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WHOLE No. 889.

BOSTON, SATURDAY, MAY 15, 1875.

VOL. XXXV. No, 3.

A “Seance Solennelle" of the “Orpheon" ganized, and still spreading out its branches int·lligent boys for the most part; the handin Paris.

over all France. The reports are still fresh of somer for carrying so much of the air of cheer(From old Eclitorial Correspondence.)

the impression which a delegation of some thou- ful discipline in their faces and in all their Paris, August 10, 1860. sands of the male Orphéonists made on their movements; lively, happy, noisy, but not rude, My short visit to Paris is in the unmusical visit to the Crystal Palace in England some one is pleasantly struck by the faces and the season of the year; a mere lingering to make weeks since. It was my good fortune to re manners of the boys in all the streets of Paris. what may be made of chance opportunity, to ceive an invitation in company with an intelli- If I could only sketch that quaint old figure of see what may be seen and hear what may be gent amateur of our town, to what was styled a teacher who stands up there on my left, anheard on the way through to other countries.

a Séance Solennelle of the Orphéon (Ville de Par- swering the laughing, eager questions of a Brushing quickly past the gay Aowers, and is), held in the vast round of the Cirque Napo- dozen tip-toe boys at once! He was a subject chiefly occupied in seeing, I had not thought to leon, at 2 P. M., on Sunday, August 5th. This for a Cruickshank. With his back turned he gather musical honey for these letters. But I

6. solemn session was a free grand concert; seems the very image of a Scotch or Yankee have seemed to meet on all sides symptoms of there were no tickets sold; it was the people's country schoolmaster; but when he turns round & new musical impulse in France, Certainly own affair and open to the people, subject only the face is one of those picturesque oddities you the French have not borne hitherto the highest to the limitation, for the sake of comfort and only find in Europe; very tall and lank and musical reputation; the French taste, even the of order, (for here the rule is absolute and uni- bony; an old man with bushy grey hair and French ear has not been reported very true to versal, in theatres, in cars, in omnibuses, never long grey moustache, a fabulously lorg beaked concert pitch; and the French as a people have to admit one person over and above the actual nose, and very high retreating forehead; face been proverbially famed for singing out of number of seats) of invitations dated from the red, and full at once of routine, discipline and tune. This is a slander so far as my small exPrefecture of the Seine.

good-natured humor, and of that enthusiasm in a

good work which preserves youth; altogether perience of the past fortnight goes. In the The assembly was immense. There could

a picturesque, quaint specimen! I think it was churches at Ronen, in the operas, the cafés not have been fewer than five thousand guests; he, who, when the moment for commencing chantants, the Conservatoire, and above all the and these ranged in circle above circle (to the was announced, stepped downward a few steps, singing classes of “the million,” in Paris, one number of twenty circles), from the spacious bust," said in a clear voice: A la memoire de

and placing a wreath of immortelles upon a could not but be struck by the very opposite,

area below to half way up the richly decorated WILHELM! he being the patron saint as it were by just that same exactness in regard to tune walls of the great circus, made a most brilliant of the Orphéon, since of Wilhelm's singing and time, which makes the whole every day and lively spectacle, in itself enough to occupy classes for the million (now imitated by Mainmovement of this most orderly and military the hour we were kept waiting. All classes zer in England) this Orpheon is the natural

fruit. There was the clapping of hands and nation. Here every thing goes in procession; were assembled, but chiefly of the people; me the enthusiasm, immense of course, after all partakes of the controlling military rhythm; chanics with their wives and daughters, a vast the French way; they always have a sentiand with whatever latent discontent there is brilliant flower bed of kaleidoscopic colors; ment. (doubtless not a little) under the purest des here and there an actual blue blouse, or the

The convluctor of the first part, M. BAZIN, a potism, there is still a certain lyric sense of picturesque Arabic costume of the Zouave. A

remarkably intelligent and wholesome looking

man, gave the sign, when all rose, and the few glory and of pride in power, in art, in order wide section of the round, from top to bottom, chords of the brief introductory Domine salvum and in beauty, which goes well with music. was filled or filling with the singers, number- instantly revealed a wonderfully pure, sonorous, There is a great educational work in progress ing one thousand or twelve hundred voices in musical ensemble of tone. The pieces were all over all France in respect to music. The peo- all. Above, on one side, sat the basses and

No. 1 was for the whole unaccompanied.

choir, Veni Creator, by Besozzi, a dignified ple are becoming singers, in a more real and the tenors, and below them the women. On

composition in contrapuntal church style, and substantial sense (I cannot help thinking) than the other side, the boys and girls. At the foot was sung perfectly, as regards purity of intonwe were wont to boast of with our swarms of of all a patch of the tenderest plants, silvery- ation, precision of outline in the coming in of money-making singing masters and profes- voiced youngest girls, found room upon the different sets of voices, light and shade, and

all the qualities of good choral singing. The sors” in New England. Here a great musical central area. The rest of this was occupied by parts of the harmony were nicely balanced, and movement, real and sincere, seems to have dignitaries and distinguished guests in stately all the voices told. We do not think we ever sprung up in the people, and to have a living arm-chairs, such as Auber, who moved about a heard so large a mass of vocal tone that was so soul in it.

It enjoys the fostering care of gov- sort of oracle among them, and others of the pure, so fresh, so vivid; the molten mass ran ernment. The empire, which styles itself musical celebrities of France; M. le Prefet bright and without dross. No. 2 was humor

ous, a fable of Fontaine, set very happily to “Peace," is shrewd enough at least to show also, whose entrance was unanimously greeted, music by M. Bazin, in Opéra Comique style, that it is also Art, and also Music. And it as was that of several others; all scrupulously about the two physicians, Dr. Tant-pis and Dr. does look as if that power, which, while it dressed, too, as if it were indeed a great occa

Tant-mieux (so-much-the-better and so-much

the-worse). It was rendered with most deliturns Paris into a camp, at the same time unites sion, and as if in solemn honor to what they cate esprit. the Louvre with the Tuileries, builds noble recognized as a great cause.

No. 3. L'Angelus, by Papin, was a chorus of palaces and boulevards and bridges, redeems Here and there among the younger singers children's voices; a sweet religions strain, flowto sight the beautiful old tower of St. Jacques, stood their teachers, to reflect the hints of tem- ing in upon an accompaniment of boy contralti, long hidden in a dirty mass of buildings, re- po and expression from the conductor, who

The quality of tone imitating church bells.

was lovely, especially where the tender, silver stores and renovates the glorious old cathe- stood below, upon their immediate neighbor- soprano of these youngest girls took up the drals, and other monuments of Gothic archi- hood. There was much affectionate enthusiasm strain by itself, and the boy, voices did not tecture throughout France, doing in fact manifested towards some of these among the shout and blart in that offensive, overwhelmeverywhere a great æsthetic work and cultivat- boys. For everything spoke out here; the ing manner which was once a fault in our mu

sical school festivals in Boston. Insatiable aping the artistic glory of the land, -was at the scene was thoroughly French: and what a noise plause, especially on the part of the grown up same time quickening a new musical impulse there was! what an infinite babblement of ani- singers, compelled a repetition of this

. Then and preparing a new musical era in its people. mated tongues, over the whole space, but es

the men took their turn and sang, in four parts, What I witnessed last Sunday was signifi- pecially among the boy singers as they came

a delightful little staccato chorus from Grétry; * Orphéon” is the collective name of a rushing down into their seats, and “thought the round of the streets at midnight, and warn

La garde passe, representing the watch going great system of popular singing societies, for aloud” of everything that passed before the call ing everybody to go into the house and keep both sexes and all ages, within a few years or to order. They were bright-looking, handsome, silence. The lightly marked, distinct pianissi

cant.

mo tramp of footsteps in the beginning was tinued, without change, to be the portion of sarily became palpable to all, as did, likewise, most perfect. The sense of near approach, Die Zauberflöte up to the present day-despite the incomplete and fragmentary nature of the conveyed by the crescendo, from verse to verse, the stupid libretto which defies all criticism. entire play. It was only Mozart's wondrous equally so; and the retreat. Machinery could | This libretto is unquestionably the worst Mo- music, and, it is true, the especial interest of not do the thing so nicely as those five hun zart ever glorified by his divine music, and, as Freemasonry in conjunction with it, which dred voices. The children then returned the a literary production, is far inferior, in inven- could preserve the empty will-o'-the-wisp of compliment of clapping, backed by the whole tion as in style, to the libretto of Così fan this comedy of fog, puppets, and animals, from audience. No. 4 was a respectable church | Tutte.

being speedily extinguished. This was felt by piece, short, in contrapuntal style, by M. Au At first sight, the book of Die Zauberflöte every reasonable man,-not excepting even the ber. No. 6, for full chorus, by Halévy, and in appears to be the creation of an inflamed brain; manufacturers of Viennese farces. his most characteristic and dramatic style, full of a mind which probably never moved in the They endeavored, therefore, to patch up, to of modulations, interminglings and responses, normal track. Á momentary fit of delirium emendate, and to elucidate the production, and had essentially the same poetic subject with might, perhaps, have brought forth something thus there sprang into existence continuations the piece by Grétry, and was called Le Couvre- similarly eccentric---but never anything so ab- and second parts of Die Zauberfiöte. These, feu : --very effective and completely rendered. solutely flat and worth.ess. T)e entire story written with more or less skill, were played for It is a chorus from his Juif errant, an opera resembles a confused and irregular dream, a time in the theatres of Vienna, Munich, and which he produced while the interest in Eugene without any intimation either of the time or Mannheim, and then entirely disappeared withSue's novel was yet fresh, but which had not locality in which the shadowy action takes out leaving a trace. Meanwhile, Mozart, who at all the same success as La Juire.

place. The personages are represented if not could have breathed the breath of life into these Part second was conducted by a plump, lit- without invention at least without character phantasms, bad gone to those lofty halls where, tle, bustling, blonde individual, full of gestic or national color... The separate scenes are de- in truth, revenge, envy, and poverty, are ulation, yet efficient, M. PASDELOUP, and ficient in aught like organic connection, and unknown. opened with a clever composition of his own, are held together by a merely apparent link.

Of all these posthumous pieces of wonder a Prayer, for all the voices. Next came á In addition to this, a fearful want of poetry and magic, the one which produced the great"Spring Song,” being one of those sweet and reigns supreme in the form. The dialogue ex

est sensation was a “grand heroic-comic opera, rather sentimental German-Italian part-songs cites our indignation by its triviality, and the with a libretto supplied by the inevitable for male voices, by de Call. But to our mind verses appear imitated from the mottoes of the Schikaneder himself. It was expressly anthe freshest, happiest and most interesting cracker maker. The jokes running through nounced as a “ Continuation of Die Zauberflöte,' morceau in the day's selection was a vintage the text are low and insipid—without a spark and entitled: Die Piramiden von Babilon (The song (Les Vendanges) from old Orlando Lasso, of true wit.

Pyramids of Babylon). It was first produced at to which very pretty and poetic French rhymes Down to the most recent period, there has Schikaneder's Theatre in 1797. had been adapted. There is a rare touch of been no want of interpreters, who have endeavfine, imaginative, graceful play in the music, ored to discover a red thread in this wch of folk's operas (W. Müiler, Joh. Schenk, Kauer,

Why not one of the numerous composers of which many would not expect from that absurdity, an illuminating point in this chaos "learned,”. “scientific” old fellow, that pio- of insipidity. But their explanations differed Sissmayer, Weig!, etc.), then resident in Vily sung. So was the next piece, No. 10, one seeking deep worldly wisdom under the gro- | Mozart's crushing rivalry. A few years later neer in contra puntal art; and it was beautiful- vastly from each other, most of the writers enna, set these Piramiden to music must remain

They dreaded, probably, of a very different character and perhaps the tesque outer envelope, and each one striving to next most interesting in the programme, by a discover and value it after his own fashion. It the stage a piece in the style of Die Zauberflöte

,

(1801), however, Süssmayer brought out upon living French composer, Gounod: a chorus for grandiose in style, startling in modulations, grains of gold, from the sterile medley: Poor Babilon were set by the Bohemian Mederitsch male voices from M. Faust

, martial, stirring, diplomatic artifices might be gleaned, like under the title: Phasma, oder die Erscheinungen and laid out evidently upon a farge orchestral Schikaneder was said not to have been the aubackground. most of it. A Cantique by Haydn, one of his work of some cne in a very high position per first act and the overture, and Winter the secThe unaided voices made the thor, but merely to have given his name to the under the name of Johann Gallus) in conjunc

tion with Peter von Winter, Gallus taking the elegant and faultless common places, followed, haps the Emperor Joseph II. himself. Others

ond act. and the séance closed with an enthusiastic Vive went so far as to scent Jesuitico-Rosicrucian l'Empereur ! vigorously composed by Gounod, mysteries beneath the veil of our common moth

The pianoforte arrangement of this opera now

lies before me. and sung apparently with a will, to words er Isis. At last, the majority of oneirocritics,

In consequence of the absence which couple

the occasion and the whole artis- guided by the well-known catch-words, agreed of the dialogue I can say nothing positive contic impulse of the land with his name: in adopting the conclusion generally accepted cerning the course of the plot-supposing there C'est l'élu de la France;

at the present day, namely: that the book of to have been one-and must, therefore, confine Il fut son sauveur,

Die Zauberflöte is an apotheosis of the order of myself to a few hints about the music. This is Il ouvre un temple à l'industrie, Freemasonry, in the holy halls of which Mozart, it is in the second, which does not, in the re

in the first act unquestionably superior to what Aux beaux-arts il rena leur splendear, as well as Schikaneder, is known to have been

motest degree, remind us of the composer of A nos drapeaux leur vizil honneur;

at home. And, indeed, it is only this fact A la France il rend son génie (!) which enables us to understand how the com- Gallus, on the contrary, displays a certain en

Das unterbrochene Operfest. The first act by And so ended one of the most interesting and poser of Don Juan, of Figaro, and of Idomeneo, ergy, and an excellent working out of the most exciting musical occasions at which I ever bave could throw away his magnificent strains on

interesting motives. The extremely boisterous been present. Of course it is a greater thing to such a hodge-podge of Viennese jokes, losty overture in C major) brings in rather intruhear greater compositions. But one could not philosophy, and ridiculous marvels.

sively the inevitable blasts on the trombone, as hear that singing, and feel that audience, with That, however, such an apotheosis might well as the mysterious knocking. The entire out feeling also that it has a future in it; that have been treated in a more noble manner, even the Orphéon really is a sound, live, vigorous for a Vienna public, is proved by the Sonnenfest and does not remind us in the slightest degree

work is, however, thoroughly homophonousmusical movement, springing out of the life of der Braminen, which appeared shortly after Mo of the manner of Mozart. The air of Senides: the people and destined to identify itself with zart's death, and for which the well-known

“Sendet uns, ihr guten Götter,"is, on the conall that people's enthusiasms. It is pregnant Wenzel Müller wrote the now lopg since for- trary, evidently formed upon that of Sarastro. with a great musical activity, hereafter; and gotten music.

A pompous and effective march of Priests, too, whether it is to call forth composers of the true Be this, however, as it may, it was soon evi- though not so simple and dignified as that in imaginative, creative stamp or not, it is at dent that the book of Die Zauberflöte was not Die Zauberflöte, stands out advantageously. In least moulding the ear and the soul of the only totally deficient in artistic finish, but that the second act' (by Winter), we have Cremona's French-nation to a fine appreciation and a deep the actual end was wanting. It is true that grand bravura air (A minor-A major), “Ha! love of the art of music. There is more of Fu- the wonderful story at length stopped, but ter- da ist die Piramid !” It strikes the hearer at ture in that, we fancy, than in all the theoretic minated or completed it certainly was not.

once as a copy of the bravura air in Die Zauberproducts of the Wagners, Liszts and Berliozes; What might not still happen to Sarastro; to flöte. In like manner we find, very true to naan we are far from thinking that the Art owes | Tamino and his lady: nay, to Papageno and ture, the bird-catcher in the little songs: nothing to those men, especially the first his little wife? Just as these strange person " Wenn ich zur alle Mädchen wüsste," and named.

ages bad accidentally, without any kind of "Voller Angst und voller Schrecken.” Gallus,

demonstrable motive, met, loved, and followed too, tas copied him and his wife very well in Continuations of Die Zauberfloete.* each other, so, after the knot had been, well the duet: "Heute sind es gerade drei Wochen, Among Mozart's more important operas, apart

or badly, cleft through, Princes, Magicians, Wo ich mich obne Weib noch befand.” But, from his youthful efforts, Die Zauberflöte is the

Priests, Queens, Bird-Catchers and Moors not withstanding this and everything else, these one which, from the very outset, boasted of

passed, vanishel-through the bronze gates of Babylonian Pyramids bave long since disapthe most decided success. The dying master the Temple of Wisdom, or, by the common high peared without leaving a trace behind. Save enjoyed, at least partially, the enthusiastic wel- road, ad astra.

the musical historian, scarcely anyone knows come which his last operatic score, written with After the first intoxicating outburst of enthu even their name. his ebbing heart's-blood, met with in the first siasm had evaporated, the vint of purport and A still less satisfactory res ilt must have been theatres of Germany. This popularity has 000 form in these shadows, wnich possed without achieved by a continuation undertaken, in the

* From the Neue Berliner Musikzeitung. (Translated in object, or any kind of e sonable tendency, year 1798, by Winter alone, under the title, the London Musical Worlu.)

| over the boards representin ? the world, neces Das Labyrinth, oder der Kunpj wit den Elemen

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ten, though Schikaneder had the pianoforte ar ser's symphony in C minor. “Pure" music, self

(A Letter to a Young Lady Singer.) rangement illustrated with twelve copperplate sufficient, and in all respects self-contained, must MY DEAR Miss You are endowed with an engravings. Gerber himself (Neues Lexicon,

ever come before that which needs an interpreter, admirable gift for singing, and your agreeable part iv. p. 598), can tell us nothing more about and which has no meaning apart from certain

moral though not

naturally powerful voice has vivacity much that is beautiful." "The spirit of Mozart nobody disputes the legitimacy of the descriptive also possess much talent in execution ; yet you did not hover, illuminating, warming, and viv. rightfal place, and he who

can produce a “ Pastoral

Words like im Walde have their nevertheless share the lot of almost all your sisters ifying, over these troubled waters-so they ran

in art, who, whether in Vienna, Paris, or Italy, find is second only to him who creates a "C minor," | only teachers who are rapidly helping to annihilate out and dried up before their time. And yet it There are some regulations, however, upon which, the opera throughout Europe, and are ruling out of was time they did!

programme music is not to run riot and become á

court the simple, noble, refined, and true art of Finally, towards the commencement of the nuisance, it will be necessary to insist. In the first singing. This modern, unnatural style of art, present century, Goethe wrote his fragment: place, its meaning should be definite, or, failing which merely aspires to superficial effects, and conDer Zauberflöte zweiter Theil (Second part of the that, it must, as music, be capable of exciting pleas- sists only in mannerisms, and which must ruin the Magic Flute.) More than anyone else was he, ure. We scarcely need stop to argue this proposi- voice in a short time, before it reaches its highest the universal poet, and first among the initiated, tion, because music that is neither intelligible nor perfection, has already laid claim to you. It is competent and fitted to execute such a work agreeable has no champions even among the many scarcely possible to rescue your talent, unless, conBut the very first sketch assumed such vast di- who seem disposed to fight for any artistic folly; vinced that you have been falsely guided, you stop mensions that even the cleverest composer

The rule laid down is just that which the Pastoral entirely for a time, and allow your voice to rest could scarcely hope to manage musically the Beethoven's descriptive work not a passage conveys studies, and with a voice never forced or strong,

Symphony satisfies. From beginning to end of during several months, and then, by correct artistic entire work when completed. Then, again,

a doubtful impression. All is as clear as the waters there was the fact that the aristocratic and ab- of the brook it shows us, while, regarded as music, attack by the use of much less and never audible

often indeed weak, you improve your method of solutist tendencies apparent in this fragment, it can be heard with delight for its own sake. Here, breathing, and acquire a correct, quiet guidance of as in everything Goethe did, could scarcely in then, we have a standard by which to test every the tones. You must also make use of the voice in spire a musician with enthusiasm for the won work of the kind, and so tried, Raff's Im Walde is the middle register, and strengthen the good headderful poem. Goethe perceived in time both found wofully deficient. The composer divides his tones by skilfully lowering them; you must equal. these evils

, and thus this Second Magic Flute symphony into three parts." Day”. “Twilight," ize the registers of the voice by a correct and varied remained a fragment. Isolated portions have and “ Night;” throughout all of which we are, of

use of the head-tones, and by diligent practice of been set by Zelter, J. F. Reichardt, C. Löwe, course, assumed to be in the Forest,” and subject solfeggio. You must restore the unnaturally extendReissiger, and others—but, as far as I know,

to the influences of a scene that imagination can ed registers to their proper limits; and you have without especial success.

easily depict. An allegro, entitled “Impressions still other points to reform. Are you not aware In Robert's opera Die Sylphen, to which F. ad Feelings,” constitutes the first part; the second that this frequent tremulousness of the voice, this

is made up of a largo, “ dreaming,” and an allegro immoderate forcing of its compass, by which the H. Himmel, Reichardt's successor, wrote admi

assai, Dance of Dryads ;,” while in the third we chest-register is made to interfere with the headrable music, we find Papageno, Papagena, and

are told to look to a final allegro for “ Busy stillnesstones, this coquetting with the deep chest-tones, this Leporello, introduced as episodical personages, of Night in the Forest-Arrival and departure of the affected, offensive, and almost inaudible nasal so that this work, also, if not exactly a contin- Wild Hunt, with Frau Holle and Wotan—Day- pianissimo, the aimless jerking out of single tones, uation, may be called an echo of Die Zauber- break.” Here is, verily, an ambitious programme, and, in general, this whole false mode of vocal exeflöte.

but we need not test its execution in detail. It will cution, must continually shock the natural senti. In conclusion, a word must be said concern suffice if we indicate the last movement as enough ment of a cultivated, unprejudiced hearer, as well ing the source whence was derived the text of to condemn the work when tested by the standard

as of the composer and singing-teacher? What Die Zauberflöte, as well as of all the continua- of Beethoven. Some may, quarrel with Raff about must be the effect on a voice in the middle register, tions and imitations of it, with the exception his choice of subjects, and ask what gain' can come when its extreme limits are forced in such a reckof that of Die Sylphen, which is founded on a

to music from association with the ghasiliness of less manner, and when you expend as much breath fairy tale by Gozzi. This common source is his Lenore, or the devilry of the Wild Hunt in Im for a few lines of a song as a correctly educated the Histoire de Sethos avec Anecdotes de l'ancienne wishes to make music sketch a gibbet, or a spectral will it be before your voice, already weakened, and

singer would require for a whole aria ? How long Egypte, a work published at Amsterdam, bloodhound, by all means let him indulge his fancy. almost always forced beyond the limits of beauty, MDCCXXXII, and purporting to be translated We do, however, complain that Raff's picture is, as from a Greco-Egyptian original. This apocry, to its ambitious finale, no picture at all

, but a great and even into that explosive or tremulous sound,

shall degenerate into a hollow, dull, guttural tone, phal and bungling production was translated smudge of vivid color made in the dark, as it would which proclaims irremediable injury? into German, in 1777, under the name (falsely seem, with the brush of a house painter. Witness beautiful voice and your talent to disappear like a affixed to it, perhaps) of Matthias Klaudius. ing it, the eye is dazzled by glare without being meteor, as others have done ? or do you hope that It was this version which Schikaneder evident- conscious of form. We want to know what this the soft air of Italy will in time restore a voice once ly employed throughout, sometimes—for the means, what that is intended to convey, why our ruined ? I fall into a rage when I think of the many apothegms-copying it word for word. But senses are harrowed in one place, and soothed in beautiful voices which have been spoiled, and have the shadowy comic forms in Die Zauberflöte are another; but we ask vainly, notwithstanding our

dwindled away without leaving a trace during the indisputably his nwn property. There is not acquaintance with the composer's general idea. last forty years; and I vent my overflowing heart in the slightest trace of them in the Geschichte des Other portions of the work are more happy. There

a brief notice of the many singing-teachers, whose are some charming glimpses of forest life in the rise and influence I have watched for twenty years Scihos.

JOSEPH SEILER.
opening movement, and both the Largo and Scherzo

past. have points of interest and attraction. But the Fi. The so-called singing teachers whom we usually Raff's "Im Walde” in London. nale, like that in Lenore, ruins the work, and pro- find, even in large cities and in musical institu

claims it, as an example of programme music, to be tions, I exempt from any special criticism, for they (From the Daily Telegraph, April 13.)

a failure. We will not criticize Im Walde as music would not be able to understand my views. They Tue PHILHARMONIO SOCIETY.

per se, further than to say that, with many happy permit soprano voices to sing scales in all the five The second concert of the present season took effects, and great skill in use of the orchestra, it is vowels at once ; begin with c instead of f; allow a place in St. James's Hall on Monday night, and was chiefly remarkable for a bold defiance of rules sanc. long holding of the notes, “in order to bring out made specially interesting to lovers of novelty by a

tioned by the highest genius, the result being often the voice," until the poor victim rolls her eyes performance of Raft's third symphony, entitled "Im of a character which leaves Raff without excuse for and grows dizzy. They talk only of the fine chestWalde. This work has never been heard in Eng- his daring. We do not advocate finality in music, tones which must be elicited, will have nothing to land before, although it is accounted its composer's but innovation should at least be in the direction of do with the head-tones, will not even listen to them, masterpiece, and has been some years before the improvement, and not suggest change for the sake recognize them, or learn to distinguish them. Their world." English ignorance of a symphony, howev. of change. On the whole, Im Walde cannot be said highest principle is: “Fudge! we don't want any er, is no argument against it. Though we are grad. to have advanced its composer's position in this rubbish of Teschner, Miksch, and Wieck. Sing in ually acquiring a healthy curiosity about things of country. A majority of the audience received it your own plain way: what is the use of this murthe kind, we care less to enlarge the scope of our

with coldness, and, we believe, were right in doing muring without taking breath? For what do you musical acquaintance than to dwell admiringly up- so. The performance, taken for all in all, reflected have lungs if you are not to use them ? Come, try on the excellencies of old friends. Besides, we are

Mr. Cusins and bis orchestra, who this aria : 'Grâce,' 'Grâce!' Produce an effect ! distrustful, not without excuse, of the school to which deserve none the less praise because they had a

Down on your knees !” Raff belongs, ant shrink somewhat from contact thankless task.

There are again others who allow screaming,with its teaching. These considerations explain, if

Over the rest of the concert we must pass very “the more the better,"—in order to produce power they do not justify the fact, why the composer and briefly. The second symphony was Beethoven's and expression in the voice, and to make it servicehis Im Walde have so tardily made their appearance No. 8, and the concluding overture Spohr's Jessonda. able for public performances

. They may, indeed, in our concert-rooms. It was, doubtless, very wrong Malle.. Krebs played Schumann's concerto with require the singing of solfeggio, and prattle about of our indifferentism to keep them out, and hence splendid effect, overcoming its many difficulties, and the requisite equality of the tones; and they conwe had a double reason to rejoice on Monday night reading the work like a consummate artist. The sequently make the pupil practise diligently and

--we enlarged our knowledge, and took Raff in. vocalist was Malle. Levier, who sang Röschen's strongly on the two-lined a, 6 fat, b, where kind The title of the symphony at once suggests that it great air from Spobr's Faust most effectively.

Nature does not at first place the voice, because belongs to the order of“ programme music," and is

she has reserved for herself the slow and careful simply illustrative. So far, the work holds a sec Father Wieck on Singing and Singing

development of it. As for the unfortunate gaspondary rank among its kind; for even now, when

ing medium voices, which are still less docile, and

Teachers. the tendency is to proclaim the need of a defined

wbich sigh in the throat, and after all can only poetic basis, few will venture to assert that the no From Advanced Sheets of " Piano and song: How to speak, such teachers postpone the cultivation of

Teach and how to Learn." Translated from the German blest example of programme music, Beethoven's of FRIEDRICH WIECK, by MARY P. NICHOLS. Boston:

these to the future, or else they exclaim in a satPastoral Symphony—is equal to the same compo- Noyes, Holmes & Co.

"Now we will sing at sight! Hit the

Is your

credit upon

istied way,

ever

accus

to prevent its proper development, and therefore and not even the “finger-rack"invented and used. I ly recorded, that David played with his hand. The

notes! Let us have classical music !” Of these, much more easily injured than fingers; and that an animal, or even a reed, would supply a rude sort also, I forbear to speak.

broken, rigid voices are much worse than stiff, uo of pipe, while the first stretched string that sounded And as for the singin-teachers, whose business it manageable fingers, unless, after all, they amount was a type of the lyre, nor could it fail to be peris to educate the voice for “ the opera of the inture,” to the same thing. I depand of singing-teachers ceived that the sound was rendered more acute by I am really unable to write about them. In the first that they show themselves worthy of their position, increasing the tension. Referring to the Bible acplace, I know nothing about the future,” the un and allow no more voices to go to destruction, and count of Jubal, who was, we are told “the father born ; and, in the second place, I have more than that they give us some satisfactory results. I be (or chief) of all that handle the harp or organ," enough to do with the present.

lieve in fact, in my homely simplicity, that the these words, Sir Robert said, like most of the musi. And now I come to those who honestly wish to whole thing may be accomplished without any mys. cal terms in the authorized translation, were very teach better, and who in a measure do so. But

tery, without trading in secrets or charlatanry : | loosely rendered, mere representing such instrueven they are too pedantic: with prejudiced views, without the aid of modern anatomical improvement, ments as were common in the time of Edward VI. they pursue vne-sided aims.

Without looking or rather destruction, of the worn-out throat. and James I. The “Kinnor” and “Nebel” were around to the right or to the left or forwards, and through shortening or increasing the flexibility of harps. " Ugab” some sort of pipe. The lecturer without daily learning, reflecting, and striving, they the palate, through the removal of the unnecessary quoted the various and sometimes conflicting opinrun in a groove, always ride their particular hobby, glands or by attempts to lengthen the vocal passage, ions of Adam Clarke, Jebb, and Dr. Stainer, amongst cut everything after one pattern, and use up the or by remedying a great many other things in which moderns; and of Josephus, amongst early writers, time in secondary matters, in incredible trifles. Nature bas made a mistake, and on which special upon the snbject. The “ kinnor” was generally beFor the formation of a fine tone, not a minute doctors for the voice, in Paris and London, are now lieved to have been a small triangular harp for solos; should be lost, particularly with lady singers, who employed.

larger instruments were used to accompany chorusare not strong, and usually cannot or ought not to We supply the want of all these by the following es. Of the lyre and the barp extremely varied and sing more than twenty days in a month, and who little rule :

numerous forms existed. Six hundred of these had surely ought to be allowed to use their time in Three trifles are essential for a good piano or been examined by Montfaucon, who, professed he a reasonable manner. Moreover, these are the singing-teacher,

saw but little real distinction between any of them. teachers whom it is most difficult to comprehend.

The finest taste,

In addition to the Jewish “kinnor,” they would Though they use only seven tones, they are

The deepest feeling,

perceive representations of lyres ornamented with plunged in impenetrable mysteries, in incompre:

The most delicate ear,

birds and other animals. These, at least, could not hensible knowledge and a multitude of so-called secrets, out of which, indeed, nothing can and, in addition, the requisite knowledge, energy.

have been Jewish instruments, for the Israelites

were strictly forbidden to make graven images, lest be brought to light. For this, however, they do

and some practice. Voild tout! I cannot devote not consider themselves to blame, not even their myself to the treatment of the throat, for which they might fall into idolatory; and the ibis, stork, hobby-horses; but, as they say,

“ the higher

have neither time nor fitness; and my lady singers hawk, and crane, were, as is well-known, worshipped powers." We will, for once, suppose that three.

are so busy with the formation of true tone, and in by the surrounding nations. The“ plectrum,” with fourths of the measures which they are attention to the care and preservation of their

which many of the lyres of antiquity were touched, tomed to employ in their treatment of the voice voices, that they only wish to open their mouths

was either a quill, a piece of metal, or the tooth of a and of the individual are good and correct (the for that object, and not for anatomical purposes. the “ kinnor," was played with a plectrum; but if,

lion or tiger. Josephus thought the triangular harp, same is true of many piano-teachers); but the

In piano-playing also, I require no cutting of the remaining fourth is sufficient to ruin the voice, or interdigital fold, no mechanical hand support, no

As was generally supposed, this was the harp used accelerator for the fingers or stretching machine; / by David, Josephus must be wrong, as it is distinctnothing correct is to be gained. There are other teachers who never can get beyond the formation

without my knowledge, by a famous pupil* of ancient Irish herpers used a natural plectrum, and of the tone, and are lost in the pursuit of perfec- mine, for the proper raising of the third and fourth played not with the fleshy tips of their fingers, but

with their pails, suffered to grow for the purpose. tion,--that “terrestrial valley of tears." Truly a

fingers. beautiful country, but which is only to be found in

My dear young lady, if the Creator has made the

Sir R. Stewart referred to an example of the dulciParadise ! throat badly for singing, he alone is responsible. mer, upon which he would play a few notes; this,

one of the oldest instruments in the world, still Others, instead of thinking, “I will try for the

I cannot come to his assistance by destroying the
throat with lunar caustic, and then reconstructing then in one of the by-streets of the Strand in Lon-

maintained its place, and might be heard now and present to do better than others have done,” so harass and torment the poor mortal voices with it. If the thrvat is really worn out, may it not per

don. Dulcimers had, not long ago, been skilfully their airn at perfect equality and perfect beauty of haps be owing to the teacher, and to his mistaken played by clever urchins in the streets of Dublin. tone, the result often is that every thing becomes management. Nature does many things well, and before the in; being found in the Bible

, was apparent to him, while

That the dulcimer was a word familiar to all persons, unequal and far from beautiful. Somc teachers

troduction of this modern fashion of singin, produced make their pupils so anxious and troubled that, owing to their close attention to the tone, and the

many beautiful voices: has she all at once become engaging in searching for old instruments for these breath, and the pronunciation, they sing their songs incapable of doing any thing right?

lectures ; thus few people knew in what a spinet or We will, then, simply return to the three trifler seemed to have heard of the dulcimer, just as the

harpsichord differed from a piano; but every one in an utterly wooden manner, and so in fact they, too, are lost in optimism and in tears; whereas, for

above-mentioned; and in these we will live and old lady, who, not understanding, what the sermon singing, a happy confidence in the ability to suc

work “ with all our heart, with all our soul, and ceed is essential. Others pursue an opposite course, with all our mind."

was about, had yet derived much comfort from "that

blessed word, Mesopotamia." (Laughter.) (A and are guilty of worse faults, as you will see if you *Reference is here made to Robert Schumann, who, in Scotch melody was here performed upon the dolci. look around. Some of them have no standard of order to facilitate the use of the weaker fingers, employer!

mer by the lecturer, who apologized for his own a machine for raising the fingers artificially, which resultperfection, but use up the time in an exchange of ed in loss of power over them, and necessitated the aban want of skill in performance). Reference was made ideas with their pupils, with mysterious and con. donnent of piano-playing.-Tr.

to the various instruments referred to in the tenth ceited “ifs" and "buts.” They are very positive,

chapter of 1st Samuel, aed also to the transposed but only within the narrow circle of their own ideas. They make no advance in a correct medium path.

enumeration of the instruments, as played when Keyed-Stringed Instruments of Music.

Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, refused to worSome allow pupils to practise only staccato, and Sir ROBERT STEWART'S LECTURES AT DUBLIN ship the golden image (supposed to be Baal). The others only legnto, aiming thereby at nobody knows

UNIVERSITY.*

words, instead of sackbut. psaltery, and dulcimer, what. Some allow them to sing too lond, others

I.

should really be harp, dulcimer, and bagpipe. The too feebly; some philosophize earnestly about beau

lecture was concluded by a reference to the zither, ty in the voice, and others grumble about unpleas On Saturday (March 13) Sir Robert Stewart de a little instrument much used in Germany and Ausantness in the same; some are enthusiastic about livered the first of a course of lectures upon "Keyed-tria. It was capable of peculiar and beautiful extraordinary talents, others fret about the want of stringed Instruments of Music,” in the usual place effects; two ladies had kindly lent him specimens ; talent; some have a passion for making all the so the Examination Hall (a handsome room capable of but although more than a dozen persons in Dublin pranos sing alto, others do just the reverse ; some containing some 600 or 700 persons). Long before had practised the zither, none of them could be inprefer a shadowy, others a clear voice. They all the hour for commencing the proceedings the hall duced to perform the simplest melody upon it. It rest their opinions upon the authority of some fa was filled with an auditory about equally composed was, to some extent, a reproduction of the lyre of mous screaming-master who has written a singing of both sexes. The raised dais at the upper end was antiquity, played with a thimble plectrum. Some system. Upon like authority some cultivate chiefly devoted to purposes of illustration ; on one table of its peculiar effects had been imitated in a little the deep tones, because it is very fine, and “cre. were placed an Indisn harmonicon of ironwood, a pianoforte piece by his valued friend, Dr. Ferdinand ates an effect,” for soprano voices to be able sudden- dulcimer, and two zithers; upon another were ar Hiller, of Cologne, called “ Zur Guitarre." The del. ly to sing like men, or rather to growl, and because ranged various photographs of instruments of the icate arpeggios and gentle glissandos of the zither it is the fashion in Paris. Others, on the contrary, harp, lyre, and dulcimer class, both ancient and would be recognized by all who bad heard the little pride themselves upon the head tones; but they modern. A grand pianoforte occupied the centre. instrument. A young lady here played Dr. Hiller's are none of them willing to pay much attention to Along the side of the hall were suspended large di- sketch, and the lecture was concluded. the medium voices; that is too critical and too deli agrams-figures of life size, representing players cate a matter, and requires too much trouble, for upon the “ kinnor," Assyrian dulcimer, and similar the modern art of singing. As a last resort, they instruments. bethink themselves of kind Nature, and lay the After paying a tribute to the memory of Sterndale (March 20). when the hall and even the lofty gal

The second of this course was given on Saturday blame upon her.

Bennett, he said:Well, I will say no more upon this point, but I daresay, you have all heard the origin of music lery (where is erected the ancient organ said to have will proceed. Have I not already, in my piano in referred to in the wind whistling among the reeds, filled. Visitors were even seated upon the ground

been captured in the Spanish Armada), was quite structions, insisted on the importance of a gradual or the dried sinews of animals, or to men imitating at the steps of the dais

. The diagrams of the formand careful use of every proper expedient to extend, the songs of birds—theories equally stale and unten

able. strengthen, beautify, and preserve the voice? I am To anyone who gives the subject a little

er lecture had not been removed, but facing them thought, however, to infringe upon the office of the thought it will be evident that music arises from the ing paper representing the spinet, harp-shaped and

were a number of others upon large sheets of draw singing-masters, who hold their position to be inuch speech of man, which. by raising and the sustaining more exalted than that of the poor piano-teacher. of the voice, at once becomes a song. The horn of and showing the keys'; a female figure playing the

on tressels, as it were; the clavichord, box-shaped, Still, I must be allowed to repeat that voices are

* Reported in the Musical Standard.

Elizabethan Virginal; a king, or other crowned

figure playing the Psaltery, which was pressed up speaking of Venus, he says

the quill plectra, now, however, applied to wires in. to the breast, and various photographed representa

“A citole in her right hand had she.”

stead of catgut. Thus arose the “ Virginal,” a boxtions of instruments, from the South Kensington “ Citolers” are further enumerated among the musi- shaped instrument laid on the table, and the spinet, collection. Upon the platforma was placed a modern ciacs of Edward III. All these instruments were, a similar one, but more like a harp on its sidegrand piano; on a table were a tiger's teeth, a dul. however, deficient in one respect—very few notes resting on slender and somewhat shaky-looking legs. cimer, a bagpipe, a Viola d'Amour (an instrument could be sounded on them at once. The harp was The virginal was the favorite instrument of Henry which the lecturer subsequently explained had been indeed capable of harmony, but from neither psal. VIII. and of both his daughters, Elizabeth and sometimes called erroneonsly by the appellation of tery, dulcimer, or citole could more than two notes | Mary Queen of Scotland. That king, who bore such Psaltery), and an ancient spinet of Queen Anne's at a time be produced. The keyboard (which, like a bad character in his latter years, was in his youth day, made by the well-known virginal maker, Ste- many other improvements, has been attributed to a generous and highly accomplished prince, who paid phen Keen, and lent for exhibition by the owner, a Guido the monk) was in existence since the 12th particular attention to languages, to manly sports, lady in Dublin. At two o'clock Sir Robert Stewart century. B Alat it had from the outset, F sharp and to music. A facsimile of some pages of King came forward, and said :

was added in the 14th century, C sharp and E flat Henry's music-book would be exhibited after the Last week we took note of some of the earlier early in the 15th century, and later on in the same conclusion of the lecture. It formed part of vol. xli. members of the stringed-instrument family, the an-century the G sharp appeared. The first attempt of the “ Archæologia," and had been communicated cestry, so to speak, of the pianoforte of our own at a keyed stringed instrument seems to have been to the Society of Antiquaries by Mr. Chappell, to times. Of these, perhaps, as many were made to made by attaching in a rude sort of way quills whose kindness he (Sir R. Stewart) was indebted vibrate with the plectrum, as with the fingers; for worked by keys to catgut strings. This (A.D. 1150 for these rare and interesting documents. The as the world grew older, however the form of to 1200) was the “clavicytherium” (keyed kithara, lecturer here read the account given by Sir J. Melstringed instruments might alter, there was but lit or harp). It was probably by accident that the vil (Ambassador from Mary Queen of Scots to Eliztle difference in the method of exciting their vibra- next discovery was made. "I allude to the “clavi- beth in 1564) of his interview with the foundress of tions ; some were touched with the teeth of wild chord,” which for six centuries played an important Dublin University, of her coquetry, and her skill on animals—some with the fingers alone. Such (said part in the history of music. Taking its rise in the the virginal; part of her preference for this little the lecturer) is evidently the case with the little in. | 12th century, it was only when the pianoforte be- keyed instrument might be traced to the fact that strument represented in the drawing nearest to me came almost perfect, towards the close of the 18th, Elizabeth (who with all her sound sense was not on the left, and copied from a manuscript of the 14th that the clavichord gave way to it. However, it without a woman's weakness, and dearly loved adcentury, in the Bibliotheque Imperiale of Paris. You continued to be used in remote German districts by miration) had beautiful hands, snow white, and will perceive it is played while laid upon the ground, village schoolmasters and others, and was well covered with rings. Sir R. Stewart now played, or (like the modern zither) upon the knees of the known in England, as we learn from the “Delany partly on the spinet, and partly on the pianoforte, performer, or a table. This was far from being Correspondence,” 1760 to 1770. Mr. Bernard Gran. some pieces from the “ Virginal-Book " of Elizabeth always the case, for in a grotesque alphabet of A. D. ville (for whom a fine MS. collection of Handel's -a volume of more than 400 pages, filled with mu1466, one hundred years later, a rustic (of the type works was copied out by Smith, under the direction sic by Tallis, Gibbons, and Byrd (whose music they of Gurth in Ivanhoe) is represented holding an ex of the composer) was a famous clavichord player. so often heard sung in the adjoining chapel). The actly similar instrument up to his breast, and play. The “clavier,” to which in the life and letters of music consisted of Dr. Bull's variations on the six ing upon it with both hands. M. de Coussemaker Mozart such frequent reference is made, was the notes of the hexachord, and Byrd's “carman's (to whose researches all musical antiquaries are so clavichord. For this instrument, too, were composed

whistle.” Much amusement was caused by the sin. deeply indebted) gives in his Essai sur les Instru- most of the expressive preludes and fugues in the gular tone of the spinet, one of Stephen Keen's inments de Musique du Moyen Age, a representation of " 48" of J. Seb. Bach ; there are others of this fa- struments, as old as the days of Queen Anne. Prea crowned figure, holding and performning on an in mous collection in which the influence of the bolder vious to playing on the instrument, Sir Robert strument of the same form, in the same manner. A and more vigorous harpsichord might be plainly entered into an explanation of the various meanings friend had very kindly copied this for them on a traced. [Here the lecturer played a few bars of of the word “ Jack,” reading Shakespeare's 128th large diagram towards his (Sir Robert Stewart's) two preludes of varied styles.] It was for the clav. sonnet, and also other early writers, where the right hand. The figure was from a MS. of the 14th ichord that the concerto which, to the astonishment “ jacks,” by means of which the spinet was played, century, in the Boulogne Library. This was the of his father, the infant Mozart when but six years

were referred to. It was not impossible (he said) “Psaltery" referred, to by Chaucer and other con

of age, had composed, when he said,

“ It is a con that the toy called “ Jack-in-a-box" had been detemporary writers, but from the unsettled nature of certo, papa, and must be practised to be properly rived from the jumping up of the spinet mechanism. English orthography in those early times, there was played !” The lecturer here described the construc- As the spinet had no sforzando-no difference in the now some difficulty in recognizing the word, so va tion of the clavichord, as explained by that admira- tone-composers for it were accustomed, whenever riously was it expressed, as salteire, sawtrey, sau ble musician, Herr Dannreuther, with its key-tan. they desired to direct particular attention to any trie, and psaltery. As an instance of the provoking gents and other peculiarities, which Dr. Burney had note, to precede it with a beat, or short and rapid ly loose manner in which musical terms always noticed in the playing of Charles Philip Emanuel shake. The works of Couperin (one of the distinwere, and doubtless always would be employed, this Bach. The English historian had remarked how guished family of clavecinists, who were to France Ford Psaltery had been applied to the Viola that performer produced from his clavichord, made like the Bachs to Germany) absolutely bristled with d'Amour," a six-stringed instrument of the Viola by Silbermann, a cry, as it were, of sorrow and these little “ beats.” family, played with the ordinary bow. It had been complaint." Sir R. Stewart also read extracts from A young lady here played “Les Moissoneurs," a so announced when Julian's famous orchestra visited the treatises of Turk and Wolff, musicians of the 18th rondo of Frangois Couperin, with much neatness. Dublin thirty years ago, or more, when solos were century, referring to these peculiar clavichord ef. The lecture was concluded by a march played on played opon it. The Viola d'Amour (of which a fects, which he (the lecturer) had himself plaiily Aute, dulcimer, bag-pipe, and Chinese gong, in comfine specimen was before them, kindly lent by a traced in the “six sonatas ” of Seb. Bach for the bination, which was redemanded. Next week Sir friend for this lecture) had been introduced in the double clavichord with pedals, and also in Chopin's Robert said he woulil devote to the harpsichord, of “Huguenots” by Meyerbeer, where, in Raoul's first variations on “La ci darem” (Op. 2), as well as in which a perfect specimen would be exhibited. recitative, its arpeggio effects (which Berlioz had those works of Beethoven referred to by Herr Danndescribed as “seraphic,” “ angelic,” and so forth) reuther. Dr. Griepenkerl, one of the ripest musiwere singularly beautiful. Its accordatura was pe- cians of Germany, did not seem to have perceived

Wagner Anticipated. culiar, altogether formed of the chord of D major. this clavichord “Bebung " effect, and Fétis professed In Le Guide Musical appears an article to But such an instrument in no way resembled the himself quite unable to account for Chopin's design show that Méhul, influenced by Gluck, anticiPsaltery–a term which had been variously traced in so fingering the passage to which he (Sir R. Stew

I defy the to the word psallo, rendered by Kircher too“ strike art) referred. In Kuhnau's clavichord piece, « The pated the theories of Wagner. with finger-tips," but by Adam Clarke (who was no.

world to mention (says the writer) among the Battle of David and Goliath,” the terror of the toriously hostile to the use of instruments in Divine Israelites had been attempted to be expressed by most noisy disciples of the Wagnerian school, service) as merely “to sing." It has been even the “ Bebung” accent. (Here, as no clavichord any composer more imperturbably attached than referred to the Latin word saltare, in allusion to the could be discovered in Ireland at the present day, Méhul to the practice of the system :religious dances of early times. À certain onoma Mr. Healy imitated upon his violin, the peculiar Have you ever heard of a one-act comic opera en. topria might be traced in the term psaltery to the rhythmical accent referred to in the Bach Sonatas, titled, “ Uthal ?” I doubt it very much; and yet, word Prao, of which the sound had been compared and in Kuhnau's “ Biblical Story.”). The clavichord, though a person would scarcely believe it, this simto the twitch a carpenter gives when he pulls a with its brass tangents, was, in fact, “key-violin ple comic opera, in one act only, into the bargain, chalked line in order to mark with it. It was also, playing,” the piece of brass referred to, acting in a was big with all the theories which we have since probably, connected with the Chaldean “santeer,” | double capacity-as a stop on the string, and also a seen breaking over us with such hubbub. Uthal !" to which the Egyptians would add the article “pi” means of feebly setting it in vibration. Its powers It strikes you at once as having something of a sham(pesanteer), and the Assyrians would tack on the of expression, however, made it a favorite with J. S. epopeia about it. You fancy you recognize in the termination “in '-pesanterin: the very word trans. Bach, and after him with Mozart. At first there title the heroic precursor of Tannhäuser” and lated in Daniel iii. as the Fsaltery. A similar onom. was but one string for each note, and the semitones " Lohengrin." The action takes place in the good atopeia might be observed in the word rendered next above; thus one sound both for C and C sharp. old times of Ossian; and Méhul, considering that it "Alute,” in the same place, “sharak”-a shrieking, there being a tangent for each on a different part of was not sufficient for his music that he should or piercing-toned pipe. We shall not (continued the string. It was not till 1720 that a German merely apply himself to the study of character, bethe lecturer) now dwell further upon these matters. named Faber made clavichords with a separate string lieving, like Cæsar, that nothing is done while any At the end of the lecture you shall hear a combina for every note in their scale. Nothing was more thing remains to be done, resolved to give the world tion of what we may term "Nebuchadnezzar's singular in the history of keyed instruments than something in the way of historical, or, still better, orchestra,” consisting of the pipe (sharak), the dul- the fact, that, with the hammers of the dulcimer on local coloring. To produce a monotonous music, cimer (or psaltery), and the bagpipe-in lieu of the the one hand, and the feeble, but expressive clavi. tinged with crepuscular melancholy, a sort of residue included as “ all kinds of music,” the gong chord with its complete keyboard on the other be grisaille, similar in its eftect to the dull ocean vapors -a never-failing concomitant of heathen orgies — fore them, our forefathers never stumbled on the which envelop in fog the Caledonian coast, such shall be also sounded. Quite similar to the psaltery idea of a piano till a comparatively recent date ; yet was his set pnrpose in this work, "imitated from was the “ citole," a little box, across which i0 or 15 so it was—dissatisfied the dull tones produced Ossian," as we read on the title page of the engraved strings were strained. This, which was also played from catgut by quills, and the weak “ tangent music" score, the system being so deliberately carried out on the player's knees, and twanged with the fingers, of their clavichords ; they-like a pack of hounds at that we see him, though it is almost impossible to is referred to in Chaucer's “ Knight's Tale,” when fault-tried back, and once more had recourse to imagine such a thing now-a-days, push the scruples

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