lished until after Beethoven's death) is styled of joy-an inner sunrise-shone i
in the original manuscript, Der heilige Au
genblick (The “sacred” Moment). It was perNay, was there one who seemed by fate
formed at Beethoven's concert, on the morning Cut off from converse with her kind,
of the 29th November, 1814, before all the Death's liberating hand to wait In threefold walls—deaf, dumb and blind?
Sovereigns, great Lords and Ladies of the Vi.
enna Congress, and repeated on the 2nd DeE'en there his patient love could find,
cember. When Castelli, in his Memoirs, calls By the fine thread of touch, a way
the Imperial Councillor and Professor of SurTo guide the groping, struggling mind
gery, Dr. Weissenbach, a distinguished poet, From its dark labyrinth into day.
and his poetic effusion“ genuine pearls,” Cas.
telli's verdict is more than friendly. But it All these now mourn for him, as they
was not the text alone that was mortal in That sorrow wh'in a father dies ;
Becthoven's Cantata. F. Rochlitz adapted to A deeper shadow clouds their day,
the music another and a better text: Die beste A sun has vanished from their skies !
Ton (The best Tone), but could not permanently
rescue the composition, Lastly, Beethoven For now his eyes are sealed !-but when
furnished two smaller contributions for the fesThey meet him in the home on high, The shepherd and his flock shall then
tival pieces: Gute Nachricht (1814), and Die See face to face and eye to eye.
Ehrenpforte (1815). A few days after Beethoven's Schlacht bei Vittoria (Britle of Victoria),
a Cantata Die Schlacht bei Leipzig ( The Battle of Martial Music in Germany. Leipsic), by Paul Maschek, was performed at (From The Musical World, London, Jan. 22.)
the Christmas Concert of the Society of Musi
cians. It was characterized by C. M. von WeSince the commencement of the present century, numerous occasional pieces have been and triviality.”
beras “a monstrosity of bad declamation, noise, published, especially in Vienna and during the
Another musical Schlacht bei Leipsic was proWars of Deliverance, to celebrate every impor; duced by Friedrich Starke, a regimental bandtant feat of arms. The number of " political" master, in the large Redoutensaal, Vienna, dramatic performances and concerts, during (1816), with the aid of five regimental bands, the years 1913, 1814, and 1815, is well nigh 30 trumpets, 30 drums, rattles, cannon, etc. incalculable. It is a remarkable fact, too, that, at this epoch, composers of the first rank took
After the Battle of Leipsic, there were fespart in politics with important works. Beetho- tive pieces and cantatas without end. Caroline ven's Schlacht bei Vittoria, (The Battle of Victo- Pichler furnished Spohr with the text for a ria) was undoubtedly the most popular among
Cantata; Die Befreiung Deutschland's (The De
The composition was them. It was played for the first time, on the liverance of Germany). 8th December, 1813, in the great hall of the completed in March 1814, but could not be perUniversity, Vienna, and was got up by Mälzel, formed as it was impossible, to obtain the use the mechanician (who took the opportunity to of the Grand Redoutensaal, and, after the deexhibit his “ Mechanical Trumpeter "') for the struction of the large Apollo-Saal, there was benefit of the Austrians and Bavarians wounileil not a second large concert room in Vienna. It in the battle of Hapan. Beethoven himself was not till 1815 that Spohr heard his Cantata conducted the remarkable performance, in
at the musical Festival of Frankenhausen; it which all the most prominent artists of Vienna was performed at Vienna in 1819. took part, Spohr and Mayseder, for instance, as The news of the entry of the Allies into Parviolinists: Hummel at the big drum; and Sa- is (4th April, 1814) reached Vienna on the 11th lieri as director of the alarums.
April, and sent every one into a state of joyous The Schlacht bei Vittoria was repeated on the excitement.- Fr. Trietschke had written for 12th December, and also frequently during the the welcome event, and caused to be 'rehearsed, few following years. Its vigorous and highly a one-act piece interspersed with songs, Gute popular realism assured for it unfailing suc- Nachricht (Good News). With this occasional cess, as long as the War of Deliverance was piece, the most successful which appeared at still fresh in men's minds. By earnest judges, this remarkable period, was the public of the it is true, many stern things were said about Kärnthuerthor Theater surprised, on the very the work, which, though one of Becthoven's day that brought intelligence of the taking of greatest successes, constitutes only an unim- Paris. The musical numbers in it (partly portant leaf in his wreath of laurels. “ The adapted and partly composed on purpose) were women now know to a tittle all about a battle, by Mozart, Beethoven, Weigl, Hummel, Gyrobut it is a long while since anyone has under- wetz, and Kanne. The return of the Emperor stood what music is," wrote Zelter to Goethe. to Vienna was celebrated by all sorts of occa
In Prague the Schlacht hei Vittoria was given sional pieces. The manager of the Kärnthnertwice, and, as C. M. v. Weber wrote to Roch- thor Theater produced, on the 18th June, 1814, litz“ nearly proved a failure." "Probably" Die Weihe «ler Zukunft (The Consecration of the he went on to say. “ because too much was Future), the book by Sonnleithner, the music expected, and because the attempt at real-bat. by Weigl; while at the Theatre an der Wien
there was brought out Die Rückfahrt des Kai von Sydow, on the 11th March, 1814, in the we have some of the deepest and most intense ex. sers (The Emperor's Return), a piece interspersed large room of the Roman Emperor.
pressions of poetic feeling which have ever stirred with songs by Dr. Emanuel Veithl (celebrated It is worthy of remark that the Society of the
ihe hearts of mankind. After such a triumph an subsequently as a preacher), and music by Friends of Music, also, the most important mu
anticlimax was inevitable; and though we can by Hummel. The manager of the last-named sical institution in Austria, sprang up under
no means say that the poetic fire has been quenched theatre was, also, exceedingly active in getting the patriotic tendencies of the year 1812, and
—though new and genuine voices have spoken to
ns since th«n, if not with the saine deep pathos, yet up concerts for “those connected with the actually won official recognition of its exist
in tones which have the touch of original geniusDeutschmeister Regiment, " " for those wound-ence in the sunbeams of the Vienna Congress.
we cannot expect but that music, following the anal. ed at Kulm," etc., etc. Patriotic recitations It is true that the development of musical dilet
ogy of all previous forms of art-creation, shonld and songs, by Emanuel Veithl, Castelli, Weis-tanteeism in Vienna had, in the natural course "have its winter, too, of pale misfeature ;” nor can senbach, Caroline Pichler, with music by of things, been working up to the organization we shut our eyes to the signs that we are passing Weigl, Salieri, Gyrowetz, etc., as well as “Pat- and unison of the various clements involved, from the great period of spontaneous musical art riotic Tableaux," with explanatory sonnets by and would (though not till somewhat later per- into the literary and self-conscious phase which vsuFr. Treitschka (“ Louisa Prochaska" being of haps) have attained this end even without the ally marks the decline of an art; the period of course a necessary feature in them), were the War of Deliverance. But the decisive outward | weighing and criticizing, defining principles and order of the day.
impulse was really a patriotically political im aims, whieh has never hitherto been largels inThe festivities of the Congress of Vienna pulse; the musical amateurs of Vienna wanted dulged in until the minds of men, set free from their gave more occupation to virtuosi than to com to organize a grandiose entertaininent for the absorbing interest in the production of great works,
have been at leisure to regard their art as a subject posers. The number of new occasional pieces benefit of the inhabitants of the Marchfeld, who
for speculation and theorizing. was small, and people managed with the best had been most severely hit by the war. The of the old ones. A patriotic piece, intersperscd entertainment was the performance of Handel's “If, however," the writer goes on to say, with songs. Die Ehrenpforte (The Portal of Hon-Timotheus in the Imperial Riding School (then "we find the present crisis in musical art char. our). by Fr. Treitschke, performed at the granted for the first time for a musical object), acterized by this peculiarity, that these very Kärnthnerthcr Theater, on the 15th, 16th, and on the 29th November, 1812. The receipts critics themselves proclaim the deceasc of mu. 23rd July, 1815, and then with “appropriate amounted to between 19,000 and 20,000 forins, sic in regard to its hitherto accepted forms, alterations," on the 3rd and 4th October, in Viennese currency, to which the Emperor con while they point to a composer who promises honor of the Emperor's Saint's Day, was decked tributed 1,000 florins more. On the 3rd De to give renewed and even higher life to the art out with music by Hummel, B. A. Weber, Sey- cember, the performance was repeated, and by leading its streams into a new channel; if fried, Weigl, and Beethoven. (The final mel- brought in 14,000 florins. During the sitting this musical prophet bases his claims not only ody was by the last.)
of the Congress, the Association received the on critical writings displaying, in spite of some The only notable musical work directly cele- sanction of the Emperor Francis—a few days bigotry and one-sideriness, a distinct, and, in brating the presence of the Sovereigns was after it had performed Handel's Samson before some respects, a consistent theory, but upon Beethoven's Glorreicher Augenblick, a wonder- the assembled woonarchs. Caroline Pichler, compositions of the most ambitious character ful moment in the democratic career of him who sang in the chorus on the occasion, informs in regard to scale and elaboration; if these who created the Eroica. An important occa us, in her Dankwürdigkeiten, that all those who compositions have found acceptance with a sioval piece, C. M. von Weber's Cantata, Kampf took part in the performance had to appear in considerable and apparently increasing public; und Sieg (Battle and Victory), to which the coin- full dress, the ladies in white with ornaments, such a claim certainly merits serious and inposer attached especial value, was never, as for the gentlemen in black tail-coats with crush partial consideration from all who are interestas I know, produced in Vienna; it was, how hats. This etiquette and the injunction to ab-ed in the art.” With this preface the critic in ever, performed most successfully at Prague in stain from all applause addressed to the public, the Edinburgh Recieir addresses himself to dis1816. A year previous Weber published in the spread, unfortunately, “a chilling atmosphere cuss the opera, and Wagner's notions for its readvertisement sheet of the Leipziger Allgemeine over the performers."
form. He says: Musikzeitung the following notice:
An echo of these political events was heard Musical drama, commonly called opera, is a form “On the subject of the Battle of La Belle in F. W. Berner's cantata: “Feier des allge- of art which has not been mnch in the odor of sancAlliance, I have undertaken the composition of meinen Friedens ") (". The Celebration of Uni- tity. Its logical basis, as a combination of poetry a Cantata with the title Kampf und Sieg, to versal Peace,'') given in 1818 at the Burgthea- und music, has been little considered; and while the celebrate the annihilation of the enemy in the ter, and the performance of Spohr's Befreites opportunitiis it presents for brilliant climax of year 1815, a fact I deem it necessary to make Deutschland (Germany freed), în 1819. From musical and spectacular eftect have made it always
a favorite entertainment with the wealthier section public, for the purpose of preventing the that time political strains were totally silent unpleasantness of others selecting the same dowo to March, 1848.
of the mob (using the word in Fielding's sense). by theme.”
the minority who take their pleasure thoughtfully
it has usually been regarded, in England especially, According to this, he strongly suspected the
as an illicit union of music and dı ama, greatly to patriotic fertility of his colleagues, and he hail The “Edinburgh Review" on Wagner. the dishonoring of the latter; and our literature, reason for so doing. The series of musical
The writer, in the prefatory portion of his gibes on the subject, intensified perlaps by the luck
from Swift and Addison to Thackeray, abounds in descriptive effusions which then appeared was endless.
essay, thus describes the present stage of muSteibelt wrote a grand Pianoforte sical art:
of inusical organizations and sympathy in the Eng.
But Fantasia, “ Die Zerstörung von Moscow "
lish literary mind since the Elizabethan era. ("The Destruction of Moscow,") in which the there is but one which is the result of an impulse
Of all the forms of art practised in the present day, even in Germany, where opera has always ranked " Marlborough Song,” • God Save the King,
more as an art and less as a mere entertainment and all kinds of national marches figured; in ing no reference to precedents of a former nge. and feeling peculiar to the modern period, and hav. than with us, there has been a frequently recurring
dissatisfaction aniongst thoughtful critics with the which the Aight of the army was portrayed, Music is the offspring of the latest springtide of cre one-sided principle on which the marriage of mu-ic etc. Gläser published a “Schlacht bei Belle ative energy, which has reached its height, we may with not very immortal verse has been carried out, Alliance” (“The Battle of Belle Alliance,”) almost say, withiu the experience of men of the and which is curtly summed up by Wagner in his text by Pustkuchen, for voice and pianoforte present generation. It is true that in a certain definition of the popularly accepted idea of opera accompaniment; Heydenrich, an orchestral sense the pedigree of the art may be traced further as " a tightly-built scaffolding or musical forms, to picture, entitled “Die Schlacht bei Aspern back than such an observation would suggest. / which the poetry was to conform." In other words, (“The Battle of Aspern.") etc.
Without counting the echoes of popular or of relig. the primary object of opera having usually been to The most famous and most enduring gift ious song which reach our enrs faintly from more give opportunity for brilliant or passionate musical made by music to the national spirit of the time
remote periods, we have the solemn interwoven expression, with whatever additional effect could be were c. M. von Weber's settings of Theodor harmonies of the school of Palestrina, and the part contributed by mectacle and by free action on the Körner's Leier und Schuert (composed in 1814). songs and madrigals which gave a sober gaiety to part of the singers (which latter is a mure impor. The enthusiasın in this case was no affected has run a new and great career since Milton invoked the festivities of old English homes. But music tan: element in the efteet of decinınatory singing
than is sometimes recognized), the result came to be enthusiasm, but darting, flashing fire, that
the warmed and lighted up everything.
Sphere-born harmonious sisters, Voice and that the musician had it all his own way (alwars
These Verse." Not to speak of the extension of their com. with due submission to the singers), the story and songs were, at one and the samo timo, costly bined triumphs in Oratorio and (with certain limi. sitration being regarded merely as furnishing the musical gems and a political power; they are, tations to be hereafter considered) in Opern, it has needful opportunities for composer and singers to properly speaking, the only specimens of the been long since discovered that the younger sister display their respective powers. As it was not to occasional music of that period which have was not dependent on the elder--that music bad be expected that any dramatic poet of genins would lasted to the present day. In Vienna, it was her own language and her own utterancen apart froin move in these shackles, operatic libretti afforded in comparatively a long time before Leier und poetry, and had strength and resources for pursuing general only too good an excuse for the ridicule of Schuert were known. As far as I am aware, it her own independent course. Commencing with the English critics before-mentioned--for the surwas not until after 1820 that any of the music forms of composition appenling rather to the reason casm of Voltaire, “ Ce qui est trop sol pour être dit, was played there, a fact which is the more
than the fancy of the listener—with expositions of on le chante,"—for the conteinptnous wonderment striking, as the poet, Theodor Körner, was so
the logical elaboration of themes according to a pre expressed by Goethe at the “arrangement in some well known and so highly esteemed in the Aus- basis--instrumental music has gradually invaded enjoy beautiful music, though illustrating a misera;
scribed form and in direct reference to a scientific people's natures” by which they were enabled to trian capital. For Körner, personally, art the realms of sentiment and imagination, has extend ble subject-for such a more serious and detailed came forward with only a very modest com
ed and amplified her forms of expression, and call arraignment of opera as tha': quoted from a German memorative tribute, namely an: "Elocutionary to her aid new resources in the tone-coloring afford. critic of the last century by Professor Ritter, whose Entertainment as fupereal Celebration for Th. ed by the timbre of her various organs of speech, two lectures on Opera, forming the fourth and Körner,” which was given by his friend, Th. I till in the Symphony, as developed by Beethoven, I eighth chapters in his lectures on the “ History of
Music," should be read by those who are interested dramatic veil hung before them; and this principle nous though solemn and impressive rendering of a on the subject :
Wagner has definitively adopted in its entirety, as special phase of religious feeling; while it would be * In that extraordinary spectacle to which the the only legitimate and satisfactory solution of the most unfair to deny to the modern Italian school Italians had given the name of opera, there is to be problem of the union of music with dramatic story the creation of melodies, some of which have stirred found such a mingling of the great and the small, and stage action.
all bearts, and whose charm, such as it is, seems to the beautiful and tasteless, that I hesitate in what terms to write about it. In the best of operas, we
Traciug the development of Wagner's mind
be imperishable. But the light genre of the modern see and hear such stupid and trivial things, that wo as shown by his earlier works, the writer of
Italian school generally—the“ poverty of harmonic
basis” which Wagner satirizes - is no intrinsic char. might think them only calculated for children, or
the article reminds us of the raison d'etre of acteristic of rhythmical music. The German school for a childish populace; and in the midst of their “Tristan and Isolde,” which is probably, or also “reverted” (if we are so to speak) to the revolting silliness, passages occur that pierce the might be the next work of Wagner's to be rhythmical or “dance-tune” form of melody, and heart with horror, fear, pity: or refined voluptuous produced in England. The reformner was writ treated it polyphonally in a grand series of works ness. A scene, during which we have forgotten ing his great tetralogy:
the greatness of which Wagner does not venture to ourselves, and felt the liveliest interest in the char. acters, is followed by one in which the same char. The composition of such a work of course sprend deny; and the fair comparison would be between
this and the early Italian school-between polypho. acters strike us as blundering fools, awkwardly try. over some years; and it was whilst still engaged in
nous melody plus rhythm and polyphonous melody ing to astonish and alarm a vulgar crowd. While it that lie was induced, partly by hearing of the
minus rhythm. We will not insult the critical facwe cannot bear to recall the sengclessness which growing acceptance of his earlier works on the part ulty of our readers by asking them whether or not has disguisted us in the opera, we cannot help re.
of the public, to pause from his task for the compo: they consider the choral works of Handel and Bach, membering its charming scenes with emotion, or sition of a smaller opera which would give him the
or the school of instrumental music which culminatwithout wishing that artists would unite to make of chance of at once bearing something of his own
cd in Beethoven, an extension of the boundaries of this great spectacle that perfect thing which it is written in accordance with his latest feelings and
the art as practised by Palestrina and his coinpeers. capable of becoming. The opera might be the most views on the art. The work written in accordance
The cducated world, with the exception of a few powerful of all spectacles, because all the fine arts with this impulse is “ Tristan and Isolde,” which is
ecclesiological enthusiasts, has fully made up its unite in it; but it is a proof of the superficiality of in fact later in order of composition than most of
mind on that point. A somewhat similar logical the moderns that they have lowered, and exposed than any other of his works the artistic result of the fallacy is apparent in Wagner's assertion, repeated to contenipt, all the arts.” (Sulzer : Theorie der theory of npera which he has evolved and to which schönen Künsten).
that so far from melody being cramped or interfered he may be said to have pledged himself. In this Without noticing the serious non sequitur work the subordination of the music to the drama,
with by his system, it is greatly extended, and that that the opera "might be the most powerful or, as its composer would probably prefer to say, of nielody from beginning to end. It is obvious that
his operas are, in fact, one succession and blending of all spectacles because all the fine arts unite the interpenetration of the two, is complete. Not a
this is a mere arbitrary playing with language. We in it" (the truth being that union of arts is but yestige of lyrical form is left (saving a rough song
all know what we mean by “melody; " and if its the writer shows that Gluck in a measure an ploits): the
operatic chorus has utterly disappeared, know that it is dependent on measured accent in too apt to result in weakness, teste opera itself), by the men on Tristan's vessel in praise of his ex
essence be more easily felt than defined, we at least ticipated Wagner's theories, but considers that and “the entire extent of the music is, as it were,
time as well as on measured intervals in pitch, for the earlier reformer did not carry his princi- presented in the tissue of words and verses—that is
that symmetrical proportion which gives it an indiples to their logical results. He proceeds to in the poem.” The step from “Tannhäuser" to say, that the musical melody is already contained
vidual and recognizable form. Wagner may plead say truly
that his music presents opportunity for higher ex“ Tristan " is accordingly, as the composer himself The problem, of course, really turns upon the observes, much longer than that from Rienzi" to
pression than can be attained through melodic form,
but it is absurd to pretend that he is offering the question, what degree of conventionality is aimed “Tannhäuser.” We may readily concede that a at in musical drama ? All dramatic art of high much more intimate amalgamation between the po. “ melody." It is open to a dramatic poet to main
world the quality which it understands by the term class is conventional—is removed from the plane of em and the music is attained by this method of pro. realism-and we require that the special standard cedure, and find no difficulty in believing that this
tain, if he please, that prose is a more suitable or of conventionality adopted should be consistently prefiguration of the musical form in the poem may
even a nobler means of expression for his art than
verse, but he would be justly derided if ho were to maintained. A perfectly logical scheme of lyrical have proved rather & help and a stimulus than a drama may be framed. if we regard the music as hindrance in composing the latter. There remains
urge that it was in fact the highest and most comonly employed to illustrate, heighten, and prolong the question, " whether by this procedure the musi- plete development of verse. the expression of feeling at certain points where it cal form of melody is not prejudiced by being de
Passing by for the moment the question, rises to a climax suitable for lyrical' utterance; the prived of its freedom of movement as well as devel- whether the principle of musical composition intermediate or connecting links of the poem being opment?” That is indeed the point upon which we advocated by Wagner is absolutely a higher treated in a more desultory musical form (recita are disposed to think Wagnerian opera must ulti-development of the art, the writer in the Edintire), chiefly with the view of preserving tonal unity mately stand or fall.
burgh asks if it is so relatively to the objects and continuity. This principle is very nearly real. of Herr Wagner's theoretic basis for the position and theory of the musical drama. Is it the best ized in such an opera, for instance, as “Don Gio. he assumes we must say at once that it appears to and most consistent theory of the union of muvanni ;” indeed, the adherents of Wagner admit us to be equally contradicted by nature and by art sic and poetry ? that the dramatic demands of opera were by no history. We can hardly be expected to waste space means overlooked in the main by Mozart, whom, in in collecting forinal evidence that the love of rhythm.
Admitting at once that such a form of art must fact, they rather adroitly manage to claim as an ally ical accent is something inherent in hunan nature,
in the end be judged ly its results-by its power on the plea that he “unconsciously worked to the and not dependent on accidents of time, place, and
over the listener's feeling (which is the sole defence
that can be set up for the form of most works now same end,” though they (correctly) adduce instances habit; we may just allude to the fact, certainly not in which he uses the lyric form where the stage sit. insignificant
, that even the very physical basis of occupying
the lyric stage), and that we have hithuation does not admit of it; as, for instance, in the music is rhythm, since the distinction between what
erto bad scant opportunity for forming such a judg. duet in “ Figaro" before the page jumps out of the
ment, we can nevertheless hardly fail to see that we recognize as musical sounds and those which are
the consistency of Wagner's method is sorely menwindow. But there is nothing essentially illogical not so consists in the isochronoue character of the or shocking to the critical sense in this form of lyr. vibrations in the former. The statement of the casc
aced when subjected to sn impartial examination.
We noticed above the differentiation between the ic drama, if consistently carried out; the conditions on historical grounds, methodical as it appears in
methods of poetry and music respectively; the pow. of the representation are understood beforehand; Herr Wagner's way of putting it, is based upon a com.
er of concentration in the former, the almost absolute there is really no more æsthetic lapsus in it than in plete petitio principii. Granting that we had data people talking in blank-verse or rhymed couplets in sufficient to enable us to say positively that Greek need of extension and repetition in the latter. This the spoken drama. It may no doubt be objected music consisted in rhythmical tunes used only as an
has been well brought out by Mr. Matthew Arnold that in such a form of composition the music is of accompaniment to the dance, why is the dance to be
in his thoughtful little essay in verse, rather than primary and the poem of secondary importance, but the cause and the music thc effect ? Surely it were
poem, ". An Epilogue on Lessing's Laocoon," where It must be remembered that much of the effect and at least as reasonable to regard both a3 springing to words, by instancing the depth and extension
he discriminates the province of music, in relation even the meaning of the music are dependent upon from the sume innate tendency to rhythmical ex
which the musician imparts to the feeling expressed the existence of well-contrasted characters and tel. pression; or even to go further and regard the dance ling" situations," which must be defined by the po as arising out of the music, and impossible without in such a concentrated phrase as Miserere Domn: et, not to say that the very objection supposed in it. 'The tune can be invented and played withont
Beethoven takes the two volves a begging of the question and an entire the dance ; the latter cannot be danced without the Poor wounded words, and makes them new; shifting of the ground of criticism. Waiving that, tune. Admitting, however, the dance-form of prehowever, it must we think, be admitted that there historic music to be established, Wagner points to
Page after page of music turn is a consistent form of lyrical drama, which has been the noble school of unrhythmical polyphonous mu
And st ll they glow and still they burn, the point de départ in the operatic works of Mozart, i sic of which Palestrina was the great name, and
Eternal, passion-fraught, and free, Beethoven, and Weber (not to mention lesser asks who, after hearing his “Stabat Mater," and
“ Biserere Domine." names), and which Herr Wagner himself adheres contrasting it with the mere tune-vwriting of the So Handel, when he would tell us how “the child. to, to a considerable extent, in his " Tannhäuser.” modern Italian opera, “could suppose the latter to ren of Israel sighed, by reason of the burdens," does But there is also what we should distinguish as mu be the legitimate daughter of that wondrous moth. so by the repetition, the persistence with which the sicil drama, in which the poem occupies altogether er?" Fully sympathizing with the main tendency grief and sighing are drawn out until the impression the first place, and in which the musical setting is of the feeling implied by the question, we reply, has sunk into our hearts. So, to glance at instruemployed purely as a means of adding force and that even supposing the historical connexion be mental music, when Beethoven invented that deepcoloring to dramatic expression, and the musical tween the two schools cannot be traced (as we think / ly pathetic allegretto in his Seventh Symphony, it is form compelled to bend entirely to the form and it can), the deduction as to the inherent supremacy not by the mere enunciation of the theme that he progress of the drama. To this principle of the of music unfettered by rhythm is no fair one from touches us; it is not till the leading proposition, so combination of music and drama Gluck's method the premises. In the first place it must be remem. to speak, has been drawn out, repeated, amplified, tended, though, as we have inferred, he never fully bered that the early Italian church school, however contrasted, heard now in this form now in that, till realized it, the outlires of the old regular musical grand and elevated in style, is very restricted in its
its last broken accents die on our ears, that we real. forms constantly showing themselves through the range, and is in fact, only the soinewhat monoto. lize the feeling which he meant to awaken in our
souls. But the compositions referred to are not to suit the words. Palestrina and his school did church, that pure vocal music alone is admissible in dramatic in their form. True: but do not such ex not hy any means confine themselves to composition public worship, let them not listen to the remarks amples, and innumernble others, practically testify on the plainsong of the church. Much of their mu. I am about to make-they are not addressed to them, to the truth of the theory as stated by Mr. Arnold, sic was bona fide original composition. Still it al. The consideration which•I wish to lay before this and does it not follow that in a system which im. ways largely partook of the style proper to counter. meeting is this-Whether all the arguments which plies the detailed interpenetration of the music and point on the plainsong, on account of its being writ can be adduced in defence of the accompaniment of the poem, precisely the reverse of the old error has ten in some of the old ecclesiastical scales, for the vocal music by the organ, during Divine service, do been committed—that the music has been sacrificed most part, our present system of tonality not being not equally vindicate the use of other instruments to the poem? And yet further inconsistencies seem then fixed. After Monteverde had discovered the also. It is easy to understand a line being drawn to arise as we look more closely at the conditions of true use of dominant discords, and music had begun between pure vocal music, and instrumental accom. the combination. Whatever his contempt for rhythm, to pass into a new system of tonal development, paniments. But it is (as I think) quite irnpossible the composer is obliged to employ the division into when the relations of the key note to the dominant to draw a line between the exclusive use of the or “ bars ” which originated with rhythm—the very chord, the force of the leading note, and the pussi. gan, and the employment of a full band. If we go possibility of getting his music executed depends bility of real modulation by the use of the dominant to Scripture for examples, we are at once confront. upon it; and so we find him not only in his latest seventh, had begun to be recognized, -it followed, ed with the enormons orchestra which played at work, but even in many parts of " Lohengrin” in a of course, that the style of church music in Italy the dedication of Solomon's Temple. We have to continual strife between the rhythmical accent im. underwent considerable modifications. And anoth- face the headings or dedications of many of Darid's plied by the barring, and the effort to conceal and er thing which contributed not a little to this change Psalms, wherein not only are the various instru. escape from it by devices of syncopation and other of style was the universal adoption of some sort of ments named by which they were to be accompan. means of breaking up and nullifying the recurring accompaniment to the voices, either the organ, or a ied, but the names of some of the performers are bar accent. This is a matter of form comparatively; small string band being so employed.
specified. We have to encounter the employment a still stranger inconsistency is that rhythm should
But still the ecclesiastical musicians of Italy con
of the large orchestra again by King Hezekiah, be retained in its most marked and recurrent form in the versification, and yet that the consistency of tinued to compose on the basis of the cantus fermus, coupled with the express declaration that it was all
though in a somewhat freer manner than formerly done according to the express command of God. the music with the poem is to be obtained by oblit. And magnificent specimens of the effects they suic. (2 Chron. xxix, 25—28.) We cannot in the face of to be an absolute perversity of reasoning implied in ceeded in thus producing may be seen in the works such evidence as this condemn the use of instrumensuch a method. Then, again, though the poem and in Spain church music ran a parallel course.
of such men as Leo, Clari, Scarlatti, Lotti, &c., &c. tal accompaniments to Divine services as unscripta
ral. At any rate, it is amply sanctioned by the Old the dramatic action are to be the basis of the whole: Lira Sacra Hispana of Senor Eslava are contained a
Testament, and I defy any one to find a syllable in withont which the music
can have no locus standi very fine series of compositions for the church by the New Testament which has the least appearance whatever, yet the actors, who are to sing the words, all the best Spanish composers, from the 15th to the of countermanding or forbilding the established are in the musical construction completely seconda19th centuries. And it is interesting to observe the
customs of the Jews in this matter. Our Lord at ry, and in absolute bondage to the orchestra, in the analogy which appears always to have existed be. tended the services in the Temple, and thence drove fetters of whose intricate movement they are entan. tween the Italian and Spanish church music, while
out the buyers and sellers, and exposed every pregled. This is a singular result of a theory which
Yet He never once said a single at the same time there is sufficient difference be- vailing abuse. mal cause and motive of music. Surely the theory of the two countries. In France ecclesiastical mo. professes to regard the human word” as the pri; tween the two to mark very clearly the character word against the use of church music. In this, then,
as in other matters, we may rest assured that “the from musical drama), in which music in its extended perfection to which it attained in Italy and Spain in of what we have called lyrical drama (as distinct sic was not raised to anything like the pitch of Old Testament, is not contrary to the New.” And
to corroborate this argument still further, let us reforms of construction is used to amplify and intensi: the 16th and 17th centuries. In Belgium, Orlando member the many passages in the Book of Revelafy the emotional expression at the great crisis of the di Lasso and others might be said to rival the tion, which speak of “ Harpers harping with their
harps," as seen and heard in a vision by St. John at mits the power and beauty attained by some of the schools of southern Europe. In Germany also were
Were I preaching a sermon instead of grent composers in this genre of opera-admits also many good composers who more or less followed Patmos. the same track, and may be looked upon as the germ
reading a paper, I could go on at length to bring that in their finest scenes they have entirely surof the great German classical school of a more re.
forward argument upon argnment, and fact upon morinted what is (no doubt) the weak point in it, cent period, to which all others had eventually to fact, to establish the Scripturalness and consequent 1. the juxtaposition of absolute recitative and abso: give place. During the Elizabethan period we in lawfulness of instrumental music in public worship
. lute aria, s. detrimental to a perfect style," and that England had a school of church composers equal to But, as it is, I must
not enlarge further on this the in such cases, “a melodic and rhythmic signifiany then in the world. But owing to the Reforma- ological point. Suffice it to observe that the vast
tion and the translation of the church service into majority of passages which may be adduced refer. cance, and unites itself insensibly with the broader the vernacular, we do not find either in their works, ring to musical instruments in the Bible, refer to structure of melody proper." Yet, in his pursuit of
or in those of Protestant composers in Germany and stringed instruments of various kinds, and others to that ignis faturs, a perfectly logical theory, the mod. Holland, the same plan pursued as to the retention trumpets—a very few to instruments
of percussion. ern composer, instead of working up to its further of the oid Church 'melodies as the groundwork of But, of course, none whatever to what we call organs, capabilities a system which he admits to have pro elaborate and contrapuntal works. "Not but what for these had not then been invented. Of all instru. duced such great effects, cuts the knot by discard
we have some specimens also of that, e.g., Tallis's ments, then, it may be said that organs are among ing altogether what he here truly defines as the Harmonies for the Responses and Litany. And it the least
, while the harp might be defend broader structure of melody proper;". and adopting would not be difficult to name inany of our best ed with much more success were all arguments conthe imperfect recitative form, as the sole means of English composers at the present date who have fined to the pages of Holy Writ
. expression for the deeper emotions as well as for the
Seeing, then, that there is Scriptural authority lesser incidents of his drama. A greater unity of pursned the saine
course with equal success. form, a more close connexion between words and treatment of the old ecclesiastical melodies from
We have now followed the history of the musical for the use of an orchestra in Divine service, but music, may be thus obtained ; but it is at the cost medieval times down to nearly our own days. And
none for any particular instruments, and certainly
none for the exclusive use of the organ, I think the of forbidding to music all her old freedom of flight, the consideration which I wish to put hefore you as consideration fairly arises whether those who object of clipping her wings and putting her in a strait
a deduction from this history is this-May it not be on Scriptural grounds to instruments in church, but jacket.
n very useful exercise for young composers to prac. make a special exemption in favor of the organ, are (To be Continued.)
tice composing fugal music on ancient themes ? not illogical and inconsistent. The real question at
There is, as it appears to me, a growing tendency in issue is between no instruments and any instruments, Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley on the History of
these days towards secularizing church music. 1 | The Greek Church and the Scotch Presbyterians are
mean making the style of music for the church and for the former plan; the Western Church for the Church Music.
for the concnrt-room almost identical. It has oc latter. The exclusive use of the organ as an accom. [From the London Musical Standard.]
curred to me that one antidote to this tendency paniment to the voices in church is of very modern (Concluded from Page 171.)
would be to encourage all young musical students growth. Apparently it has arisen from two causes
to give much more time than they usually do to the -Ist, that organs are often available when a full This then was the way in which the old ecclesias.study of counterpoint on a plain song. No one hand is not; 2ndly, That of all instruments none is tical melodies were treated before the days of Pales. would compose worse secular music for having un. so well suited for the purpose, when used alone, as trina. Of course we know that they never ceased dergone this training, while all who wished to write is the organ; but neither of these reasons consti. to be sung also in unison and octaves, and that music for Divine service would unquestionably feel tutes a valid objection to the employment of a full there were some tolerably plain and decently cor. the benefit of such a course.
band, where such an accompaniment can be ob. rect harmonizations of them in the days of Josquin All the greatest foreign composers np to some tained. It is, of course, obvious that such an expenDesprès and his contemporaries. Still the custom fifty years ago had been taught more or less on this sive and troublesome appendage as a band of perwas to prefer the complicated and artificial harmo-plan, and it cannot be said to have produced any formers can only be procured on rare special occanies to which I have alluded, and in the elaboration but good results in their case. If any one wishes sions. It is also no less certain that when it is of which no one displayed more skill than Josquin for good examples of such music, I should recom
available it must be hedged in with many precauhimself. With Palestrina there was introduced a
mend him to try and procure a copy of Padre Mar. tions in special rules to secure reverent demeanor much more simple and effective way of composing tini's “ Esemplare di contrappunto sopra il canto and good discipline. Still all this may be done, contrapuntal music on the old canto fermo. The fermo ;” 4to, Bologna. 1773; and also Paolucci's and has been done, and the occasions on which it melody was no longer smothered up in the intrica. Arte pratica di Contrappunto;" 4to., Venice, can be achieved are daily bocoming more frequent. cies of its accompaniment, but was rather brought 1762.
St. Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Abbey have out and invested with fresh beauty by being woven I now come to another consideration arising out set a good example; several London churches have into a network of melodious part-writing. Nothing of the history of ecclesiastical music. I allude to worthily followed suit. Nor can it be said to be an can be more pure and elegant than the Italian school the use of várious musical instruments in church. innovation. Every great composer in France, of church music in the days of Palestrina and his It is not intended, however, to take up the time of Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Germany for the last
It was without instrumental accompan- this meeting by reviving the old and well-worn con 230 years has left behind him full scores of orches. iment of any kind, and was analogous to the Ladri
. troversy about the lawfulness of organs in churches. tral masses, motets, cantatas, and hymns. Oratogalian style of the same period, though of course If any one here holds the view entertained mostly rios in Latin. Italian, and German, including Bach's more solemn and sublime than any madrigal, so as I (if not exclusively) in Scotland, and in the Greek Passion Music and many similar works, were all in
tended for performance in church, and as an act of dered into something better. Mr. Mackeson be and are perfectly balanced. There is an abundance of worship. Nor have we been without instances of lieved the great reason who so-called Gregorian
fresh and flowing melody, and no lack of learning judiChurch of England services with band accompani. music found favor was because it met the growing ceases to maintain a firm hold upon the attention and
ciously displayed. There is not a moment in it when it ment at the old Festivals of the Sons of the Clergy want of music for congregational singing, and he
the interest, and th) immense success it obtained testiin St. Paul's Cathedral, and formerly also on the urged that Church composers would do well to con
fied that Mr. Paine had won his spurs right royally. first days of the Triennial Choir Festivals at Here. sider the requirements of the great multitudes now
(From the Nero York Tribune, Feb. 7.) ford, Worcester, and Gloucester. Many composi. constantly assembling for Divine worship. Mr. The matinée given by Theodore Thomas at Steinway tions exist by old English cathedral composers, ex HULLAH in closing the discussion expressed his Hall on Saturday was memorable for the first production pressly intended for the use of the Chapel Royal, in strong sympathy with the use of the orchestra in in New York of Mr. J. K. Paine's first symphony, and it which not only the organ but also a string band is church, but questioned whether it had not better be employed. Among these we may enumerate works confined to strings. He regretted the disappear. and serious a work by an American composer was suffi
was gratifying to observe that the trial of go important by Gibbons, Weelkes, Este, Purcell, Blow, Croft, | ance of the little bands which used to exist in parish Greene, Boyce, and others. We must especially churches in the country. Church musicians would
cient to attract a respectable audience, in spite of the remember Purcell's grand Te Deum and Jubilate in
counter attraction of Tietjens in “Norma" at the Acaddo well to study Gibbons rather more and give us D, Handel's Te Deuing and Jubilate, and his Chan: less of the style of Gounod.
emy of Music.' It was by no means a full house, but there dos Anthems, not to mention the anthems composed
was at least a fair array of listeners, who bestowed upon for the coronation service by Blow, Purcell, Handel,
the performance a close and intelligent attention, and Attwood, and others, and the Funeral Anthems by Prof. Paine's Symphony. — Shades of greeted the symphony with unmistakable marks of apHandel for Queen Caroline, and by Bononcini for the
proval. The work is in the key of C minor, and is scored
Opinion. Duke of Marlborough, all which compositions were
for the usual instruments of the modern grand orcheswritten with acconipaniment for a full band, and so (From the Saturday Evening Gazette, Jan. 29.)
tra (piccolo excepted). 'It opens with an Allegro con performed. We see, then, that the traditional uso
brio, the very first page of which disposes the listener to of the band in church has never been given up, al' and his rare talents, long ago won for him the warm ad- ling in the theme as by the composer's evident mastery
Mr. Paine's patient labor, his modesty, pleasant anticipations, not so much by anything startthough its use has become exceptional of late years, miration of those who know him, and these entertained both of his subject and his materials.I Clearness of As to military bands, of course, they have been used
a well-grounded belief that if a fair opportunity were thought, elegance of arrangement, and vigor of expresno one has ever found fault
with them. The iniser: accorded him he would win esteem for his country sion are conspicuous from the outset. The principal and able string bands, and still more distressing clario- among those who believe that nothing worthy in the secondary themes are both clean cut and pleasing, and nels and bassoons, by which the services in country in America. It is somewhat painful to reflect that a way of what is high in musical art can rise and flourish
both admirably managed, and the transitions from one churches used formerly to be accompanied, can
to the other, the modulations and the thematic developnative composer is almost debarred from hearing his hardly be quoted as an example to be followed.
ments, are contrived in all cases with a most happy efStill, even these have their force as an argument works performed here, especially when it is taken into
fect. What we knew already of Mr. Paine's work preagainst those who would tolerate no instrument in a consideration that the only means he has of improving
pared us for the faultless construction and the noble church except an organ, or its wretched substitute, himself in his art, and of discovering his strength and
contrapuntal harmony which are found all through this his weakness, lie in the chances that are given him to a harmonium. Surely, the best rule is to seize on
movement; but the easy flow of melody and the poetical all that is most perfect, in this as in every other art, hear his compositions played. An artist of Mr. Paine's
taste in the instrumentation, especially in the employand devote it to the service of the sanctuary. talents should not be so cramped. His symphony makes the second movement is
ment of the wind instruments, were a constant surprise.
Scherzo (Allegro vivace) in If I am right, then, in hoping (and assuming in. that only ioo plain. While we do not claim for it a place which we confess that we found hardly as much grace
and playfulness as seem to have been apparent to the deed), that The introduction of the orchestra into among the great works of its kind, it is so full of strength,
ablest Boston critics; but like the first movement it is our churches is likely to become a more frequent of vigor and of refinement; it shows such a mastery of
clear, strong, and regular. Abont the beauty of the occurrence than of yore, then we are brought face the resources of harmony and of orchestral effect; it is trio, however, in this part of the symphony, there can be to face with a new difficulty-I mean the lack of 80 full of thought, brilliancy and solid worth, that it
no two opinions. It is introduced by an effective rallen.
tando phrase for the clarinet, and then flows on (Meno good English church music at once orchestral and merits the highest praise as a harbinger ef noble prom- allegro), as a dialogue, first between clarinet and horn, ecclesiastical in character. Oi this there is compar. ise in its composer. It was a genuine surprise, even to with a soft string accompaniment, again between flute, atively, as yet, very little. Surely this opens out a Mr. Paine's warmest friends, in the fluency of idea, the
clarinet, and horn, afterward with the substitution of a
hautboy for the flute. then with a second clarinet, endnew and promising field of work for young English | freedom from dryness, the apparent spontaneous flow ing with an ascending ritenuto phrase for the flute. composers, in which great things may be done. Let of thought, and the graceful flexibility of style, that dis The melody here is charming, and the sustained passage
for the horns which leads back to the Allegro vivace is me earnestly recommend it to their special atten. tinguish it from beginning to end. Though pol shed in
very effective. The third movement, an Adagio in Ation. It is hard to imagine any theme more inspir- all its details with the most scrupulous care, it has the flat, is the best of the whole work. The principal theme ing, more likely to evoke real scintillations of musi. merit of keeping out of sight the labor that has been is a graceful and tender melody, which touches the feelcal genius, than the glorious " Te Deum." Difficult expended upon it, and of making a harmonious whole ings at once, and it is developed and varied with the
most beautiful and ingenious harmonic treatment, in. I allow it to be-difficult both on account of the in- from which the attention is not attracted by any ob
winding itself slowly and smoothly at great but never trinsic sublimity of the words, and also because of trusive display of learning for learning's sake. We tedious length, with multiform effects of elegant instruthe natural diffidence which any modest composer shall not attempt to describe the work in close detail, mentation. If Mr. Paine had written nothing else, this must feel when he knows that his work will be com convinced that, with the best intentions imaginable, it
alone would stamp him a master of the orchestra. The
Finale (Allegro vivacel is as vigorous as the introducpared to the “Te Deums” of Purcell and Handel. is impossible to convey any intelligible idea of such a tion, and equally interesting, and it closes with a fine But neither of these difficulties are insurmountable. composition without copious extracts, and these we are
crescendo prssage, in which the full strength of the orI abstain purposely from iaming any living compo. debarred from giving, for reasons that will be obvious.
chest ra is admirably brought into play. The symphony sers, but a very fine orchestral “Te Deum” has The opening movement, an allegro con brio, is full of
is distinguished not merely by the beauty and Huency of brond and masculine vigor, and seizes upon the interest
detached portions. but by the symmetry of the whole, been composed, and performed, not in church in of the listener from the outset. The second theme is
the breath of the plan, and the composer's firm grasp of deed, but in the Crystal Palace, within the last few very graceful in design, is charmingly introduced, and
his ideas; and these, we need hardly say, are distinyears, with no inconsiderable success. The other
is beautifully worked out. In the scoring of this part of guishing qualities of a masterpiece.
(From the New York World, 6th.] canticles and hymns of the church also present most but an appreciation of the quality and timbre of the favorable opportunities for similar, and equally suc various instruments that results in an almost endless Mr. Theodore Thomas has a happy knack of confound. cessful, treatment. series of delightful effects. Every instrument has the
ing his enemies. He replies to their assaults by straightnotes best suited to it, and this distribution has been so These, then, are the considerations, arising out of well studied, and seems so natural, that any change
forward action, not by argument. As he has more than the history of ecclesiastical music, which appeared would mar the admirable unity that prevails. In the once reminded the public, he is not a man of words. desirable to lay before you to-day. That I have wind instruments, especially, is this fiue sense of appro
Music is his language, and he knows that language so done this very imperfectly indeed, I am only too priateness of expression made particularly apparent.
well that he rarely fails to make himselt understood. sensible. But such as it is. I am not without hope theme, which is elaborated with brilliancy and fine Having a lofty purpose, and being persistent in its acthat this paper may be of some use. It is a subject effect of contrast. The trio in this movement, a conver complishment, he makes his defence in his own way, which has not hitherto been broached at any of conceived, and is treated on its second appearance with and there's an end of the matter. Charged with obstithese meetings, and it is possible that subsequent exceeding grace. The melody is charming, and the va- nately refusing to accept any compositions from Amerdiscuision upon it may bring out some useful facts,
rious figures by which it is accompanied are equally ican writers, he replies by producing one that he had ac
interesting. some practical hints, some novel ideas, some neces
The adagio has a lovely theme, which cepted eight months before the charge was made. Hav
abouds in tenderness and quiet beauty. sary cautions, all in the service of our art, and calmly and sweetly after the manner of those continua ing presented to him a work which he finds, on careful therefore welcoine both to ourselves and to our ous melodies with which Wagner has made us so famil
examination, to be worthy of a place in his repertoire, friends outside. In that hope, let me commend the iar, and it has much of the rich sens!iousness that marks that composer in his more placid moods. In
he gives the public a chance of judging and enjoying subject to your best attention.
originality, warmth of coloring, largeness of effect and at the earllest convenient moment. Professor John K. In the discussion which followed, Mr William deep poetic feeling, this movement must be pronounced the most attractive in the symphony. It is exquisitely
Paine's First Symphony was fittingly presented before CHAPPELL entered into several of the historical ques. scored, and in all respects would reflect high credit upon
a Boston audience before it was brought to New York. tions raised by Sir Frederick, and Dr. StaiseR ad any living composer. The finale overflows with energy It was right that the author should have his immediate vocated the use of music, whether ancient or mod
and fire, and is a worthy culmination to what has pre and personal friends as his first judges. They decided
ceded it. Here, as in the other portions of the work, Mr. ern, on the single condition of its fitness for the end Paine has manifested a fine feeling for contrasts, and
enthusiastically in his favor, and that was right, too, for in view, What could be more beautiful than the has shown a perfect mastery in combining the various the professor of music at Harvard University could not tonus peregrinus ? Mr. T. L. Southgate reininded instruments to the best advantage. The contrapuntal
very well be expected to seek notoriety by the producthe speaker that this was not a Gregorian, but only
effects are striking and well-considered, and an admira-
tion of a work which would not bear criticism by the a corruption from a Gregorian. Mr. CUMMINGS rid. The final climax is noble and stirring, and fitly brings to rules he lays down for the guidance of his pupils. Himiculed the claim of a Divine origin wbich was often an end a work which, in every movement, shows many self a favorite pupil of Haupt, one of the most rigid of
and unmistakable marks of vigorous and prolific genius. pat forward on behalf of Gregorian music. He re. That the symphony is faultless we do not claim; but it
music masters in Germany, neither ignorance nor ecferred to certain experiences as suggesting caution is so far in advance of any similar production we have centricity was to be expected in his work, and, as he had in the use of the orchestra in church. Mr. PAR had from a native composer, its beauties are so namer already proved his capability in many minor composiRATT admitted that some of the ancient music was
ous, so varied and spontaneous, that it would be more
tions and in one great work, the oratorio of "St. Peter" melodious, but explained what he regarded as an es. It is not the least of the merits of this work that, -his friends were numerous as well as enthusiastic. anomaly on the ground that, while generally writ. while it takes advantag? of everything that the modern Besides all this, had not Mr. Thomas consented to be the ing that which was hideous, it could not be won
school has given to musical art, it has avoided the wild dered at if the ancient writers occasionally blun- | The forms are those of the recognized masters of the art, and meaningless excesses of the “music of the future." | interpreter of this magnum opus ! It was a matter of
course, therefore(!), that it was correct, scholarly, ortho