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papers. The French would not take a Each of the semi-official papers has, paper without knowing the name of the besides, its “knowing” man. Wheneditor, and without being satisfied that ever the Government wishes to comhe is a man of ability.
municate important news to the public The same care is taken in regard to without resorting to the grave columns the men who are employed as foreign of the Moniteur, it causes the “knowcorrespondents. Such distinguished ing" man of one of the semi-official satans and historians as Louis Blanc, papers to insert a communication, comHenri Monnier, Edgar Quinet, etc., are mencing, generally, with the words, regular correspondents of the Paris “ We believe to know," etc. The pubdailies, and, the telegraphic news being lic knows then that this communication so meagre and unsatisfactory, their let- comes directly from one of the ministers, remarkable alike for their solid ters. and polished style, are eagerly perused. The greatest feature of the Paris
Every daily paper in Paris has its dailies is the Feuilleton, and it may gérant, to whom the general manage- be justly said that they stand unrivalled ment is intrusted ; an editor who writes in this respect. If the political leaders every day an article called “ Premier are written by men of ability, the editParis ;” and editors who attend to the ors of the feuilleton are selected among leading columns. The“ Premier Paris" the foremost literary celebrities of the is a brief abstract of the most important country. Jules Janin, Saint-Beuve, Paul news, with short editorial comments. de St. Victor, Louis Ulbach, Edmond No leading article, especially in the op- About, Sylvestre de Sacy, Laboulaye, position papers, is inserted before being Arsène Houssaye, are the most eminent carefully examined by the gérant and representatives of this class of writers, the proprietors of the paper, and the and their “ Monday articles "—the critmost eminent editors must frequently ical articles on theatrical and literary consent to re-write their articles three matters, are usually published in the or four times. Prévost-Paradol would Monday numbers of the papers—are not submit to this, and left the Débats fully equal to the best essays in the reafter a violent quarrel with Bertin; but views. Liberal salaries are paid to the interests of the paper obliged the these feuilletonistes, Saint-Beuve and Japroprietors to take him back after a nin receiving over $5,000 a-year for one short time.
article a-week in the Constitutionnel and The editors of the semi-official papers Débats; and the publishers would conhave to suffer inconveniences of a hardly sider it a great misfortune to lose their less disagreeable character in the dis- services. charge of their duties. Prior to receiv- There is but one official political oring an editorial appointment, the Minis- gan in Paris : it is the Moniteur. Govter of the Interior, the special Cerberus ernments rise and fall in France; the of the French press, requires them to Moniteur never falls with them, but alsign a paper, in which they resign their ways remains in undisturbed possession position before entering upon it. This of the field. Its career has been a resignation is made use of as soon as checkered one, and there can certainly the Government wants to get rid of the be no more interesting newspaper coleditor. The articles which these semi- lection than a complete file of the Moniofficial editors write, have, of course, to teur, from its origin to the present day. defend the policy of the Government, A strange feature about the employés and, moreover, to do so with ability, of this renowned paper is that they are which, considering the vacillations and mostly old men; a great many of its inconsistencies of the imperial policy, is compositors are venerable representaa matter of extreme difficulty. But few tives of the craft; and some of them of this last class of editors have been able have set type under the Restoration. to hold their positions for a long time. Its editorials are written in the various
government departments; its telegraphic There are two daily editions of the despatches are furnished by the Minis- Moniteur; the large Moniteur appears ters of the Interior and of Foreign every morning; the small edition (Petit Affairs; and its foreign letters are com Moniteur) is issued early in the evening. piled in Paris, from the reports of the The weekly review of foreign affairs, so diplomatic agents at the foreign courts. often alluded to in the cable despatches, The Emperor himself contributes fre- appears in the evening edition, and is quently to its columns, and many of written by an under-secretary of the the laconic, “Emersonian,” sphinx-like Foreign Office. The Government has communiqués, printed on the first page, taken great pains to extend the circuand indicating, on critical occasions, the lation of the Petit Moniteur, and some policy of the government, are known to time ago it tried to injure the circulacmanate from the private cabinet of the tion of the liberal papers by sending the Emperor.
Petit Moniteris free through the post Théophile Gautier is the leading (contrary to law) to all its country feuilletoniste of the Moniteur, and it is subscribers, and engaging Ponson du needless to say that he discharges his Terrail, now by all odds the most duties as such with eminent ability. popular French romancist, to write a He used to be very popular, and his serial tale for its feuilleton. It was talents still command general admira- hoped that this would raise the subtion; but his defection from the liberal scription-list to at least three or four opinions which he formerly professed hundred thousand copies. These hopes, has cost him a large share of the es however, were doomed to disappointteem in which he used to be held. His ment. The circulation of the Petit predecessor was the Italian Fiorentino, Moniteur would not rise much above who died a few years ago, and who was sixty thousand copies, while that of remarkable both for his literary ability the large Moniteur has for years been and the bare-faced impudence with about twenty thousand copies. which he black-mailed actors, actresses, Foremost among the semi-official ballet-dancers, painters, authors — in organs is the Constitutionnel. It is the short, every one whom he could injure special organ of the Minister of Foror benefit by his criticisms in the Moni- eign Affairs, but it does, at the same teur. It seems incredible that these ex time, all the heavy work in defending tortions were submitted to for ten years the Government in all the important and longer by the most prominent rep- questions of domestic policy. Its chief resentatives of art and literature, with editor is Paulin Limayrac, a stately, but one memorable exception, viz., ornate writer, who certainly displays Madame Alboni, who responded to great skill in defending in his finelyFiorentino's demands by having him written leaders the crooked and, often, ejected from her rooms. For the rest, inconsistent policy of Napoleon III. his black-mailing operations proved so The opposition press, which dares not profitable that this Bohemian, who attack the Government itself, delights used to be one of Alexandre Dumas' in pouring out the vials of its wrath employés, and who never received a upon the Government's chosen chamvery large salary, was at the time of pion ; hence, M, Limayrac is the best his death possessed of the snug fortune abused and best ridiculed editor in all of half a million francs, which he left Paris. He defends himself like a little to his illegitimate son. The last article hero, but is sometimes singularly indishe ever wrote was a spiteful criticism creet in his tilts with the doughty on Victor Hugo's “Shakespeare," wind- knights of the opposition press. Some ing up with the remark that, after read. time ago he was audacious enough to ing the book," he had yawned terribly, attack Girardin, who spiked his guns and felt bored to death." A day or two at once by republishing the hard things afterward he was dead.
Limayrac had written many years about
Louis Napoleon. Even worse was the must be said that it is certainly least punishment he received at the hands distinguished for editorial, and, withal, of M. de Riancourt, of the Union, who is one of the meanest journals in the asserted that Limayrac had repeatedly capital. During our civil war, the been disavowed by the Moniteur. Li. Patrie displayed the most venomous mayrac denied this strenuously, and hostility toward the United States, and offered, finally, in an editorial in the its columns teemed daily with the most Constitutionnel, a reward of one hun- astounding falsehoods in regard to the dred thousand francs to whoever should
When the news of Linprove the contrary. Riancourt did coln's assassination reached Paris, the prove it, but the reward was not paid, Patrie published a truly atrocious artithe proprietors of the Constitutionnel cle on the terrible event. refusing to redeem the promises of their The France is the personal organ of editor-in-chief.
the Vicomte de la Guéronnière, well The circulation of the Constitutionnel known as one of the most eloquent is now about ten thousand copies-a members of the French Senate, and large falling-off from what it was under one of the leaders of the liberal wing Dr. Véron's management, when Sue and of the Bonapartists. In former times, Dumas published their great romances
M. de la Guéronnière was an intimate in the feuilleton, which was, besides, ren- friend of Napoleon III., who, on several dered famous by Saint-Beuve's excellent memorable occasions, availed himself Causeries du Lundi.
of the Vicomte's great talents as a The principal stockholder of the Con- pamphleteer, and caused him especially stitutionnel is now again Mirès, the to write the famous brochure on Italian notorious banker, who for some time affairs, in 1859, which had a larger sale past has recovered most of his former than any other pamphlet ever published prestige, and who controls likewise the in France, or in Europe. All his subPresse, formerly Girardin's famous or- sequent pamphlets were likewise eagergan, but now a rather dull semi-official ly bought, and M. de la Guéronnière sheet, presided over by M. Cucheval- acquired by his writings quite a forClarigny. The latter who, in times tune, with which he established his gone by, had written a number of clever present journal, the France. At first it political pamphlets, was believed to was very successful. In his editorials have access to the highest diplomatic he displayed the same ability that had circles and the Presse, it was confidently characterized his pamphlets, and his expected, would acquire fresh vital- intimacy with the Emperor lent an ity under his management. These ex- additional charm to his pen. Latterly; pectations, however, were not to be however, there has been an estrangefulfilled. Except a few sensational ment between him and Napoleon, and articles which proved to be canards of his paper is now no longer recognized the finest breed, the Presse had not been as a reliable government organ, and his remarkable for any thing but a certain subscription-list is decreasing. It is stately dulness and the rapid decrease between six and seven thousand at the of its subscription-list, which is now present time, and still yields the proless than seven thousand, about one prietor a moderate income. tenth of what it was in the palmiest M. Auguste Vitu, formerly a member days of Girardin's management. of the staff of the Constitutionnel, start
The Patrie is the leading evening ed two years ago the Etendard, and has paper, and has a circulation of about thus far met with good success, notfourteen thousand copies. It was sold withstanding the somewhat weak chartwo or three years ago for three hun- acter of its political matter. Its sucdred thousand dollars, and is con- cess is principally owing to a number sidered one of the best paying papers of charming sketches of a local and in Paris, though, at the same time, it literary character, a great many of which have been republished in Eng- paper flourished under his management. land and America, and which have It has lately been ascertained that he secured the Etendard a handsome cir- acted as mouchard under Louis Phiculation throughout France.
lippe, which did not prevent him from Little need be said about the Situa- espousing the cause of Louis Napoleon tion, founded by the agents of the ex- as soon as the latter had been elected king of Hanover for the special pur- President of the Republic. His jourpose of advocating a war between nalistic services were rewarded by a France and Prussia. It has neither seat in the Legislative Body, where been distinguished for great ability, Granier distinguishes himself chiefly by nor met with even moderate success. the noisy blackguardism with which he It is only taken by two or three thou- is in the habit of interrupting the great sand subscribers, and will probably be orators of the opposition. The most short-lived. Its first manager, Hollaen- scathing rebukes have been adminder, a German Jew, died a few months istered to him on such occasions, but since.
all in vain. The Courrier Français reThe Pays, which has the smallest cir- cently exposed some discreditable transculation of any daily paper in Paris, actions in which Granier had been has gained considerable notoriety since formerly engaged, and the Pays assailed Granier de Cassagnac, two years ago, Vermorel, editor of the Courrier, with became its managing editor. His great violence; but public opinion took career as a journalist is one of the sides with Vermorel. The Pays has strangest. Some forty years ago, M. only about two thousand subscribers. Granier de Cassagnac was Professor of The ultramontane press is represented Belles-Lettres at the University of in Paris by four journals, the Monde and Toulouse, where he edited at the same the Univers, the two organs of the Cleritime a small literary periodical, and cals, and the Union and the Gazette de wrote a great many sentimental poems. France, the organs of the Legitimists. Some malicious wag, assuming Victor Their aggregate circulation is not over Hugo's name, wrote him a number of sixteen thousand. Veuillot's pen, which fulsome letters, eulogizing his talents as at one time secured forty thousand suba poet and editor, and finally announc- scribers to the Univers, seems to have ing to the young professor that he (the lost most of its magnetic power. When pseudo-Hugu) had induced one of the the Univers was revived last year, it was cabinet ministers to confer on him a generally expected that it would speedilucrative ministerial appointment in ly regain the popularity which it en·Paris. So adroitly had these forged joyed previous to its suppression by letters been framed, that Granier de the Government; but these expectations Cassagnac was completely duped there- were not fulfilled. After a good deal by; he resigned his professorship, sold of advertising, it succeeded in obtainhis paper, and came to Paris in ordering only between six and seven thouto enter upon the duties of his new sand subscribers. The two organs of position. On introducing himself to the Legitimists have an even smaller Victor Hugo, he found out, of course, circulation, though both of them are in how heartless a manner he had been edited with tact and ability. victimized. Victor Hugo had pity on Passing to the liberal dailies, we bis distress, and procured him a posi- must mention, in the first place, the tion as reporter for the Journal des Siècle, the organ of the democratic bourDébats. Granier's ability soon gained geoisie of Paris, and, though by no him considerable distinction, and he means the ablest, certainly the most speedily ranked among the leading popular political paper in Paris. It journalists; his violence and bitter- has a circulation of between forty and ness, however, always prevented him fifty thousand copies, and is said to from achieving a solid success, and no pay M. Havin, its proprietor and chief
editor, a yearly income of a million one, and counts such men as Louis francs. Havin's success is one of the Blanc, Auguste Villemot, Louis Ulbach, anomalies of French journalism. He is Edgar Quinet, A. Erdan, Henri de neither a great writer, nor an astute Madelène, among its members. politician,
The Journal des Débats, which, on Twenty-eight years ago he was a poor account of its high-toned political and clerk in Calais, and to-day he is at the literary articles, las deservedly been head of the most popular and best- called a “ daily magazine,” has for paying paper on the Continent, a mem- some time past, owing to the timidity ber of the Legislative Body, and one of its political course, lost about one of the most influential politicians in half of its subscribers, and its circulaFrance. About eighteen months since tion is now less than ten thousand. he proposed to open a subscription for John Lemoinne, a distinguished young erecting a monument to Voltaire, every pamphleteer, is managing editor under subscriber to contribute only fifty cen- old Edward Bertin's direction. Prévosttimes (ten cents). The other Parisian Paradol, the most brilliant French espapers, which hate and affect to despise sayist of our times, Laboulaye, SaintHavin, tried to laugh this proposition Marc Girardin, Michel Chevalier, Henri to scorn. But it was, nevertheless, suc- Baudrillart, Jules Janin, Hector Berlioz, cessful beyond measure, and by this Marc Monnier, and other eminent writime a sum has been collected sufficient ters form the galaxy of its editors and for erecting a magnificent statue to the contributors. old skeptic of Ferney. A man of much The Opinion Nationale is the organ greater ability than M. Havin is his of the Democratic Chauvins, and on assistant editor, Louis Jourdan, a white- account of its editor Guéroult's exhaired old gentleman, but who wields ceedingly well-written, stirring articles, his pen with rare vigor and vivacity. quite popular throughout France. Some
The Temps, one of the ablest opposi- thirty years ago, M. Guéroult was tion papers, was started by A. Nefftzer, newspaper correspondent, but soon left who was, fifteen years ago, gérant of the journalistic and filled various conthe Presse, under Girardin, and, if not sular and diplomatic positions until equally distinguished as the latter, ranks 1848, when the revolution put an end certainly among the foremost French to his prospects in this direction. In journalists of the present time. Nefft- June, 1848, he displayed great heroism zer is a self-made man, and may lay in rescuing several innocent workingclaim to the honor of having, during men out of the hands of the infuriated the gloomiest times of the second em- soldiers, who were just about to execute pire, edited the only truly democratic them under the pretext that they had newspaper in Paris. The Government been on the barricades. Guéroult then gave him permission to start the Temps entered a position in a banking-house, only because it believed that the new which he left again in 1858 in order to journal would injure the circulation of try his hand once more at journalism. the Presse. Such was really the case to He established the Opinion Nationale, some extent, and ever since there has and was successful beyond expectation. not been much love lost between Girar- To judge from his admirably written, din and Nefftzer. Had the Temps ever impassioned leaders in the Opinion Naconsented to advocate the views of the tionale, one would believe M. Guéroult Chauvins, its circulation to-day would to be a fiery, impetuous young man, outstrip that of any paper in Paris. while in reality he is a staid, quiet, and But it sternly refuses to flatter the vani- elderly gentleman, inclining to embonty of the French, and consequently its point, and looking like a retired mercirculation has hardly ever been over chant with epicurean tastes, whom no ten thousand copies. Its staff of editors one on earth would suppose to be the and correspondents is a very brilliant author of the flaming articles which the