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ters of the Indian trade, being the gate- very picturesque object, and a specimen way of commerce between the St. Law of a mountain fastness, perhaps unique rence and the Mississippi, and the ren in this country ; but as a fort, in the dezvous of trappers, traders, soldiers, modern meaning of the term, it is probmissionaries, and Indians. There was a ably of little value. A monitor, with a fort and a chapel, and here the Jesuits ten-inch gun, would make short work erected their first college in the Western of it; besides which, it is conrmanded country. The place passed into English by a hill in the middle of the island, hands from the French, with all the by the possession of which the British other Western posts, in 1760, by treaty; took it in 1812, having dragged a and in 1762 it was taken by the Indians couple of guns up in the night, which by stratagem, and most of the garrison rendered the fort untenable. They built massacred; as is well told by Henry, an earthwork on this hill which they one of the few survivors, who was called Fort George, and after the renbrought over to the island by a friend- dition of the island to the Americans, ly Indian, and hidden in a cave. When the name was changed to Fort Holmes, the English recovered the post, they in memory of Major Holmes, of the removed it, for greater security, to the United States Army, who fell in the island, where it has since remained attack upon it under the command of under the English and American Gov Colonel Croghan. ernments, and the old post, which better Our hotel, the Mission House, has a commands the straits, abandoned. This name which is significant and historical. removal was made about 1780, and It was built for a Protestant Mission by “New Mackinaw," as it was called for the General Association of Connecticut, a long time, became the at centre of who established it here in 1802, and the fur-trade. It was ceded to the sent Mr. Daniel Bacon as a missionary United States in 1793, was retaken by to the Indians in this region. The the English in 1812, was unsuccessfully worthy man did not meet with much attacked by the Americans the next success, however, the reply of the redyear, and was finally restored to them men to his germon being, Brother, by the treaty of Ghent in 1814.
your religion is very good, but it is The island in former times had a bad only good for white people. It will not reputation with the Indians, as being do for Indians.” The mission was conthe resort of giants and evil spirits, tinued until 1837, when it was abanwhose principal abode was in a cave in doned, and the mission-house and the high rock upon which the fort church were sold. stands, the entrance to which was said Protestant missions seem to be valued by the medicine-men to be right under in proportion to their distance from the the south gate, or sally-port. After the parent churches. If in India or Pataoccupation by the white men, these gonia, the money flows freely in for spirits disappeared, driven away, per- their support. When Mackinaw was haps, by the more potent spirits of the one thousand miles away from the setwhite medicine-man, known as Red-Eye tlements, the mission was worthy of and Forty-Rod Whiskey.
support; but now that it is practically In the fortification which crowns the at our own door, and would benefit the bluff, and is called Fort Mackinac, there white heathen, it is abandoned. is a curious mixture of frontier-post and The climate of the island is very old-world castle. Thick walls of lime- salubrious. The air is pure and bracstone crawl along the cliffs and scale ing, so that persons who, in St. Louis the rocks, leading to sally-ports defend or Chicago, hardly find energy to cross ed by cannon ; while at the angles of the street, are here able to walk over the work, blockhouses of logs stand the hills for miles. The temperature is loopholed for musketry, and stockaded uniform, owing to its insular position : against Indian attack. The fort is a a record of the thermometer kept in
July and August, 1865, gives 78° as the The village of Mackinaw consists of highest figure at noon, and 60° as the two streets of old frame-houses, many lowest. The walks and drives are pleas- of them built early in the century; a ant, winding through the thick woods few stores and old warehouses, the latwhich cover the interior of the island, ter representing the palmy days of the it being a pile of limestone, about three fur-trade, now passed away, and the miles in diameter. The variety of trees former dealing in the goods needed by is great, almost all, in fact, which grow a small population of fishermen and in this latitude being found here, half-breeds—with Indian curiosities and though the cedar is most abundant, New York millinery for the summer covering every rocky eminence, in great visitors. size and beauty. Flowers abound in One of these which we noticed, with the woods, such as the twin-flower, smart-looking clerks behind the counyellow lady-slipper, Linnea, Louicera, ter, seemed to be the favorite resort of Cyno-glossum; and the Epigea, or May- the young ladies from the hotels, who flower, supposed by some enthusiasts to beguiled the long hours of summer by be peculiar to Plymouth woods, is here the purchase of bark canoes and Stuart's in great beauty.
candy, by ascertaining by scale their All the navigation of Lake Michigan daily increase in weight in this wholepasses in sight of this place; the steam some air, varied by flirtations with the ers going through the channel between island-beaux, just to keep themselves in Round Island and Mackinaw, and most practice, probably. These were merely of the sail-vessels taking the south chan- the amusements, the serious business of nel, between Bois Blanc and the Michi- the day being walks to the Arched
Rock or the Lover's Leap, rides to those What this lake navigation is, few remoter points, Fort Holmes and the persons have an idea; but before the British Landing, or in sailing about the Rebellion it was equal in amount to straits,—virtue, in this case, bringing half the commerce of the United States, its own reward, in a keener appetite for and for the last five years this internal the trout and white-fish, the strawbernavigation has constantly increased, ries and raspberries, of the Mission wbile the foreign trade has fallen off. House table. We mention these as the The Chicago Tribune for August 26, indigenous and native viands-all 1867, records the arrival at that port, things else eatable being brought from on the day previous, of eighteen steam Detroit or Chicago by steamer. ers and one hundred and sixty-five sail And here let us say a word of those vessels ; a larger number, it is thought, fishes of the great lakes, the white-fish than will often be found to have arrived and trout, often eaten by travellers, but even at New York in a single day. A seldom in perfection; and to which, record kept at Mackinaw of vessels consequently, justice has not been done. passing through the straits for six The first of these is, when fresh and in months, ending September 30, 1859, in good condition, a delicious fish, everythe daytime, gives-
where; similar in delicacy to the ConBarks, ....... 136
necticut river shad, but with fewer Brigs,
bones, and a higher flavor. The fish Schooners,... 1263 Steamers,
which it most resembles is, we think, a
fresh-caught blue-fish-and, like it, the passing in the night
white-fish should be broiled. When
2,772 vessels. kept for a day or two on ice, as is the And these are vessels ranging from one case with most of those found in the hundred and fifty to one thousand tons, lake-cities, the flavor and delicacy are whose trade is to carry coal, salt, iron, wholly lost. Even at Mackinaw you and lumber to the upper lake-ports, and seldom get them in perfection at the bring back grain to the lower lakes. hotels, as the purveyors for those houses
586 2079 add one third more for those
are apt to buy fish taken in gill-nets, driven into the bottom of the lake in which may have been dead twenty-four twenty-five feet of water, and reach to hours before they are brought to table. the surface. This enclosure of netting To be really good, the fish should be has a wing of the same net stretching caught either in a pound-net, where to the shore, so as to direct the fish they are kept alive, or in a dip-net, as towards the opening of the pound, they are taken at the Sault St. Marie by which is on the land-side, made in a the Indians. The best white-fish are sort of intricate or labyrinthian fashion, those of Lake Superior, where they so that the fishes, once in, cannot find grow to the weight of twelve pounds, their way out. As they follow the shoreand, unlike most fish, the largest are line, they strike the wing-net, and, folthe best. After much experience in lowing this, they are conducted into fish-eating, we think that the white-fish the opening of the pound, at the Sault stands at the head of the We visited one of these pounds on list of American fishes; for it has this Lake Michigan, and entered it in a peculiarity, that, owing to the delicacy small boat. All around us were the of its flavor, it never cloys the appetite, various fishes found in the lake, swimas we find the salmon and the brook- ming about as if in an aquarium. trout will do. Hasten, then, ichthy. White-fish, pike, black and white bass, ophagous epicures, to Lake Superior, the pike-perch, sometimes called the where you will find the happy combina- Ohio salmon, great lake-trout three feet tion of an appetizing climate, and a fish long, and huge sturgeon as long as the of which you may eat till you burst. boat, and so crowded together in their
The Mackinaw trout we cannot praise watery prison, that we could seize hold so highly. There are, we think, several of them by the tails. varieties of this salmon in the lakes- Of these, the white-fish- Corregonus one of them, when fresh, much resem- Albus—are found in all the lakes, those bling in flavor the true salmon, but of Lake Superior being the largest and most of them inferior to it. This fish best, weighing as high as fifteen in Lake Superior is much better than in pounds; while, in the other lakes, five the other lakes; as is, indeed, the case pounds is a good-sized fish. They with all the kinds found there.
spawn in the fall, on shoals and reefs, An abundant supply of fish is found and are vegetable feeders almost excluin these lakes, and the catching of them sively. They are the most numerous as employs a great number of men. They well as the most valuable of all the lakeare taken in seines in the spring and fishes, and command the highest price fall, and in gill-nets and pound-nets all when salted. summer. The gill-net is made of fine Pike or pickerel—Esox Boreus—are twine, with a mesh just large enough to taken in large numbers in the rivers and admit the head of the fish without let- shallow bays; they rank next in value ting his body through. The net is to the white-fish; usual weight from about four feet deep and several hun- two to ten pounds; spawn in the dred feet long, and is kept at the bot spring. tom of the lake by weights at the lower The lake-trout-Salmo Amethystus— edge, and floats at the upper. To mark are very voracious, and feed upon the its place in the lake, wooden buoys are white-fish ; are caught in nets, and with attached to it by long lines, and it is the hook-by trolling in the summer, set in from fifty to one hundred feet and with set lines in spring and fall; depth of water, and visited, if possible, weigh from five to fifty pounds ; spawn every day for the purpose of removing in the autumn. the fish. The pound-net is a square The siscowit are only found in some enclosure of netting twenty-five feet parts of Lake Superior; they belong to each way, with a bottom of the same; the salmon family, and are very fat-50 this is fastened to poles which are much so as only to be eatable when
salted; weigh from four to six pounds; kee, are principally Norwegians, and spawn in the autumn.
they use a boat the model of which Besides these, are packed the black they have brought from their stormy and white bass and the lake-herring, in northern seas. It is much like the boat small quantities, however.
of Narraganset Bay—short and deep, The capital invested in the fisheries and broad in the beam ; with one mast, of Lake Michigan alone, in 1858, was and a large boom-mainsail, with a jib
for light winds. Boats, nets, &c....
$250,000 Wages paid per annum............... 170,000 “ What do you find to do at MackiAmount paid for barrels..
It is the most charming $490,000
place in the country for that exercise. Value of fish taken, ..
The soil is dry, and vever muddy. The It is estimated that the annual catch island is covered with paths running on all the five great lakes will amount through the bush, and winding about to at least one hundred thousand bar so pleasantly, that you can choose a rels of fish, worth a million of dollars. new route every day. There is a leafy These fish are consumed in the Western shade, a bracing air, fine views on every and Southwestern States, among the side, and no musquitoes. The few cows farmers and planters, Chicago being the
on the island are amiable; and except headquarters of the trade. They are when an excursion-boat arrives, there inferior to mackerel or codfish, but, seem to be no loafers or roughs--so that being sold at a lower price, the demand ladies can walk safely, unattended. for them is extensive.
Secondly, you ride, you drive, and you The Canadian and half-breed fisher- sail. For shooting and fishing, the islmen about the lakes use the Mackinaw and affords little opportunity. There is boat, which seems to be built on the no game, unless you choose to invest model of a bark canoe, flat in the bot- the crows with that name. As to fish, tom and sharp at the ends, which rise the neighboring waters abound with up with a sheer. They were originally them, but they are not available to the intended for navigating the rivers as angler. There are trout-streams on the well as the lakes, for travelling on those mainland on both sides of the straits, great watery highways which extended but those who visit them with hopes of from Montreal to St. Louis. On the bringing home such strings of fish as lakes the voyagers use sails and a cen we read of in Wilkes' Spirit of the tre-board ; on shallow waters they haul T'imes, will be disappointed. To catch up the centre-board, and use oars or trout in summer, you must be on the paddles.
ground very early or late in the day; The American fishermen who come and these streams being from ten to up from the lower lakes use boats fifteen miles away, the only chance is to similar to those found on the seaboard, camp out overnight in the woods; and built with a keel, and much broader few amateur anglers will take that and deeper than the Mackinaw craft; trouble. and they say that their boats can out Carp River, about fifteen miles to the sail and outcarry the Mackinaw boats, northwest, is, or was, & good troutboth going free and closehauled. stream-indeed, one of the best we ever
We were surprised to hear this, as saw, twenty years ago-swift and clear, the Mackinaw boats have a great repu- full of little falls, rapids, and deep tation in these regions; but on several pools, about fifty feet wide and from occa ions, when the two classes of boats one to three feet deep, and with a clear contended together, we observed that margin of shore from which to throw the salt-water craft was victorious. the fly. But a sawmill has been built
The fishermen at the head of Lake on its lower waters, which are of course Michigan, about Chicago and Milwau- spoiled for fishing; though above the
dam, among the hills, we are told the obstructed the channel. It was evident trout are still to be caught.
that no trout with the use of his fins Hearing of a stream eight miles away would stay here. There had formerly to the southeast, a party was formed to been a cleared spot of land about the visit it. Three ladies and three men
was fast growing up into appeared at the wharf at ten o'clock in forest again. So, pursued by the trithe morning, out of a dozen who had umphant musquitoes, we fled to our wished to go the night before; but ships. We found the ladies encamped some were lazy, and some had head- at the water's edge to escape the enemy, aches from too much dancing and ice- who, reinforced by all that could sting cream, overnight. We ran over in a or bite--sand-flies, punkies, and greensail-boat, with a light breeze, in two heads—seemed disposed to follow up hours, trolling unsuccessfully for lake their victory. trout on the way. Our skipper, a fish- On looking about for the skipper, we erman from Lake Ontario, reckoned it found him and his boy wading in the was too late in the season for trolling pool at the mouth of the creek, and This was in August: in July it would compelling the trout to be caught: have probably been too early.
they drove the fish to one end of the We landed on a wild and desolate pool, and thrust the hook at them with shore, heavily timbered with maple, so commanding an air, that they could beech, and pine, and found the natives do nothing but submit. In this rude prepared to resist our invasion, for they and ferocious manner they absolutely attacked us on sight, these tribes of captured three or four simple-minded Buzz and Hum. After snatching a little trout, the only ones taken that hasty repast, one valiant lady and the day. We, the skilled anglers, with rods, three men marched, rod in hand, for the reels, and flies, were ignominiously beattrout-brook. What might have been a en by these rude fishermen. brook in happier times, was now a So we sailed away from the musquito thread of water at the bottom of a shore, with swollen and discolored faces, stony ravine, overgrown with bushes resembling a huckleberry pudding. and briers.
There was not water The run home was delightful, and we enough to float a minnow, except at were consoled for our defeat by the the mouth of the stream, where there sight of one of the most magnificent was a shallow pool separated from the of sunsets-brilliant even for that relake by the inevitable sandbar, which gion, where the sky and clouds are is found at all the river-mouths, big and always gorgeous.
The heavens were little, in these regions. We made our turned to gold, rubies, topaz, and ameway up the streanı about half a mile, thyst; and the water reflected them where there had formerly been a saw- back, so that we seemed to sail through mill, the ruined dam of which still wavelets of purple fire.