« VorigeDoorgaan »
nel mio penar.” This song is in the (for Han. / own, that his works are in that respect quite of Spohr, who, on hearing the music of Boc
points of which I had made a note; but there
The sense of the joke is a mistake, for many of is one piece so striking in its dramatic effect,
M. Maurice Cristal has published in the his quintets are full of passion, vigor, and and so in advance of its age, that a word must Ménestrel
, of Paris, a series of biographical and animation. His harmony, not always accom. be said about it. This is the quartet “O cedere critical notices on Boccherini and his works. ing to syntax, abounds in piquant details. He o perir,” which was written for a later version from the final chapter we extract a few of the is fond of unisonal effects
, which sometimes of the work, and was not in the original. In facts, and paraphrase some of the comments reduce his quartets to duos. But the device is this movement Tiridate, King of Armenia, is offered by M. Cristal. threatened with death. Three of the persons
Boccherini died on the 28th May, 1805, at of a complete orchestra which, by his marvelof the drama press round him, exhorting him to Madrid, aged 65. It has been said that his lous skill in the use of the different timbres of yield or perish. “Yield to honor! Yield to funeral was graced by the Court and great perlove! Yield to virtue!” they cry; and he replies “Non cedo.” The whole movement is sonages; but from information procured by M. fivales are somewhat archaic in color, and are full of life and fire, and the crchestration, with Picquot, it seems that his burial was bumble, perhaps now out of date; but his adagios and independent parts for oboes and bassoons, in neighbors, for the most part unconscious of his and attended only by a few devoted friends and minuets are always exquisite. His pastorales
remain incomparable. addition to the string quartet, is as interesting
With a fecundity equalling his originality, as the voice parts.
The grace, the charm, the tenderness of his Boccherini has producee 366 instrumental com Fiavio, the third opera contained in this year's music well represent the epoch which immedi- positions. With his many claims on the attenissue, is not as a whole one of Handel's best, ately preceded a period of restlessness and tion of connoisseurs, he has still been singular: nor does it contain much on which it is needful higher ambition. The ideas of Boccherini are
ly neglected, and at one time was almost to dwell. There is, however, one very curious gathered and moulded with implements of unknown. Germany is only, now beginning to puint in the instrumentation. At page 75 of delicate form; and they are so completely his acknowledge his merits, which were formerly the score is a song with oboe obbligato, “Amor,
up in German opinion in
, and give the impression that del) unusual key of B flat minor-thus appar- knew no other
music but what he wrote him- cherini at Paris, observed that "it did not entlv indicating that the performer had an oboe self. He belongs in short to that favored class merit the name of music.” Boccherini's fame in D fat, a semitone above the ordinary pitch, of men who are born intellectually independ- has, however, since been thoroughly vindicated would have written the part in the key which ent, in whose minds there are already inherited by a galaxy of French and German artists. At he has selected, and in all other cases he inva- germs which fructify in the country, the cli- | Brussels M. Gevaert is perpetuating the tradi. mate, the epoch whence they spring. They
tional glory of the Italian master, first made No explanation of the change is given in the light, but which in darkness shine like fixed dates from the end of the XVIIth century; but riably writes for the oboe in the usual way. resemble those jewels that by day reflect little known at the Conservatoire by Fetis.
The history of instrumental chamber music score; it can therefore only be noticed as a cu
stars. They have absorbed through time the rious fact.
light they emit and with which they are satu- / the direction it has since taken as a learned The last opera as yet published, Giulio Cesare, rated. Boccherini is a romantic Sebastian branch of the art is due to Corelli. He was is one of the composer's finest. The recitative Bach of chamber music, a radiant point in the followed by Tartini. The pupils of those great “Alma del gran Pompeo’ is fully equal in in- art of southern Europe, in the warm zone of artists, from Geminiani, Leclair, Nardini, &c., tensity of expression to the “Deeper and deep- Venice, Sicily, and Spain.
to Viotti, in the latter half of the XVIIIth er still ” in Jephtha, or to the less known, but It is to Boccherini we owe the form of the century, represented what may be called the certainly not less tine recitative in Belshazzar,
virtuoso school of chamber composition. It movement in a quartet or symphony known as “Vain transitory state of human empire. the minuet. His music in regard to mere vir
was Boccherini who had the honor of first
He is the creaMany of the songs are also in Handel's best tuososbip is not difficult, compared with that of launching into deeper waters. manner: but one of the most striking points Mayseder and other of his contemporaries and tor of the trio, the quartet, and the quintet, about this opera is the richness and variety of
successors in the north. It is enough if in which Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven have its scoring. To mention one point-here, and interpreting Boccherini we can seize the rhythm
developed. in do other of Handel's works, unless it be in and comprehend the style-an acquirement not
Boccherini, during his long residence in some of his still unpublished operas, we find by any means common on this side of the Alps. Spain, where he finally died, would naturally, four horns, one pair of which (as in our modern Once attained, the recompense we receive in with an organization so sensitive, absorb at scores) are tuned in one key, and the other pair the effects of Boccherini's well concerted accom- every pore the national coloring of Spanish in a different one. In the opening chorus, for paniments far exceeds the poor satisfaction of
music, When we listen to his dreamy adagios instance, which is in the key of A, we find two mastering mechanical difficulties.
and passionate largos, his minuets, garlanded corni in A and two corni in D, while in the The makers of chamber music are apt to with pizzicato accompaniments recalling the final chorus in G, we find two horns in G; and speak learnedly of the viola, but it is not often silvery sounds and balmy atmosphere of a startwo in D. In the song, "Va tacito e nascosto,” they bring the effects of that instrument into ry night in Spain, we turn our thoughts soris an elaborate horn obbligato, which even now good relief. Rolla, who as a viola player had rowfully to the humble chamber where Bocwould bother some of our best players; and in no rival, was, after Boccherini, one of the few cherini, destitute and almost starving, bent the song, “ Se infiorito" we see the two bas-composers who really knew how to employ it.
over his desk, is transcribing for our delight soons doubling the violins in the octave below, Passing over Zamboni, Benincori, and Fiorillo
; his loves and dreams, his simple piety, and inquite in Mozart's manner. It is more than pos
we must not forget Bruni*, the libertine Bruni, consolable mournings.- Lond. Mus. Standard. sible that Handel was the inventor of this whose trios for violins and viola are so full of orchestral effect. But the most curious piece taste and originality. The adagios of Bruni
Liszt and Chopin. of orchestration in the work is that of the Sin.
are always highly praised. They are short and fonia (page 54 of the score), wbere, in addition without development, kinds of preludes, but to the ordinary band in the orchestra, consist- always brimming with freshness and grace. In
[From “ Brainard's Musical World."] ing of a stringed quartet and two oboes, is the hands of Alard this delicate music retains There was a time in which the piano was a specfound a second band on the stage, which is all its color, all its accent. In the trios of ies of religion. When the aged Field was on his composed of one oboe, first and second violins, Bruni the players are never bored. There are death-bed, his friends, not knowing what to say, in viola, harp, viola da gamba, theorba, (a kind no long rigmaroles, repetitions, and mechani- order to prepare him for the last great change, Asked, of large lute) bassoons, and violoncellos. As cal substitutes for inspiration. From the first “Are you a Papist or Calvinist ?” some of these instruments no longer exist, it is note to the last the music “ sings.”_ All that,
"I am a pianist,” responded the dying artist. impossible for anyone now, however expert in however, pales in the presence of Boccherini.
Among the adepts of this new religion the most score-reading, to realize with the mind's ear The works of the latter are truly offsprings of celebrated were, without doubt, Chopin and Liszta the full effect of this combination. It is easy genius. The conduct, the plan of his music, presumption, his grand charlatanisın, for the con: enough, however, to perceive that it must have the system of modulation, as well as the melo- duct of his beroes of romance, for his strange musi. been remarkably rich and sonorous. Djd space dic ideas, have the impress of his individuality, cal theories ; in spite of all, the superiority of the pernit, other instances of novel orchestration and remind us of the system of no other musi: artist is ip asking the world rapidly to forget the might easily be quoted from Handel's works; cian. Everything he has written is a compound weaknesses of the man. Liszt has been, withont enough bas nevertheless been brought forward of healthiness, tact, and sensibility. The inter- doubt, the true lion of the piano. All the great to disprove the general idea that his scores are est and variety of his episodes, and the appar- artists whom we have interrogated on the subject, wanting either in fulness or variety. On some ent simplicity of his phrases, surprise even those Chopin excepted, have made the same response: future occasion I hope to call the attention of most familiar with the effect of his composi- 0, Liszt is the master of all."
We have seen our readers more especially to the subject of tions. His thoughts, always graceful, often talents more pure, more perfect, more sympathetic; Handel's instrumentation ; for the present I melancholy, have in their naïveté a seductive but no one has had, in the same degree, that elecmust content myself with what has been already influence quite indescribable.
tric power, that musical magnetism that impassions said. Almost every new volume of the old It has been frequently complained of Boccher- but mediocre in playing, when he was troubled,
and entrances an audience. Liszt was many times master's works contains some specially note ini that he is wanting in energy; and an over; ill-disposed, or prey to over-excitement; when he worthy features, and musicians will find both wise critic has dubbed him the wife of Haydn.” | wished to play, when he concentrated all his pleasure and profit in making themselves acquainted with his operas in this new and mag
powers to make a grand stroke, and held his * Born 1759. Died 1823. The music of Bruni is what in
musical poem in his head, in his heart, in his fin. nificent edition.
southern Europe they call " pure music.” That is melody
gers, in his nerves, he launched like a thunderbolt fancied novelty in a sequence of chords. - Translator. over the trembling andience, and produced effects
A MUSICAL SOUVENIR.
BY JOHN CROWDY.
which other artist has produced, except But they were not the tears that Chopin had caused The last, above all, where the chorus in unison Paganini,
to flow; they were cruel tears, of which Othello changed into G flat, rolled under the woods of the Schumarn his said of him, with a mixture of speaks. The melody of the second artist did not valley with a heavy acrent; but the last, which admiration and irony, “He is as brilliant as light. touch the heart, as the first had done; it was like changed so fiercely in the ker of B flut, announced grand as a thunderbolt, and leaves after him a strong the sharp thrust of a poniard. It was no longer an the victory of the human will over the obstacles of odor of brimstone."
elegy-it was a drama. In the ineantime, Chopin nature, After that flourish of trumpets so approWe have been accustomed, for many years, to thought he had eclipsed Liszt that evening, and priate to the circumstances, Chopin took Liszt's hear Liszt and Chopin, but never have we enjoyed toasted of it, saying, “ How he was vexed !” Liszt place at the piano to cry and sing the echo. He their playing as during the year 184–. It was dur understood him, and determined to be avenged, composed then his impromptu Opus 66, if we mising my stay at Castle B., near the right bank of the spirituel artist though he was. And here is what take not, and he played, for the first time, some Noir. The mistress of the castle, an illustrious he improvised. Four or five days after, the com passages in G flat, which are in the middle of it. woman, entranced all, by her genius, and talents ; | pany were all assembled about the same hour—"a That transparent Æolian music placed Chopin above but she was loved more than admired, by those short time before midnight.” Liszt entreated Cho. himself. He prolonged his mysterious conversation who knew her, for her supreme goodness of heart. pin to play. After a great deal of persuading, he with the spirits of the valley; that was between She was, at that time, entertaining Chopin, and she consented to play. Liszt then demanded that all them and him a strange dialogue, full of whisperings had positively snatched him from the vale of death. the lamps and tapers should be extinguished. They and murmurings, which resembled a magic incantaShe turned from her maternal cares to him, and it put down the curtains, and the obscurity was com:
tion. The mistress of the castle was obliged to is to her influence that we are indebted for those plete. It was a caprice of the artist, and they did snatch him from the piano. The fever had come last compositions of that genius, so pure and so as he wished. At that moment, Chopin went to
upon him. After him Pauline V. sang a romance, beautiful. There was, in that year, å reunion of take his place at the piano. Liszt whispered some so tender and so native, of “ La Molinara." The artists at the castle, Liszt came, accompanied by a words rapidly in his ear, and took his place. Cho air was admirably chosen, for each phrase, composed star from the Parisian world, a noble lady as spirit- pin, far from dreaming what his comrade wished to of two notes only, was echoed and re-echoed from uelle as she was beautiful, there called Arabella, and do, seated himself, without noise, in a neighboring
rock to rock with a clearness which was ravishing who has since, under another name, held a distin. | arm-chair. Then Liszt played all the compositions
to all. The niece of the lord of the castle next sang, guished place in literature.
that Chopin had played at the memorable soirée, of with a voice fresh ant vibrating, a popular air, The sublime cantatrice, Pauline V., with her which we have spoken. But he knew how to play
which was a grand success, echoing and re-echoing husband, was there, who preserves, to this day, the them with such exact imitation of the style and with a particular pleasure. It was two o'clock in ideal expression, mistress of her incomparable tal manner of his rival, it was impossible not to be de the morning when refreshments were served, and ent; Eugene D., the romantic painter, the poet of ceived ; and, indeed, they were all deceived. The they sang in chorus to send a last adieu of gratitude color; B., the great actor, and several other celeb same enchantment! the same emotion! When the to the echo. The dawn was already whitening the rities. After the children of the lord of the castle, ecstasy was at its height, he quickly lighted the ta horizon when we separated, burning with emotion, & son and daughter, were a niece and nephew, and pers at the side of the piano. There was a cry of but happy in keeping the memory of that might an several friends from the neighboring city, with their surprise in the assembly.
ineffaceable gouvenir, O where are you now, days wives, all young and enthusiastic. Such was the “What! was it you ? we thought it was Cho of youth and happiness? Where are you, glorious character of the guests at the Castle of N. We pin.”
artists, so good, so artless, so indulgent in your were hospitably entertained, and our liberty was “ What sayest thou ?” said he to his rival.
Alas! the greater part are absolute. There were guns and dogs for those who "I say, like all the rest, I should have thought it dead; with two exceptions, all are like the shadow liked the chase, boats and tackle for those fond of was Chopin."
of the past ! fishing, a magnificent garden for a promenade “Then seest thou that Liszt can be Chopin, when
FROM THE FRENCH OF CHARLES ROLLIAXAT. every one did what he wished.
he wishes ? but Chopin—can he be Liszt ?” Liszt and Chopin composed ; Pauline V. studied That was defying him; but Chopin would not, and
Notes on "The Messiah."
(Concluded from Page 150.) all assembled for dinner, and did not disperse until
and an assortment of costumes; they gave only two or three o'clock the next morning. We will the subject of the piece and the distribution of the
No. 17. CHORUS-Glory to God in the highest and not relate here the several improvisations which scenes. The actors improvised a dialogue. Liszt
peace on earth; good will toward men. made the time seem so short. We will speak chiefly and Chopin comprised the orchestra. Two pianos, One of the most exquisitely planned pieces known of the music, and, above all, of the rival pianists. placed at the right and left of the stage, covered to sacred misic, this chorus will repay all the obChopin played rarely; he was not willing to play, with drapery, were occupied by the virtuosi, who servation which can be bestowed upon its performunless he was sure of perfection; nothing in the followed the piece and improvised the interludes Short as it is, and simple as it may appear, world would tempt him to play in a mediocre style. according to the changes of the draina. Here again the elements of effect employed in it are many Liszt, on the contrary, always played, whether he we are powerless to express what we heard. Both First there is the contrast between the heavenly and played well or ill. One night the guests were all artists were gifted with a prodigious memory;
the earthly: “Gloria in excelsis Deo: et in terra assembled in the great drawing-room : the large knowing all the Italian, French, and German operas, pax." This is illustrated by the employment, for windows were open, the light of the moon flooded seizing with admirable promptitude the movements the first sentence (“Glory to God in the highest") of the room with a golden light: the songs of the which suited the situation, they developed them with the higher voices, accompanied only by high instru. nightingale and the perfume of mignonette were
such fire, with such ardent superiority, that the ac mentation; for the second sentence (“and on earth borne on the breeze into the room. Liszt played a
tors at the side were obliged to cry, Enough! peace,") the men's voices enter alone, in unison pocturne of Chopin's, and, according to his custom, enough! These amusements were always followed and peace ") changing to octaves (“on earth.”) he enlarged the style, and intrɔduced trills, tremo. by a magnificent and joyous supper. We could ea the orchestration following the change, and empha. los, and so forth, which were not in the original
sily fill a volume with the memories of that summer : sizing it by uttering the monotonic passage in the composition. Several times Chopin showed signs but in order not to weary the reader, we will end double octave below. of impatience. At last be approached the piano,
with an artistic fantasm, of which few examples are and said to Liszt, in grave English :
found under similar circumstances. There was, at “Will you do me the honor to play a piece of mine the end of the garden, an esplanade which overas it is written ? io one but Chopin has a right to
looked the mnlle noir, which was paved with marble. change Chopin." They had placed there a table, with chairs and rus
peaccon earth “0, well, play yourself, then," said Liszt, arising tic sofa, and it was surrounded with an iron railing from the piano.
to prevent the children from falling into the ravine " Willingly,” said Chopin.
below. That passage was known for its wonderful At that moment the light was extinguished by echo, which would be repeated three or four times. a large moth, which had flown into the room. The children often amused themselves by making Two bars of treble instrumentation take our atten. They wished to relight it. “No!” cried Chopin,
sounds in order to hear the echoes. One evening, tion upwards again, and a second time the heavenly "the light of the moon is enough for me; extin some suggested the idea of carrying the piano there
sentence is sung by the higher voice parts, the ten. guish all the tapers !” Then he played an entire to play some fragments of romantic music, in order
ors being taken up to A at the word “highest." hour. It is impossible to describe the effect. There to hear it re-echoed in the valley. The idea was The earthly sentence is repeated, to the same monare emotions that we feel and can pot describe. The acceded to by acclamation; and very soon the otonic phrase just quoted, though in another key; nightingales tried to rival him with their songs ; friends at the castle took the magnificent Erard and then, by the conversational effect of a few bars the flowers were refreshed with water divine. grand piano on their shoulders, and carried it to the
in close fugue, the four parts express, as if to each Those sounds came from heaven. The audience esplanade.
other, the assurance of “good will toward men." were in a mute ecstasy-scarcely dared to breathe ; It was a night in June. There was no moon, but | Then the whole choir joins in the united repetition and when the enchanter finished, all eyes were filled the sky was bnrning with stars, and the air was of the entire passage, to the same musical phrases with tears-above all, those of Liszt. He pressed calm and sonorous. The piano was opened at the as before; the fugal assurance of good will is worked Chopin in his arms, and cried : side of the valley, and Liszt struck, with his strong
to some degree of animation, the voices come to a "Ah! my friend, you are right. The works of a hands, that admirable “ Hunter's Chorus from cadence; the bass instruments are taken out of the genius like thine are sacred; it is a profanation to Euryanthe,” which you all know. Naturally, he accompaniment (leaving the violas to become the touch them. Thou art a true poet, and I am only a stopped at the first and second phrase to the re actual bass, with the saine aerial effect as before); buffoon." sponse of the echo; at the first pause we were all
and a gradual diminuendo, combined with a lifting “Come, then," replied Chopin ; "you know that seized with trembling; it was a new poem, an im np of the instrumentation to the high register, seems no one can play Weber and Beethoven like yourself. mense ideal. The basical phrase was too long to to suggest the departure of the angels. I pray you, play me the Adagio in C sharp minor hear the first and second echó clearly; but the third Such are the means, simple and effective, and be. by Beethoven-play it slowly and seriously, as you and the fourth, or the echo of the echo, was re-echoed cause effective admirable, by which Handel has il. can when you wish."
without losing a single note. Liszt, exalted. con. Justrated in music the gospel story of the vision to Liszt played the Adagio, with all his soul and all tinued to accelerate the movement. What could we
the shepherds. his will.
Then he manifested to the audience say? Each phrase was a subject of ardent curiosity, No. 18. AIR-Rejnice greatly O daughter of Zion; another kind of emotion. They wept, they groaned. and of breathless attention.
shout, o darg'iter of Jer alem Behold thy King co neth
tinto thçe. He is the righteous Saviour, and He shall
This is a very remarkable piece of art-work in and dignity, perfectly conveying the sacred words speak peace to the heathen.
round. It is thought by many that, in accepting of which it is the vehicle. Narrative now gives place for a while to reflective the suggestiveness of the simile contained in the first
No. 33. CHORUS-Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and matter; and the key note of this number is joyous sentence of the text, “like sheep," Handel has passed
be ye list up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of Glory exultation for the glad tidings vouchsafed. Note the bounds of legitimate sense painting, and pro
shall come in. the ingenious little phrases to the word “shout,” duced triviality. The incessant motion kept up in
Who is the King of Glory? The Lord strong and mighty; and the gladsome repetition in the orchestra. The the bass accompaniment has been said_let us be
the Lord mighty in battle. accompaniment is singularly free and brilliant here. permitted to think, by an exaggeration—to repre.
Lift up your heads, O yo gates; and be lift up, ye everAll share in the joy. sent the trotting of sheep; certainly nothing could
lasting doors; and the King of Glory shall come in. No. 19. RECITATIVE,Then shall the eyes of the blind be more picturesquely suggestive of wandering than
Who is the King of Glory? The Lord of Hosts; He is be opened, and the ears of the deaf unstopped; then shall the “contrary motion” of the parts, the reckless
the King of Glory. the lame man leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb runs at “gone astray," or the wanton turns at shall sing, have turned." The great master bas, to say the
This chorus is parallel in some respects to "Glory Serves to introduce the next number. least, run riot in descriptiveness; and by a mancu.
to God," an earlier number already described. It vring of parts hardly surpassed anywhere, has exemplifies, at the entry of the voices, the same de No. 20. Air–He shall feed his flock like a shepherd, painted confusion and wilfulness in the highest col
vice of leaving out the more ponderous sections of and He shall gather the lambs with His arm, and carry ors, The continual recurrence of the sportive runs,
the choir, the tenors and basses, for the parpose of them in His bosom, and gently lead those that are with and the rapid turns, the interjection of positive ex
suguesting celestial effect. Presently, however, the young clamatory phrases,
men's voices enter, with the question “Who is the Come onto Him all ye that labor and are heavy laden,
King of Glory?” the reply is assigned to the lighter and He shall give you rest. Take His yoke upon you,
sections of the choir, first employed. Then the dis. and learn of Him; for He is meek and lowly of heart; and
tribution is reversed; the men's voices (altos includ. ye shall find rest unto your souls.
ed) sing the apostrophe “ Lift np your heads," and
we bave turn · ed This is a namber which, in its tender pastoral and the incessant movement in the orchestral parts, by the altos in combination with the trebles: the
the question "Who is the King of glory?” is asked grace, speaks its own significance : if it does not, no words of description will convey its beauty.
constitute a picture which, to some minds, passes men's voices reply ; and then the response, “The
the limit of permissible snggestiveness. But it is Lord of Hosts," is given to all the prices: the divi. No. 21. CHORUS—His yoke is easy, His burden is light. magnificent, if exaggerated ; and I would have no sion of the trebles into first and second is abandoned,
Of this chorns, which concludes the first part of one pronounce upon this choris till the end is and the full chorus proceeds in a joyous developthe oratorio, it must be admitted that there is little
reached : for who can say how for the sublimity of ment of the reiterated declaration, “ The Lord of to say, except that it has a certain joyous lightness. its second section is dependent upon the lightness of Husts! He is the King of Glory."
the first? In all tone-art, I should say, there is no No. 34. RECITATIVE-Unto which of the Angels said PART II.
more awful stroke than that which arrests the head. He, at anv time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotIn the second part of the “Messiah " the text long progress of this chorus, when the organized
ten Thee? confusion is at its height; and pours out that te. ri. takes up the indirect narrative of the story of Christ,
Serves to introduce the next chorus. ble adagio “ And the Lord hath laid, hath laid, on commencing with reference to His passion, and car
No. 35. CHORUS—Let all the Angels of God worship Him, on Him, the iniquity of ns all.” rying the snggested action on to His ascension. As
him. the first part has elaborated and illustrated the
What majestic remorse! What nobility of self.
This is a clearly constructed fugal number, of no articles of the Creed: “Who was conceived by the reproach. The busy amble of the orchestra is Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary,” so we come stilled. the wandering, wanton voice parts are
unworthy calibre; but is not unfrequently omitted now to the development for musical illustration of the sacred words which it clothes, the bass voices reined up; and in a music-sentence as eloquent as
in performing the oratorio, and may fairly be said
to be redundant. the articles—" Suffered under Pontius Pilate ; Was uplift themselves an octave to the high C, and de.
No. 36. AIR-Thou art gone up on high; Thou hast crucified, dead, and buried. The third day he rose
led captivity captive and received gifts for men; yea, ev. again from the dead. And ascended into Heaven, scending, gradually, and gradually diminishing in And sitteth on the right hand of God the Father slowly in), convey the awful reflection with such a power (the other three parts weaving themselves en for Thine enemies, that the Lord God might dwell
among them. Almighty.”
sublime vividness that I have never yet sung in this Of this number also, it may be said that it is not No. 22. CHORUS—Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh chorns without-for all its opening triviality-find- uworthy but redundant: it is frequently omitted. away the sins of the world. ing tears in my eyes at the end.
No. 37. CHORUS—The Lord gave the word: great was This is a number of which nothing need be said No. 27. RECITATIVE-All they that see Him laugh Him the company of the preachers. except that it appropriately, and with great forci. to scorn; they shoot out their lips, and shake their heads, A picturesque piece of choral writing, character. bleness, conveys the words which it undertakes to saying
istic of its composer. The opening proclamatory present to the mind. It is a good example of the This little number serves to introduce the next sentence, assigned to the men's voices only, in uni. tenderness which resnlts from the employment of well-marked chorus.
son, constitutes one of those effects which Handel so the minor miode, with phrases of slow pace; and
often seizes: obvious, simple, dramatic. Then constitutes the first step into a deep stream of musi.
No. 28. CHORUS--He trusted in God that He would .cal pathos which is now to be passed through. deliver Him: let Him deliver Alm, if He delight in Him..semiquavers, “Great was the company pfthe preach.
comes the contrasted rapid sentence, in quarers and
A number full of character, in which the choir No. 23. AIR-He was despised and rejected of men, a
ers," giving a multitudinous effect, and ont of these personate the mocking Jews, and the expression is man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief. He gave his
two phrases the whole number is construrted. taunting and irony. The bass sentence with which back to the smiters, and his cheeks to them that plucked it opens is a well-known point. To hear it come
No. 38. AIR-How beantiful are the feet of them that off the hair.
He hid not his face from shame and spit- thundering over the orchestra in solid bolts of preach the Gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good ting. spiteful sound at a Handel festival is one of the sen.
things! The exquisite grief of this number, it may again sations of these great occasions. The short chopping is, in turn, at the command of Handel, like more
A well known air, of that religions elegance which be said, needs no comment but the text to which it phrases which form its material are the musical em. is set. The second section increases in indignant bodiment of brutal insult.
massive effects. animation, and develops from the cantabile (fre
No. 39. CHORUS— Their sound is gone out into all quently, but mistakenly, omitted in performance, heart; He is full of heaviness; He looked for some to have
No. 29. RECITATIVE-Thy rebuke hath broken His
lands, and their words unto the ends of the world. what is virtually a recitative, with unquiet accom
A dashing fugal chorus, in which the configurapaniment in the orchestra, leading up to the highly pity on Him, but there was no man; neither found Heany
tion of the musical sentences follows the suggestive. to comfort Him. wrought chorus which follows.
This is the first of a well-known group of num.
dess of the words, as does almost every piece of the No. 24. CHORUS-Surely He hath borne our griefs and bers for the tenor soloist. Anything more comi.
old giant's work whose creations we are reviewing. carried our sorrows. He was wounded for our transgres- pletely at one with the spirit of the words cannot
Very reinarkable in this respect is the phrase, “And sions; He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement
their words onto the end of the world." be instanced in the range of music: the solemn, of our peace was upon Him.
No. 40. AIR-Why do the nations so furiously rage yearning harmonies of the accompaniment, the A chorus of bitter self-reproachful lamentation. pathetic distances, and short sobbing phrases of the together? and why do the people imagine a vain thing? Mark the exclamatory detached phrases “ Surely, voice part, make up together a picture of the most
The kings of the earth rise up, and the rulers take coonsurely!” Mark the poignant dissonances at " He intense depth of color. The march of the modula.
sel together against the Lord and against His anointed. hath borne our griefs," emphasized to the utmost by tion in these few bars is a study in itself; at every
This air constitutes one of the great opportunities taking the basses--to whom are assigned the chro- pulse it gets deeper and deeper in intensity.
for the principal baes. It is again a sonnd-pictare. matic notes of the chords—to the top of their regis
Syncopation, or rapid motion, in the orchestral pre
No. 30. AIR-Behold, and see if there be any sorrow ter. Mark the entry of the basses with an A flat at
lude, fore-shadows the agitation, which increases op like unto His sorrow. “ He was wounded” against the G of the nltos,
to the 13th bar. A restless effect is given by a struck a beat beforehand; then the entry of the ten.
Scarcely less full of religious pathos than the fore. change of figure at the 10th bar; the 12th brings ors with D against the C of the soprano part; the going is this short air, though entirely differing from
another change, and increases the restless effect: flinging of E flat by the trebles at " zoounded” against it, in that modulation now ceases awhile, and the
this last may be studied as an example of power the tenor D; and note the recurring intensity of the
harmony turns quietly upon a centre, instead of gained by the simplest ineans. dissonances in the voice parts, enforced by an almost moving by strides to a distant point.
A finely written fugue of much technical interest, a few eloqnent progressions. and worthy the dignity of the work.
No. 32. AIR-But Thon didat not leave His soul in No. 26. CHORUS--All we like sheer have gone astray; hell; neither didst Thou suffer Thine Holy One to see cor. we have turned every one to his own way.
ruption. And the Lord hath laid on Elim the iniquity of us all.
This is a well-known song of much religions grace
"Hallelujah" be secured and imprisoned in lan.
As soon as the basses have announced this, the commentator may map out its plan, but the soul of tenors imitate it in the dominant, the basses throwthe hearer alone can realize its full effect, in which, altos repeat it in the same key as it was propounded,
ing in ejaculations of " for ever! and ever !” the as in everything sublime, there are elements incom: the ejaculations continuing; then, in turn, the trebA perfect storm is raised in the band by the rap: it to pieces : 'when this has been done, the mind with the altos, are ngsigned exclamations of " for id playing of this happily-conceived accompaniment figure.
which is large enongh, and warmed sufficiently by
" "and ever" which, while they refer back to The voice enters firmly, amidst the agitation in the band; but soon finds itself occupied in render: brilliance, the splendor, which cannot be described, derous exclamations of the same words, Forever ing a fine chain of triplets to the word “rage ; ”
“and ever” – which are presently to be heard. presently a descending scale passage, for voice and
A joyous, animated, orchestral foretaste preludes
Each of the four voice parts having now, in turn, orchestra in unison, constitutes a first climax. this almost more than human conception. Only Presently renewed triplets in the voice part are three bars. The impatient shout can be restrained pronounced the triumphant sentence" And He shall
reign for ever and ever," a new phrase, majestic in accompanied by groups of semiquavers in the band : no longer, and the voices enter, all together, in a then a peremptory bar of a four-times reiterated group of bright, loud, exclamatory, simultaneous its monotonic simplicity, occurs. phrase for the voice, is sung to the restless accom. phrases ;. born of the word to which they are joined, paniment figure foreshadowed in the 10th and 11th Hallelujah.” Of the five Hallelujahs which conbars : these again work up to a passage founded on
stitute the first little section of the chorus, four are the figure already heard from the band at bar 12 embodiments of the expression known as the " pla. gal cadence:"the filth embodies a "perfect cadence"
King of Kings.... and Lord of Lords (quoted above), the voice as well as the bass accom. paniment being assigned the peremptory oscillating in the same key: Harmonically the material is of phrase there found in the bass of the accompani.
the simplest; chords tonic, subdominant, and
dominant, ment. The reader who has followed me thus far in dig.
The next five Hallelujahs are a transposition of Against this straight line of tone, sustained by secting this fine number will be able to trace for the first group into the key of the dominant; and trebles and altos, the men's voices fling the already himself its further extension, which is accomplished after this exclamatory announcement of the key established ejaculations, now juxtapositioned, and by use of the same material, 'slightly and dexterous- phrase, the first sentence subject enters. In unison shown to be identical, " for ever"_" and ever ly varied, but kept in hand to the last. .
for all the parts and all the instruments, indelibly • Hallelujah "_" Hallelujah.” Here again, the subengraved at the outset,
ject, the monotonic "King of Kings” phrase, is an. No. 41. CHORUS—Let us break their bonds asunder and
nounced without harmonic cover of any kind ; and cast away their yokes from us.
at its every stage, as it rises presently on a magnifi. This is again a chorus of which the turn of the
cent ladder from D to G above the staff, it is set phrases which go to make up its material has been suggested by the sense of the words.
For tbe Lord God omni • po-tent reign-eth.
forth without veil, in unison of voices and trumpet.
A masterly distinctness, making the plan of the numThe parts enter, in rapid succession, with a jerked Fonr more exclamations of “Hallelujah" in the key | ber palpable to the ear, is the result. subject of short detached notes, the entry of the of the dominant, to phrases of the first type; and The reader who has followed me to this point is basses being especially effective.
then, majestic and enphatic by its seat being in possession of all the material of this wonderful With the second sentence of the words“ And cast changed to the key of the tonic, is repeated, “ For chorus; the rest is combination and modification of away,” comes a second musical sentence, capable, by the Lord God omnipotent reigneth." Another the already stated phrases. But what masterial emphasis, of conveying a feeling of still greater per group of “ Hallelujahs,” this time literal adaptations combination and modification ! First comes that emptoriuess than the first, and so constructed as, in of the ordinary monotonic “ Amen” which church magnificent ladder of monotonic sentences, assigned the usual course of fugal imitation, to bring into choirs sing after collects: and then the composer to the trebles and the trumpet, rising successively simultaneous utterance a dashing phrase of runs in commences to weave his two threads, hitherto dis. and majestically from Ds to Es, Fs, and Gs; a bright, one part, short snappish reiterated quavers in tinct, together in one texture. The treble voices strong rope of sound, suggesting, nay requiring, at another, and angry staccato crotchets in a third. restate the sentence,“ For the Lord God omnipotent every successive change of the note upwards, a
Presently reversion to the first words of the text reigneth ;" the tenors, then the altos, then the basses, change in the tonality of the accompanying ejacula. brings reversion to the first phrase of the music; throw under it the exclamatory “ Hallelujah," into tions. for ever" -' and ever "-" “ Hallelujah." after a time the imitation becomes more compact, which the trebles again break the instant their first these are but a recall of the initial exclamations the materials of the musical structure are packed enunciation of the slower sentence is complete; of “ Hallelujah ;" then the treble monotone shifts to closer, and in the end the parts are brought, in a while the men's voices as instantly take up. in E, and the harmony changes; it rises to F sharp, simultaneous passage, to an end staccato.
another key, the longer sentence “ For the Lord God and an A sharp lights up the harmony, and brings No. 42. RECITATIVE-He that dwelleth in heaven omnipotent reigneth.” Bright Hallelujahs from the it into the relative minor; it mounts to G, and then shall laugh them to scorn; the Lord shall have them in lighter voices now play round the more massive the ejaculations cease, to enable all four voices at derision,
phrase of the men: in a moment, as soon as this is length to unite, for the first time, in the words Connects the preceding and the following num.
out of their mouths, the men break also into Halle. | “King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. Which done, bers,
lujahs, and a new effect, the overlapping and alter the basses restate the subject already first entrusted
nation of the exclamatory sentences, is introduced. to them, NO. 43. AIR-Thou shalt break them with a rod of
And He shall reign for ever and ever," iron; Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's ves
A fifth time the sentence recurs—" For the Lord this time in the dominant; the trebles then repeat sel.
God omnipotent reigneth,” assigned this time to al. it in the tonic, Only one bar, the first, of the accompaniment to tos and tenors, the basses and trebles accompanying
The accumulation of foreshadowed effects now this vigorous little number needs to be read for dig. with ejaculations, not simultaneous, as at first, but
comes on the ear more rapidly than the pen can de. covery of its key thought; or rather, it should be alternated and overlapping, as just presented. scribe; the men thunder out in turn the monotonic said, one bar and the first note of the next. This, however, is the last repetition ; and the mass
phrase “ King of Kings,” solid and rotund, on the of singers are brought altogether to a rest, amidst a tumult of instrumentation constructed out of the keynote D, and while the tenors prolong the note,
for same material as the voice farts. Here the first the three other parts recur to the ejaculatory
ever "-"and ever ;” the men's voices reunite for section of the chorus ends.
another proclamatory shout, “and Lord of Lords," Eight bars of smooth, slowly moving harmony again tonic and monotonic; the tenors again prof
for voices and orchestra, to the words “The king. long the D, and the other voices again ejaculate, dom of this world is become the kingdom of our this time, “ Hallelujah! Hallelujah!” the basses Lord, and of his Christ," here occur, relieving the
once again reiterate" And He shall reign for ever, already highly wrought workmanship, and prepar- for ever and ever,” followed, at the closest possible The phrase is almost amusing in its suggestiveness ing clear, ground for a new theme. Structurally, distance, by the altos
, the other voices covering; of muscular bodily action, appropriate to the words these eight bars are not related to the rest of the the sections of the choir begin to move in massive * Thou shalt break them." The voice part embod- material; æsthetically their office is important: steps together; the bold phrase "and He shall ies the same vigor, but preserves throughout its they calm the excited attention, and throw into con
reign" is recurred to for the last time; for an inown phraseology, against the reiterated figure of trast the tumultuous effect of what has preceded, stant, the voices come to a simultaneous rest ; then, the accompaniment which runs through the piece.
and that which is to follow. What was the object through the rushing and agitated orchestration,
of Handel, at the point " is become,” in entering the through the sweep of strings, the piercing pipe of THE HALLELUJAH CHORUS.
alto voices a quarter of a bar before the rest ? I Autes, the grind of bassoons, the noise of drums, the No. 44. CHORUS—Hallelujah! for the Lord God omnip think it may be felt. The object was, without thrill of trumpet, and blare of trombone, come thun. otent reigneth.
doubt, to heighten the quiet effect, to blunt a little dering forth four united Hallelujahs, to the same The kingdom of this world is become the kingdom of the edge of a simultaneous entry. How welcome, chords as before of tonic and subdominant: and at our Lord, and of his Christ. in fact, is this lull of the action !
the fourth there is silence. A silence which rings. And He shall reign for ever and over, King of Kings and The second section of the Hallelujah chorus com A silence filled with the memory of sublime sounds. Lord of Lords.
mences with the sentence" And He shall reign for A silence during which the whole chorus rushes An outbreak of magnificent and majestic joy. A ever and ever,” which the basses first give out, un through the mind. The first moment of silence disciplined shout of tomultuous triumph. An or. covered by the other parts, and supported by the since the first note of the chorns. And then the ganized clamor of praise. A pageant which orchestra in unison. As with the sentence “ For whole mass, trebles, altos, tenors, basses ; strings, battalions march to and fro, under review of a the Lord God omnipotent reigneth,” so with this; reeds, flutes; brass, drums; plunge, as into a stream, monarch. A chorus to be sung by the angels, after it is written up black on a white ground; a moun. into one last broad prolonged Hallelujah; the epitArmageddon. How shall an idea of this great I tain outline against a clear sky.
ome of the whole
no more than is due.
almost supernatural tone to the musical atmosphere. / parts not quite so perfect as usual. Strangely the instrumentation by Joseph Joachim, was new, and proved
expressive style, particularly in the pathetic pieces: peared in the Beethoven Piano-forte Concerto, No.5, in E Thy rebuke,” etc. Into “Thou shalt dash them
fat (Op. 73). The artist acquitted himself with his wonted he also threw a vigor that was hardly expected of brought out the sentiment of the work with clearness and
judgment and fine feeling, and especially in the adagio Hal le lu jah!
him, achieving a complete success. Mr. RUDOLPH- beauty. The most interesting work of the afternoon was
sex has not all the voice he once had, and some of the Symphony in C by Schubert, instrumented for orches»: his bass tones sound dry; but his style and execu
tra by Joseph Joachim from the grand duo for piano (op. tion were masterly, making the well-known bass esting, full of color and warmth, and rich in beautiful
140). The nomber proved throughout exceedingly interPART III.
arias uncommonly acceptable. In “The trumpet themes. Each of the four movements has a charm of its Had the “Messiah” ended with the Hallelujah shall sound” he was somewhat disturbed by an oc own, and the work never grows thin or unimpressive. The chorus, it might still have been accounted the greatest and broadest work of its kind; considered, how. casional fault of intonation in the trumpet obligato, last movement is very bright and happy, and abounds in
delicate conceits. The scoring is broad and vigorous, and ever, as coextensive in subject with that portion of for which the innocent offender has been most wanthe Creed which relates to the Second Person of the tonly held up to scorn by some of our considerate
adds to the beauty of the piano work a wealth of instruGodhead, a third part was necessary.. To prolong critics; surely his performance was not worse than again at an early date. The orchestra played with muek
mental coloring. We shall be glad to hear the number a work so far must be accounted a weighty task, if
excellence and derotion, and has not done better work interest is to be sustained: but Handel has proved the average. But we do think it not in good taste equal to it, and although there are numbers in the to station the et in the forefront of the orches
We have a hint of an extra rehearsal (volthird part of the " Messiah ” which can be, and usui.
tra, and thus court attention to his part as to a piece untary on the part of the orchestra) which is probably the
new effects which, when a key to their appreciation is of solo virtuosity ; it should have the air of spring this extra service on the part of the orchestra is certainly given, should sustain the attention of the earnesting unexpectedly and spontaneously out of the heart auditor without sense of flagging. These are the of the orchestra. introduction of the unaccompanied vocal quartet,
This impression is shared by the Globe : The chorus was large, but the balance of the four the soloThe first
The symphony, that in C, by Schubert, with orchestral the second introduces an element of striking dignity Lasses were too feeble, while the contralto was the
as thoroughly interesting as could well be. The orches. and prominent icterest. A third feature of the strongest part of all,—a solid, rich and or usical mass tration is strong and vivid, the coloring being rich and ingeneral plan of the third part might be mentioned, of tone. Nearly all of the choral work was done genious to a wonderful degree. The occurrence in severequally efficient in sustaining the high general in: with spirit and with even excellence. A few short
al places of a beautiful theme, given out by the 'cellos and
taken up by the other strings in turn, was one of the beauable except to those who can look at the work comings, in such catchy” choruses as “ His yoke ties of the work, while in num-rous places there were lit. broadly: I mean its magnificent cadence. I do not is easy," Let us break their bonds,” scarcely dis tle pictures which were successively assigned to different refer by this term to the few chords which end its turbed the beautiful and grand impression of the instruments, but no combinations which betrayed the last number: those are the cadence of that number; whole.
least straining for effect. The whole tone of the work is I mean the whole of that wonderful chorus “Worthy
pure, delightsome and inspiring. The opening morement, is the Lamb ” with its elaborate appended “Amen."
an allegro moderato, was the most pleasing of the four, -a chorns unsurpassed in the qualities, wbich its With success even more signal The Creation was though the whole was brimming over with beauty. The position demands, of breadth, dignity, and elabora- given the next evening. Bating some carelessness prominence given to the brass intensifies the grandeur of tion, which forms the cadence to the work as a
in the orchestral accompaniment the choruses (with parts of the symphony, without detracting from the claswhole,
Bic shading or ornamentation of the work. The piano(Concluded on last page.] better balance) went splendidly. The Trios, too,
forte concerto Was Beethoven's glorious fifth, which introwere beautifully sung. And the great voice and art duced Mr. Hugo Leonhard as soloist. His playing was as of Mlle. TIETJENS triumphed in this more flowery a whole an agreeable surprise, as he threw more vigor into and graceful melody as fully as they did in the Mes.
it than he is accustomed to do. With the exception of one siah. We only wondered at some changes of the
or two places where he failed to make the delicate intona
tion quite distinct, he was in every way an able exponent BOSTON, JAN. 8, 1876. verbal text, for which we could perceive no reason. of the noble concerto. The orchestral work was honest
Why “On mighty wings," instead of “pens ?” Is and careful in the main; and, no withstanding occasional The Christmas Oratorios. it not a pleasure to have the original meaning of a
blemishes. there was so much that was gool, and such an The great Music Hall was crammed on the evenword preserved for once in such connection with evidently thorongh endeavor, that we quite excused the
defects in the enjoyment of the pleasure afforded us. undying music? Pen, from Latin penna, which ing of Christmas with eager listeners to the Handel means wing. And what is the objection to the
These notices are mainly in accord with what we and Haydn Society's sixty-fifth performance of the “Messiah.” And a very fine performance, on the
“ cooing” of the dove? It is a word expressive of find to have been the common impression among the natural sound, and surely it is a good vowel
musical people at the concert, as well as with our whole, it was. Mlle. TIETJENS was of course the sound to sing. Not caring to go back so far as Jen
own knowledge, through hearing the rehearsals, of prime attraction with a great number. She sang
what the concert must have been. Yet there are ny Lind, we never heard the two great airs more the great soprano arias gloriously. Her large,
some dissenting voices, as there will be always; rich, thoroughly musical and pure voice was here exquisitely sung; and the music of Eve, in the third engaged in the noblest service. She sang with fer. part, wus given with a genuine warmth and tender especially where there exists a “ring,” partly in ness, which had no taint of the weak sentimentality
the interest of the speculators in concert-giving, vor, with right understanding, and with thoroughly
“the new music,”—a ring artistic, chaste expression. The strong declamato
which too often takes its charın away.—Mr. MAAS partly in the interest of ry passages were all given in the noblest style and sang sweetly and artistically as before, though his particnlarly an fait in the arts of “ managing the voice betrayed exhaustion from previous efforts, or
prese "—whose cne it is to systematically disparage without overdoing. “Rejoice greatly ” welled up
whatever may be done by so conservative and pure. from deep springs of unaffected gladness and perhaps from a cold.—Mr. John F. Wisch sang the
ly Art-loving an institution as the Symphony Con. unfailing opulence and buoyancy of tone; and the descriptive bass solos with admirable effect.
certs. One of the hostile criticisms in this instance
in second part of it was touched with just the right for the Easter season Wandel's Joshua (new here) has been so sweeping, so unjust, so bitter, and conshade of tender seriousness. In “I know that my Redeemer liveth,” there was no forced, defiant dec. and the entire Matthew Passion Music of Bach, with temptuous, in its remarks on Mr. Leonhard's per. lamation, no tedious conventional sentimentality;
the view of giving its two parts separately on the formance, that no one can fail to see that it is it was calm, deep, blissful, assured faith ; and every morning and evening (or afternoon) of Good Fri- prompted by a personal malicious motive. It must
have been written out of spite, and for the purpose day. phrase and note of the music, every accent and gra
of crushing and destroying the artistic good name dation of light and shade, was in accordance with
Fourth Harvard Symphony Concert.
of a gifted, high-toned, earnest artist. The sense of that lofty, sincere mood. Who of us will live long
Deprived, by a paramount duty, of the op
justice must be far gone in this community if such enough to hear a worthier interpretation of that heavenly music! We might say as much of all her portunity of listening to any of the Concerts of last shafts do not fall harmless. Mr. Leonhard is too
well known and prized among us as an artist, for efforts that night; efforts they hardly seemed to be; week, we will let others speak of one of the most interesting orchestral concerts of the season, re
any one to believe him capable of a “puerile” in. they were at all events spontaneous; feeling ex
serving our own comments. We select two notices terpretation of a Beethoven masterpiece, a “tame, pressed itself; and each thing that she did was
which seem to us the best considered and the fair incongruous” rendering, an attempt to invest it wholly in keeping with all the rest.
with “ frivolous prettiness !” This writer neglects Mrs. H. E. SAWYER gave a careful, well conceived est. The Traveller of the following day (Doc. 28)
no opportunity to seize upon a weak point and make and graceful rendering of the contralto solos; her
The programme consisted of four numbers, but two of the most of it, exaggerating to the utmost. That singing was more remarkable for tenderness and
these were of such proportions as to make the concert of there may have been weak points in the performsweetness, and for a certain even excellence, than about the usual length. Gade's vivid and vigorous over
ance it is not for us, who were absent, to deny; but for power. Mr. Maas has a light tenor voice, of ture, “In the Highlands,” and Boieldieu's overture to “La Dame Blanche,” opened and concluded the pro
that there was an utter absence of good points, that great sweetness, very pure and even, and made a
gramme respectively, both being well performed. Mr. there was a general misconception and maltreatment marked impression by his intelligent, artistic and | Hugo Leonhard was the soloist of the afternoon, and ap- 1 of the composition, that he played it like a “senti
I wight's Journal of Music
says of it: