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girls dress for the drive and the Station; re- at which, moreover, she is continually obliged, turning home, without the men, they discuss or thinks herself obliged, to appcar in full. the Station; all through the heat of the long dress—or the occasional horse-back ride, or day till lunch, they dawdle on beds and sofas, the still rarer opportunity to swim or skate. and read novels, with intermingled chat about What then can she do in the country? What the people they saw, going to the Station and wonder if, away from Saratoga, Newport, returning; in the afternoon they drive, and Long Branch, Niagara, or such public places, call, and interchange ideas with their friends with their "drives," and "hops," and "fancy about the weather, the state of the roads, balls," she finds the country a bore? She and the Station; who went to the city to-day, doesn't know what to do there. She has whom they met going and coming, who is never been taught natural history, nor drawcoming up with the men to-night. Then ing; she cannot walk a mile, and does not comes the great event of the day, the going choose to, if she could. She knows nothing to the Station to fetch the men and whatever about gardening -- it breaks her back to guests are expected. We were equal to the weed; she does not even know some of the simple dresses of the ladies in the morning, commonest flowers by name. She wonders so fresh and négligé, but we shall not attempt why Eve was sorry to quit her country-home to describe the splendors of the afternoon and go out into the world. To her that toilettes. To say that they are appropriate, would have seemed no punishment at all. Is is to say nothing more than applies always to this dislike and unfitness for country-life in the dress of American ladies in public. Our the majority of American girls the result of ladies are always dressed appropriately-for a deficient education, or of a want of physical something, but we too often find that it is not health? We are inclined to trace it directly for the thing in hand. Still, the ladies of to the way in which they are educated, or, Salmagundi, and, no doubt, of other places, rather, not educated. What would be the reason well, that the only use of dress is to success of a school in which girls should not make one conspicuous, and that since the merely be taught to learn, but to think; in only place in which they can be seen is in which botany, geology, physical geography, the shabby street that leads to the Station, should be taught by professors in the open air, they may as well waste their richness on the in which, in short, the whole aim should be to Irish air, as keep it locked up in their ward- make the girls sharers with their brothers in robes and jewel-boxes.
the use and enjoyment of the material world ?
What a very unsatisfactory thing—from The coincidence seems a little striking, that the common-sense point of view—is the life within a month we should have lost an imof the average American girl, in the country? portant bit out of our scanty information with How little amphibious she is. She kpows, regard to Shakespeare, and should have lightwe may partly admit, what to do with her. ed upon a poem by Milton, written probably self in the winter, in town-has activities, occu- with his own hand, and never before pubpations, resources there, such as they are, yet lished. The discovery that the entries repoor as they may be, such as keep her mind lating to Shakespeare's plays contained in from utterly stagnating—but, in the country, certain manuscript accounts of the Revels at she is an aimless, purposeless thing. It is Court in the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and not only the Stellas and Belindas that lead James the First are forgeries by a later hand the doleful life we have sketched above; nor than that which wrote the original documents, is it only in the mis-called country-places, seems, if we may judge by the journals, to ncar large cities, that such lives are led. In have excited very little interest in England, respect of resource and occupation, our although it deprives the world of one of the American girls — rich and only well-to-do few iteins of knowledge it possessed about a alike, in villas and in cottages--are far be- man who was enough of a myth already withbind the English girls ; much farther behind out having his personal identity still further them than their brothers are bebind the Eng. attenuated by this unhappy discovery. The exlish boys. The American boy has games, istence of the documents in question was first sports, out-of-door pleasures enough. He has made known to the English public by a volume ball and cricket, swimming and nutting, riding printed in 1842 for the Shakespeare Society: and shooting, amusement and occupation for “Extracts from Accounts of the Revels at all the stages of his youth; but the American Court in the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and girl has only the mild excitement of croquet King James the First, from the original of
fice-books of the Masters and Yeomen. With a day. The combatants are Lord Winchilan Introduction and Notes by Peter Cunning sea, Archdeacon Denison, Professor Masson, ham.” The volume does not appear to have Professor Morley, Mr. Vernon Harcourt, Gerexcited any suspicion; on the contrary, its ald Massey, Mr. Hepworth Dixon, Mr. Bond, contents were at once accepted with thank Professor Brewer, and a half-score of others fulness, as a most valuable addition to our less known to fame, but some of them show. knowledge of Shakespeare, and, as the London ing no little acuteness and learning. One of Athenæum, in which journal the announce the most amusing incidents of the fight has inent of the discovery of the forgery first ap been the display of presumptuous arrogance, peared, remarks, “ It is not too much to say, conceit, and ignorance, made by Lord Winthat since the publication of the volume of chilsea, who was the first in the field ridi*Court Revels' the list of plays has been culing the idea that the poem could ever used to check controversy, and that every have been written by Milton, and who peredition of Shakespeare's works, edited since sisted in following up his first letter by com1842, has been modified more or less by that munications to the Times, each worse than list. If the list is not genuine, every current the other in respect of bad taste, flippancy, editor of Shakespeare has been taken in, and and a really ludicrous ignorance of the pecuall the editions will need amendment in im liarities of Milton's style, though he professed portant points.” Among these editions are to be a great admirer of his poetry. He those of Mr. Dyce and Mr. Richard Grant found, however, that his successive attempts White, both of whom make use of the doc to get cut of the frying-pan only resulted in uments as printed by Mr. Cunningham, with- landing him into hotter and hotter fire, and out any suspicion of their genuineness. This he at length retired from the contest in a petuis excusable in the case of Mr. White, be lant note. It has not been pleasant to obserre cause he had not access to the originals; but that of all the writers on this subject only one, Mr. Dyce might have been expected to make Mr. Hepworth Dixon, has had the eass coura closer investigation. It seems, however, age to rebuke this learned lord for his dis that the original papers bave been missing play of bad manners. Even Professor Morley for many years. On a certain day in June praises the noble Earl's "courage," and Prolast, some of them were offered for sale to fessor Masson, who, by the way, claims to the Manuscript Department of the British have discovered the poem in the same book Muscum; and on their being carried by Mr. where Mr. Morley found it, ten years earlier, Bond to the Record Office for verification, and who neither believes that Milton comthey were at once impounded as the property posed it, or wrote it there,– Mr. Masson exof the Government. A careful examination presses his enthusiastic delight over Lord by experts bas proved that some unknown Winchilsea's style of argument. Snobbery hand has added to the original MS., upon two is still strong in England, and much is foror three blank pages, the whole of the refer- given there to a title, yet we venture to assert ences to Shakespeare. Whether Mr. Peter that it will be long before Lord Winchilsea Cunningham is suspected or not, we do not attempts to air bis critical attainments again. hear; nor, indeed, have we come across any He has proved in his own experience that reference to this matter since the original a little learning is a dangerous thing." As exposure of the fraud in the Athenæum of for the merits of the controversy, it is plain June 20th.
that, thus far, Mr. Morley has much the best
of it, and he has lifted the subject above A Mucu greater stir has been made over triviality and a mere antiquarian interest, by the discovery of the poem by Milton. In his manner of treating it. It seems to us the London Times of July 16th, Professor that he has met every objection, not only Henry Morley announced that on a blank with entire fairness and ingenuity, but with page, at the end of a copy of Milton's early a real scholarship and a poetic appreciation Poems, published in 1645, he had found a that must add to his already considerable poem of 54 lines in a contemporary hand- reputation. The poem itself is one of no writing which he believed to be Milton's, and little beauty, and though it has evidently not signed with his initials "J. M.," and the date received the final touches from its author's 1647. The poem is called “An Epitaph," hands, yet is one that, if it shall be finally and its publication has given rise to one of judged to bave been written by Milton, will the most animated literary skirmishes that deserve to be thought no mean addition to has enlivened the worid of London for many bis minor poems.
In this paper I propose to show that most frequent and most severe in civilmental and moral diseases are much ized communities, and among the intelmore frequent in community than is lectual or ruling classes. Insanity incommonly supposed; that persons afflict- creases in frequency and in violence ed with the incipient and milder phases with the progress of civilization, and is of what we call insanity are all about indeed a part of the price that we pay us, on every hand, and mingle with for intellectuality and refinement. It success in the various relations of life ; was never before so common as at the and that only in the severer and excep- present day, and it appears to be rapidtional cases is it found necessary to ly increasing and multiplying its phases confine them in public institutions, or in direct proportion to our progress in place them under any form of special art, in science, in literature, in trade, in treatment or surveillance.
finance, and in all the departments of That all forins of mental and moral modern activity through which the disease are symptoms of morbid con- brain is so constantly harassed and overditions of the brain, is now as well worked. While we escape or recover established as any fact of science. The from many of the inflammations and elaborate researches of Professor Schrae- fevers that decimate the savage tribes, der van der Kolk, and other European and are, on the whole, healthier and observers, have shown most clearly that longer-lived, we are yet afflicted with a the brains of patients who die insane, thousand phases of insanity to which idiotic, or imbecile, give evidence, on they are comparatively strangers. microscopic examination, of diseased In order to understand the nature conditions sufficient to account for all and the range of diseases of the brain, the symptoms they may have exhibited. we should compare them with those of Insanity, being then a symptom of dis- the other bodily organs. Take for illusease of the brain, is not found among tration the very familiar symptom of the inferior species, who have little or disorder of the stomach and digestive no nervous system, and only exception- apparatus--dyspepsia. In nearly all of ally among the higher orders of animals. the essential particulars it will be found It is comparatively rare among wild to be analogous to insanity. Dyspepsia and barbarous tribes. As would logi- is not a disease as such, but is merely a cally be expected, its manifestations are symptom of some organic or functional
Estered, in the year 1868, by AP PUTNAM & Sox, in the Clerk's Once of the District Court of the U. S. for the Southern District of X. X.
disease of the digestive apparatus ; so sons in the blood, congestion, or the also insanity is merely a name given to opposite condition, anæmia, wounds of the severer symptoms of disease of the the skull that affect the cranial contents, brain. The diseases of the digestive thickening, softening, atrophy, or symorgans are indicated by a wide range pathetic irritation from other organs, of symptoms, such as pain in the region may render the processes of the mental of the stomach, headache, constipation, and moral nature difficult and pairful, nervousness, and general debility; the just as analogous causes acting on the disorders of the brain are also manifest digestive system may similarly disturb ed by a complication of symptoms of the processes of digestion. The abnorwhich insanity is only the most marked mal symptoms in the one case are comand most commonly observed. Disturb monly known as insanity, melancholy, ances of the digestive tract sympathet- hypochondriasis, imbecility, mania, and ically affect all other portions of the nervousness; in the other as dyspepsystem; the same is true of disease of sia, indigestion, constipation, liver-comthe brain. Dyspepsia is very often, and plaint, heartburn, and debility. perhaps usually, the consequence of But the parallel between the diseases general debility ; it is now well under of the brain and digestive system may stood that attacks of insanity are pre be extended still further, for it is eviceded by constitutional feebleness. Dys dent, in view of what has been said, pepsia is most frequent among civilized that the range of insanity and dyspepsia lands, and among those classes who are must be as wide as the morbid condiinclined to abuse their stomachs and tions of which they are the symptoms, overtask their nervous systems; insan We all know that there are almost inity is preëminently the disease of civili numerable degrees and varieties of dyszation, and is very rarely met with pepsia, from the acute spasm that annoys except among those classes who over us but for an instant to the protracted work and over-worry their brains. Dys agony and emaciation of a lifetime. pepsia, in its early stages, is amenable Between these two extremes there is an to treatment, but when long continued almost interminable variety of phases is very obstinate, and often incurable; and degrees that dyspepsia may assume, insanity and all other manifestations of corresponding to the different morbid cerebral disease are relievable, and even conditions of the digestive organs. Just curable in the early stages, especially in so there are innumerable varieties and the young, but after they have become degrees of insanity, from the momentary firmly seated in the aged, are exceeding attacks of ungovernable rage to the ly intractable. Dyspepsia is best treated perpetual frenzy of the madman. Beby remedies directed to the stomach, tween these two extremes there are as combined with constitutional tonics; many phases and degrees as there are insanity likewise yields most rapidly to different morbid conditions that may remedies that have both a specific be supposed to exist in the brain. But, action on the brain and a strengthening as has been already remarked, the sus. influence on the entire system.
ceptibility of the brain to disease is as It will be seen, then, that in their much greater than that of the digestive causation, their frequency, the circle of apparatus as its structure is more comtheir influence, their duration, their plicated, and its functions more imporinfluence on the general system, in the tant and more various. We should exvariety of the symptoms by which they pect then that the symptoms of cerebral are manifested, and the indications for disease would be more numerous, more and results of treatment, the diseases subtle, and more complicated than those of the brain and digestive apparatus of the diseases of digestion. We should are closely parallel. Insanity is, in short, expect that the incipient, transitory, and a dyspepsia of the brain. Any injurious completely harmless cases of insanity cause acting in the brain-such as poi (that term being used to cover all symp.
toms of disease of the brain), would be It will be objected, and with good very common among us, would com reason, that the average sentiment and plicate, to a greater or less extent, the experience of mankind is a very indetievery-day life of civilization. If now nite standard by which to test the sanity we look closely enough into this matter, of an individual. But, after all, it is if we study minutely the eccentricities, by this same standard that we judge the vagaries, the manias, the passions, that any internal organ of the body is and the crimes of society, we shall find diseased. Recurring to our illustration that, in many instances, they are ex of the diseases of the digestive apparaplainable only on the theory I have here tus, how is it that the physician can advanced. We shall find that among ascertain whether his patient is sufferthe higher orders of society, among our ing from dyspepsia or not? Obviously, leaders in business, in literature, in art, only by comparing the symptoms that in science, as well as among the igno- the patient exhibits, and the feelings of rant, the simple, and the abandoned, which he complains, with the symptoms there are thousands of sufferers from and feelings experienced by the average the incipient and fleeting or milder of persons who are free from dyspepsia. disease of the brain, who are thereby In precisely the same way we become rendered more or less eccentric and informed of the existence of disease in whimsical, or ill-balanced and positively all organs of the body that are hidden dangerous.
from actual inspection or physical exThat eccentricity often becomes ab- amination. In our examination of the solute mania is now conceded by all lungs we are, it is true, assisted by ausstudents of mental disease, and is pretty cultation and percussion, but even the well understood by the people at large. principle on which the diagnosis is The only question is, how great a degree made is simply the comparison of the of eccentricity may be allowed to co sounds heard in the chest of the patient exist with a perfectly healthy brain. with those that obtain in the average The true and philosophical answer to of healthy lungs. The brain is enclosed this query is, in general, that any de- by bony covering, and cannot be insire, passion, emotion, or special apti- spected during life, except in cases of tude may become a disease when in- injury. Its diseases can therefore only dulged in too long, or too exclusively, be studied through the general sympor under unfavorable conditions. It is, toms. of course, oftentimes very difficult to It will also be objected to this test, decide, in any given case, whether any that it has, over and over again, been marked peculiarity is the result of a proved to be very fallible; that the véry active and one-sided development grossest mistakes have been and are of the brain, or of actual disease. The continually being made through its use; general principle on which our decisions that it has caused some of the most must be based is, that when any feeling, original and gifted minds of the world passion, emotion, or even a special apti- to suffer persecution as criminals or tude becomes absolutely ungovernable, lunatics. This practical objection is a so as to make its subject regardless of very serious one, but it will apply just his own interests, or of the well-being as truly, though not to the same degree, of his friends; when, as it were, it to the ordinary methods of diagnosticaabsorbs the whole being, so as to de- ting the maladies of any of the internal stroy what we call common sense, blunts organs. Physicians have been making the reason and conscience, and urges on terrible blunders in regard to diseases to a manner of life and to special deeds for thousands of years, but in the main that are repugnant to the average intui. we rely upon them, and, in the main, tion of mankind, then we have reason to they are pretty nearly correct. One suspect the existence of disease of the important distinction, however, should brain,
not be forgotten. The dyspeptic patient